CRE Notes Form 1 - 4 

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Form One - CRE Notes

Introduction to Christian Religious Education

The Importance of Learning CRE

Definition of Christian Religious Education (CRE)

Christian Religious Education is the study of God’s revelation to human beings through scriptures, the persons of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit.

Why do schools study CRE?

There are many reasons why schools study CRE. Some of the reasons are to:

a) Enable you to develop a personal relationship with God.

a) Help you to acquire basic principles of Christian living.

b) Help you to develop a sense of self-respect and respect for others.

c) Help you to develop positive attitudes and values, which help you to cope with challenges of life.

d) Contribute to the moral and spiritual development of students.

e) Help you to contribute positively to the transformation of an individual and the society as whole.

f) Help you to identify answers to situations of life, including death and Eternal life.

g) Help learners to identify answers to life’s questions.

j) Promote cultural integration.

k) Enable you to acquire a better understanding of God.

l) Unite people.

m) Guide you in choosing a career

n) Help you to appreciate African religious heritage and other religions.

o) Promote living values such as honesty concern for others, kindness,love and unity.

The Bible

The Bible is the sacred book containing God’s revelation to people. It is the inspired word of God.

It is the book through which God communicates with His people.

The Bible as the word of God

The Bible is the word of God because:

a) The written scripture contain God’s word.

b) Through the Bible God communicates his will to humans.

c) It contains word written by inspired authors such as the prophets who were sent by God.

d) God himself took part in the writing of the Bible. E.g. God is believed to have written the Ten Commandments

e) It contains the history of salvation realized through Jesus Christ.

f) The Word gives revelation to mysteries.

g) The Bible contains a message of hope and reconciliation.

h) It reveals that God controlled what was being written and what He intended the writers to pass to the people.

The Bible as a library

The Bible is referred to as a library since it is a collection of inspired scriptures or books.

The Bible contains 66 books.

The Bible is divided into the Old Testament and the New Testament.

The Old Testament contains 39 books while the New Testament contains 27 books.

However, the Roman Catholic Church accepts 7 additional books referred to as Apocrypha or Deutero or canonical books.

The word Apocrypha means hidden or secret.

They are Esdras (1, 2), Tobit, Judith, Ecclesiaticus, Baarch and Maccabees.

Why the Bible is a library

Several studies show that:

a) The Bible contains (66) book just like a library has many books.

The Bible is a collection of books arranged in series.

b) The Bible is a reference book for Christians.

The authors of the Bible had a special spiritual guidance; hence each book was written for a purpose.

c) The books were written at different times in history.

d) The Bible has literary works.

e) The Books written contain different topics.

f) The Bible has different books written by different authors.

g) The books of the Bible were written under different situations and circumstances.

The Bible: Major Divisions and Its Books

Major divisions of the Bible

The bible is divided into two major divisions.

These are the Old Testament with (39 Books) and the New Testament with (27 Books).

The word Testament means covenant or agreement with God.

The Old Testament books are divided into:

a. Books of the law or the Pentateuch or Torah.

b. Historical books.

c. Poetic Books

d. Prophetic books.

Law books or the Pentateuch or Torah

The books of law are

(i)Genesis

(ii) Exodus

(iii) Leviticus

(iv) Numbers

(v) Deuteronomy.

Moses wrote these books. They contain the law of God as it was given to the people of Israel through Moses.

They also contain the history of the Israelites from creation to the time they entered the Promised Land.

The author Moses is regarded as a lawgiver, teacher and prophet.

Historical books There are the 12 consecutive books from

(i) Joshua

(ii) Judges

(iii) Ruth

(iv) 1, 2 Samuel

(v) 1, 2 Kings

(vi)1, 2 Chronicles

(vii) Ezra

(viii) Nehemiah

(ix) Esther.

These 12 books record the history of the Israelites. They also contain information about the life and achievements of some prophets, for example, the life history of Elisha and Elijah. Exercise 1 – Go through the 12 books and check page by page the names of other prophets.

Poetic Books

The books are poetic in nature.

The poetic books contain wise sayings, songs, and prayers.

The poetic books are (1) Psalms which was written by David

(ii) Proverbs

(iii) Ecclesiastes

(iv) Song of Solomon written by Solomon and

(v) Job.

Prophetic books

These are divided into major and minor prophets.

A prophet is a messenger of God, or God’s spokesperson. A prophet is a mouthpiece of God.

Prophets pass information and messages from God to the people. They are messengers from God.

Their messages from God concern the future.

Five Major Prophetic Books

I. The major prophetic books are by

(i) Isaiah

(ii) Jeremiah

(iii) Lamentations

(iv) Ezekiel and

(v) Daniel

. The books are named after the prophets who prophesied and probably wrote them.

Jeremiah wrote lamentations. These prophets are called Major Prophets because they cover a longer period of time.

Their prophecies are long, and they prophesied over a long period of time.

II. Minor Prophets.

There are 12 books of

(1) Hosea

(2 Joel

(3) Amos

(4) Obadiah

(5) Jonah

(6) Micah

(7) Nahum

(8) Habakkuk

(9) Zephaniah

(10) Haggai

(11) Zechariah and

(12) Malachi.

These books are by Minor Prophets who are said to have prophesied over a shorter period of time if you compare them with the Major Prophets.

New Testament books are:

a. Biographical books or Gospels.

b. Historical books (Acts of the Apostles).

c. The Epistles.

d. Apocalyptic or Prophetic book

a) Biographical book or Gospels

Gospel means Good News. The disciples of Jesus wrote the biographical books.

They contain information about the birth, life, ministry, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

The biographical books are four.

(i) Mathew – Written by Mathew

(ii) Mark – Written by Mark

(iii) Luke – Written by Luke,the doctor and

(iv) John – written by John

(the beloved disciple of Jesus Christ)

b) Historical books

There is one historical book, which is the Acts of the Apostles.

Luke, the writer of the St.Luke’s Gospel, wrote it. The book of Acts tells us the history of the early church.

c) The Epistles

There are two Epistles:

Pauline Epistles and

General Epistles. Pauline Epistles are letters written by Paul.

They are 13 letters that Paul wrote to

(1) Romans

(2,3) 1, 2 Corinthians

(4) Galatians

(5) Ephesians

(6) Philippines

(7) Colossians

(8, 9) 1, 2 Thessalonians

(10, 11) 1, 2 Timothy

(12) Titus and Philemon.

General Epistles are letters written to the church by other people.

The letters are 8 in number.

They (1) Hebrews

(2) James

(3,4) 1, 2 Peter

(5,6,7) 1, 2, 3, John and

(8) Jude

d) Apocalyptic or Prophetic book

This is the book of Revelation.

It is the last book in the New Testament.

It is different from other books.

This is because it is prophetic of things to come.

It is about the future. It was written by John the beloved disciple of Jesus Christ.

Major Bible Translations From the Original Languages To Local Languages

These books of the Bible are accepted as the Canon of the Bible.

The term Canon means Standard or guidance or rule.

Translation means expression of books by words and pictures, poems and songs from one language to another.

The Old Testament was originally written in Hebrew, the language of the Israelites.

Then between 250 – 100 BC, it was translated to the Greek language. The Greek translation of the Bible was known as Septuagint.

This term refers to 70 translators.

The Jews in dispersion or Diaspora used this translation.

These were the Jews living outside Palestine.

Between 386 – 420 A.D. Jerome, a great Christian Scholar, translated the entire bible from Greek into Latin, the language of the Romans.

This translation was called Vulgate.

Christians used the Latin translation of the Bible up to the 16th century.

During the reformation in the 16th Century, Christians were encouraged to use their own native languages in worship.

From that time, the Bible was translated into English and German.

As Christianity spread to different parts of the world, there was the need for translations of the Holy Bible into various languages.

In 1804, the British formed the Foreign Bible Society, which translated the Bible into many languages.

Johann Ludwig Krapf translated the New Testament into Kiswahili.

This was the first Bible translation in East Africa.

Since that time, the Bible Society of Kenya has translated the Bible into other languages such as Kikuyu in 1951, Kikamba in 1956, Kimeru in 1964, Kalenjin in 1968, and Luhya in 1974.

By 1980 the Bible had been translated into 29 Kenyan languages. To date (2010) the Bible has been translated into 42 languages of Kenya.

Translation and versions used in Kenya today

Besides bible translation into several languages, there are many English translation versions, which are commonly used in Kenya.

These are

(i) King James Version

(ii) Jerusalem Bible

(iii) New International version

(iv) English Bible

(v) The Authorized Version

(vi) Good News

(vii) Revised Standard Version

(viii) New King James Version

(ix) Amplified Bible

(x) The living Bible

(xi) The African Bible

(xii) Common Bible

(xiii) Today’s English Bible

(xiv) American version among others.

Writing of the Bible

By 2010, the Bible Society of Kenya had translated the Bible into 42 Kenyan languages.

The need to read the Bible led to writing of Bible reading materials to teach literacy in local languages.

Those who wrote the Bible used different styles, and figures of speech to make their message vivid and clear.

Several literary forms were used in the writing of the Bible.

These are:

a. Poetry in Psalms

Activity

a) Read Psalms and notice the poetry used by David when he wrote psalms

b) Read Job. Notice the rhythm of the words

c) Turn to your English textbook – the Integrated English. Read topic 4 on sound and pattern in poetry.

d) Read any Psalm and any verse from Job. What do you notice?

Other literary forms that are used in the Bible are:

i) Prose in Leviticus, which is a Legislative text

ii) Wise sayings in Proverbs

iii) Prophetic speeches by Jeremiah

iv) Prayers by Nehemiah

v) Love Songs, for example, the Songs of Solomon

vi) Letters. Here see Pauline Epistles (Romans)

vii) Gospels, for example, Mark’s Gospel

viii) Religious events, for example, Exodus

ix) Narratives, for example, Genesis

x) Philosophical essays, for example, the book of Job.

Here note the use of metaphors and similes in philosophical essays.

The effects of Bible translations on African languages Bible translations:

i) Increased and deepened African faith in God.

ii) Led to increased literacy. After Africans acquired literacy skills, they read the Bible and improved their literacy skills.

Christian missionaries established schools in order to teach literacy that helped African to read the Bible.

ii) Made it easy for missionaries to spread the gospel to the African communities.

iii) Increased the demand for the Bible. This led to writing of Books and setting up of printing presses in African countries.

iv) Made it easy for the expansion of the church i.e. more people became Christians.

v) Led to the emergence of independent churches and schools.

vi) The missionaries and colonialists learnt the African languages.

vii) The African converts realized that the missionaries were unfair to them.

There was for example a different treatment of African by White missionaries. This was inequality of races, which was and is even now against Christian teachings.

viii) Helped Africans to re-discover their cultural identity.

For example the use of African instruments, dressings, and practice of polygamy, which David and other kings in the Old Testament did.

ix) Led to the writings and spread of African languages. The missionaries learnt local languages.

x) Improved communications between missionaries and the local people because they could understand each other.

xi) Increased printing of reading materials

The effects of Bible translations on Africans communities

After the first Bible translations, there were immediate effects or influences on some communities.

For example, some community leaders did not agree with the Christian teachings. Some wanted to retain aspects of their African religion.

As a result, some communities who disagreed with Bible translations established their own Christian denominations in order to preach the Bible, as they understood it.

This was the emergence of independent churches.

Some African communities built independent schools where their children could learn how to read and write without being forced to practice all the Christian teachings.

Review questions

1) What is the importance of reading the Bible?

2) How is the Bible used in society today?

3) How does the Kenya Government use the Bible today?

4) Name the major divisions of the Bible in both the New Testament and the Old Testament

5) What are the effects of Bible translation on African languages?

6) Why is the Bible referred to as (a) a Library and

(b) the Word of God

7) What is the meaning of the term inspiration?

Study activities

1. Read the Bible quotations given above.

2. Carry out role plays e.g. the sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham.

3. Visit old people in your community and ask them about African religious traditional practices.

Creation and the Fall of Man (Genesis 1-3, 6-9, 11)

Introduction

In this topic, you shall learn about creation and the fall of man. This information is in Genesis.

Biblical Accounts of Creation and Their Meanings

The book of Genesis begins with two creation stories.

The first creation story is in Genesis chapter one.

The second creation story is in Genesis chapter two.

The two creation stories The first creation story is in Genesis chapter one.

The second creation story is in Genesis chapter two. This story is like a song or poem.

It’s written, “Let there be…” and “God saw that it was good … to separate,” and “there was evening and morning on …” Each creation is taken as a day.

The creation took place in the following order.

It is orderly:

1st day – God created day and night (Light and darkness)

2nd day – The Heavens (sky)

3rd day – The Earth, Water / Sea, Vegetation (Plants, trees, grass)

4th day – Sun, Moon and Stars

5thday – Birds, Sea Creatures

6th day – Animals, Livestock, Man was the last creation (human beings)

7th day – God rested and blessed the 7th day and made it holy.

In this creation story, we see God creating things in an orderly manner, day after day until the 6th day.

It was last in the first account. God created man from dust and breathed into his nostrils before anything else is mentioned.

God then put man in the Garden of Eden, which He had made for him so that man could till and keep it.

The garden was planted eastward in Eden.

Out of the ground, God made every tree to grow.

In the middle of the garden, there was the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

Man was given the responsibility of tilling and conserving the garden.

Man was commanded to eat of every tree in the garden except the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

A river flowed from the garden and then it separated into four tributaries.

God saw that man should not be alone hence He made him a helper/mate; a woman from one of the man’s ribs.

Man was also given the responsibility of naming all the animals in the garden.

There is mention of God resting after work

Differences between the two creation stories

First Account

Second Account

Mentions what was created on which day. Each creation takes a day.

- This story is like a song or a poem. It’s written, “Let there be…” and “God saw that it was good … to separate”, and “there was evening and morning…”

- It is orderly.

- Mentions what was created on which day.

- Rivers and garden are not mentioned.

- Man and woman were created together.

- No mention of the knowledge.

- Marriage is for procreation.

- Sun, moon, stars, sky are mentioned.

-God rested on the seventh day hence the Sabbath day.

- doesn’t mention the daily activities of GOD.

- The story is in prose. For example “… and God said … and it was evening...”

- Not orderly was last in the first account

- Doesn’t’ mention what was created on which day

- Mentions rivers, and garden for tilling

- Woman was created from ribs of man

- Mention of the knowledge

- Marriage is for companionship

- Sun, moon, stars, sky are not mentioned

- Mention of resting after work but

- Sabbath day is not mentioned

Similarities between the two accounts of creation

In both creation accounts:

a) Men and women are created by God and are given special references. Man and woman are special to God.

b) God rested after creation.

c) God provided the source of food.

d) God is portrayed as the sole creator of the universe and everything in it.

e) Man is given the responsibility of controlling animals, birds and plants that God created.

Activity

Find out the differences between the two creation stories and write them down. Now compare them with my answer.

Attributes of God From the Biblical Creation Accounts

The creation stories tell us that God is:

(i) The sole creator and the only source of life

(ii) Immortal and Eternal

(iii) He is self existent

(iv) God of order

(v) Source of goodness and true happiness

(vi) Holy, merciful and just

(vii) Provider and sustainer of the universe and all that is in it

(viii) All knowing (Omniscient)

(ix) All powerful (Omnipotent)

(x) Everywhere (Omnipresent)

(xi) A personal God.

(xii) He has a mind and a will

(xiii) Moral God. He is interested in the behaviour of man and woman. He commands her/him to do the right things.

Traditional African Understanding of Creation

Traditional African view of creation is brought out through traditional stories of creation (Myths).

The Agikuyu, Akamba, Gusii and other Kenyan communities have stories explaining their origin.

These stories give each community a sense of belonging, and identity.

The stories explain the mysteries of life.

These stories have common characteristics or teachings.

Thus all African communities believe that God: -

(i) Is the chief architect of the world

(ii) Existed from the very beginning of time.

(iii) Created everything out of nothing.

(iv) Provides for the needs of human beings.

(v) Was disobeyed by human beings who had lived in eternal bliss.

This bliss came to an end when human beings disobeyed God.

(vi) The African communities had different names to describe God.

God was not known as God but as the Creator of everything that existed on earth and skies.

He was Mumbi and “Mungai” to Gikuyu.

He was master of the universe.

The Kamba called Him …Ngai wa Matu.

They believed that God continues to create through human beings.

Examples of African creation stories

1. The Kamba believed that God created man and woman then tossed them to the earth.

2. The Bukusu say that God the creator (Were Khakaba) created the world alone.

a. First God created heaven then created two assistants, Mukhaba and Murumwa.

Were the God made the sun, moon, stars, a big red cock which crows whenever it thunders, the rains, the rainbow, mountains, rivers, lakes, streams and all the other things on earth.

b. Created a woman for the man.

c. Created plants, animals, birds and other creatures.

d. Creation work took six days. On the seventh day Were rested.

Activity

Ask your parents about your community creation story.

The Teachings From the Biblical Creation Accounts

I. God is responsible for all creation. He is the sole creator.

God’s creation was good.

Everything He created God said it was good.

It was without flaws and mistakes.

God is the provider.

God created everything that man needs.

He also created food for all animals and other creatures. God is orderly.

II. Man has a special place in God’s creation. Man was made as the keeper of God creation.

Man is a co-creator and keeper of God’s creation since he was made in the image and likeness of God. Man was commanded to work.

III. A woman was made from the man’s flesh. She joins man in marriage and they become one flesh. God ordains marriage.

Human beings were created to socialize.

IV. Sin is a result of man and woman disobedience of God.

Responsibilities given to human beings by God in the Genesis stories of creation

After creating man and then woman, God asked man to:

a. Reproduce and multiply.

b. Rule over the rest of His creations.

c. Be in charge of the fish, birds, and all the animals.

d. Cultivate the garden and guard it.

e. Eat from the fruits of the garden except from the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

f. Name the animals.

g. Subdue the earth.

h. Transform the creation that God has provided human beings with.

i. Use creation – forests, rivers, mountains with responsibility and respect.

j. Be a steward of God’s creation

k. Engineer God’s creation by creating things from the creation

l. Dominate the earth

Group work

Work in twos or threes and answer these questions.

i. How does man fulfill the command to subdue and fill the earth?

ii. How is man a co – creator with God?

Biblical Teaching: the Fall of Man, Origin of Sin And the Consequences

Introduction

Man and woman fell from the Garden of Eden.

This experience is explained in genesis chapter 3 verse 4; chapter 6 verse 9 and chapter 11.

In these verses, the Bible is teaching about sin, which made Adam and Eve fall.

Sin is defined as iniquity, and guilt.

It is to miss a mark, to transgress. Sin is a rebellion or an offence against God. Sin originated with the disobedience of Adam and Eve.

They had been commanded not to eat of the fruits of the tree of knowledge of good and evil – the tree in the middle of the Garden of Eden.

But Adam and Eve ate the fruit after being deceived by the serpent.

Man had the power to resist temptation but instead he yielded.

Genesis Chapter 3 verse 6 states that man wanted to be wise and thought how wonderful it would be to become wise…” hence sin arises from the lack of knowledge of God, from the denial of trust of God.

The consequences of sin

After sinning, we the human race and sinners:

1) Replaced friendship with God with fear of God.

2) Lost innocence. What had been innocent and good became shameful.

Adam and Eve became ashamed of their nakedness, something they had never felt before they sinned against God.

3) Lost good relationship with God.

The good relationship between God and man was betrayed.

Human beings – were alienated from God. “The Lord God sent him out of the Garden of Eden…”

4) Damaged the perfect relationship between man and woman.

The Lord said to the woman “You will have desire for your husband, yet you will be subject to him”.

5) Pain became part of human experience. “I will greatly multiply your pain in child bearing”.

6) Man began toiling and struggling to meet his needs… “You will have to work hard and sweat to make the soil produce anything”

7) The home of man, and the earth itself was placed under a curse. “Cursed is the ground because of you.”

8) Enmity between man and wild animals emerged.

9) Man began to die. Death sentence is passed upon all men. “You will return to the ground… you are dust”

10) Man began to hate. Man developed murderous feelings in his heart, for example Cain killed Abel, his younger brother.

11) Man changed and became prone to sin.

12) Life span of man was reduced (see Gen. 6:3) “I will not allow people to live forever, they will live no longer than 120 years”

13) Man’s language was confused by God after the flood (read Gen.11: 7)

14) Sin led to embarrassment, mistrust, suffering, pain, pride, arrogance and death.

Summary

Disobedience of God by Adam and Eve brought serious sin consequences to human beings.

Sin brings sadness and suffering to man even today.

Activity

In groups of two or three, discuss the origin and consequences of sin.

Concept of Evil

Introduction

In this lesson, we shall discuss the concept of evil as told by the traditional African religion and the biblical writings.

We shall study similarities and differences of evil from the two religions.

What is evil?

In the traditional African society, evil was an offence against God, spirits and ancestors.

It was also viewed as an offence against another person or community.

Evil was also a misfortune that can befall an individual or a community.

What are the causes of evil?

Many of the traditional African societies do not associate God with evil. God is not the creator of evil.

Some communities believe that evil is an external power that exists on its own.

Thus in the traditional African society, evil was understood or explained as something mysterious that was caused by several people and things.

These were: a) Evil spirits

b) Ancestral spirits – due to disobedience to them

c) Some animals like the chameleon are sources of evil.

The Akamba believed that chameleons brought evil. Other communities believed that if an owl cries near one’s homestead, it is a sign of evil.

d) People with mystical powers for example magic, sorcery, and witchcraft are evils.

e) If a member of a community breaks a taboo by disobedience, this action may bring evil spirits.

f) The spirits of the dead; cause evil; if they are not remembered or respected.

Evil spirits cause harm and violence.

Consequences of evil in traditional African society

These were many and ranged from

(a) Barrenness

(b) Drought

(c) Epidemics

(d) Madness

(e) Sickness

(f) Death

(g) Drowning

(h) Burning in a house

(i) War

(j) Physically and mentally handicapped children

(l) Rebellious children

God’s Plan of Salvation

After the fall of man, God took steps to heal the damaged situation and relationship between Him and Adam and Eve.

GOD:

1. Provided clothing of skin to Adam and Eve.

2. Looked for Adam and Eve since they were hiding from His presence.

3. Provided Adam and Eve with the knowledge to find different foods.

4. Declared enmity between man and the snake.

5. Hinted at the ultimate victory of man when He said that the seed of the woman would crush the snake or serpent’s head.

The serpent would attack the heel of man and woman.

All through the Old Testament, and the New Testament, we see God’s plan of salvation being manifested.

For instance, GOD chose and separated Abraham from other communities.

The children of Israel led by Moses (were delivered) from Egypt,.

God sent prophets to teach and warn the Israelites of the dangers of sin.

Finally God sent his only son Jesus Christ to die on the cross to save human kind.

Similarities and Differences Between Traditional African View of Evil and Biblical Concept of Sin

Both the Biblical and traditional African view or agree that

1) God is supreme. God is neither the creator nor author of evil

2) Sin comes from the disobedience of God by human beings

3) Evil and misfortune are God’s curse to man (Biblical) while the traditional African society sees evil as curses by ancestors, and elders. Both curses lead to misfortunes.

4) The result of sin and evil is human sufferings

5) Sin and evil lead to man being separated from God

6) God is the guardian of law and order

7) Human beings have the ability to overcome evil

Differences

1) Biblical account emphasizes personal nature of sin while in the African concept; sin is more social and communal

2) Biblical account attributes evil to disobedience while African concept attributes evil not only to disobediences but other external forces.

3) Biblical accounts offer a message of hope to overcome evil while African concept doesn’t offer a solution to sin and evil.

4) Traditional African concept all forms of suffering as a result of sin while in the Bible suffering is not always a result of sin.

Review questions

1) Explain the differences between the two creation stories

2) State the traditional African view of creation

3) Explain how human beings continue with the work of creation

4) What is the origin of sin and evil according to traditional African society?

5) Give three consequences of sin as stated in Genesis

6) State the consequences of evil according to African traditional societies

7) Trace God’s plan of salvation of human kind

Compare biblical and traditional African understanding of evil and sin.

9) What does the command “Subdue the earth” in Genesis 1 verse 28 mean?

Faith and God Promises to Abraham

Background to the Call of Abraham (Genesis 11:24-32,12)

Introduction

The background to the call of Abraham is found in the first book of the bible. This is Genesis which is a Greek word meaning “Beginning”.

The relationship between Adam and God was good but after Adam disobeyed GOD, their relationship changed because of sin by Eve and Adam.

After sometime, God repaired this relationship by calling Abraham and offering salvation.

Background

-Abraham lived with his father Terah at a place called Ur. Abraham’s father lived among people who worshiped many gods.

One of the god’s whom people of Ur worshipped was the moon.

This worship of many gods is referred to as polytheism.

- The family of Terah moved from Ur to Haran.

While at Haran, God called Abraham at 75 years old. He was told to…. “Leave your country, your relatives and your father’s home and go to a land that I am going to show you”. Abraham obeyed God’s call.

He left Haran for a land that was unknown to him.

He took his property his wife Sarah and his nephew lot.

At the time of the call of Abraham, he was known as Abram and his wife Sarai. God changed their names to Abraham and Sarah.

Abraham means Father of many nations while Sarah means mother of nations.

- On arrival in Canaan, he travelled and came to a place called Schechem.

God appeared to him once more. Abraham built an altar for the lord at this place. Altars are places of worship.

They were regarded as holy and were manifestations of God’s presence.

An altar was made of stones.

-After sometime, he separated with his nephew Lot due to their servants having strife over water for their livestock.

Abraham left Canaan due to feminine. He went to Egypt.

Activity

1. Where did Lot settle?

2. Read GENESIS, chapter 11 (24 – 32) and chapter 12 (1 – 9)

Faith and God’s Promises to Abraham (Hebrews 11: 1 – 6)

a. The Meaning of Faith

- Faith is a strong belief, a complete trust or confidence in someone or something. It is also a firm belief, which is not based on any scientific or logical proof.

Faith in God is an attitude of complete trust in God.

It is not based on concrete or tangible objects.

Faith is manifested in the ways of life of a believer.

- Abraham is an example of someone who had faith in God. He showed his faith in action in several ways.

b. How Abraham Demonstrated His Faith in God

1. Although Abraham was old, he left Haran to go to a strange unknown land of Canaan.

2. After he settled in Canaan, Abraham was assured by God of his protection and was given other promises such as he will get a son, and Abraham believed God.

Sarah gave birth to a son when she was 90 years old and Abraham was around 120 years old.

This was as the lord had promised Abraham.

3. The son was named Isaac that means “laughter” – because Sarah had laughed when she was told that she would have a child in her old age.

The child Isaac was circumcised when he was eight (8) days old.

4. Abraham was told by God to circumcise all males in his household including himself. He obeyed.

5. When Abraham was asked to sacrifice his son Isaac to God, he was ready to do so.

6. Abraham believed that God would fulfill all the promises he had given to him.

7. Abraham demonstrated his faith by building altars.

c. God’s Promises to Abraham (Genesis 12:2-3, 15:1-21,21, 17:1-8, 17:15-18)

A promise is giving an assurance of something to someone.

The promises God gave to Abraham were that:

1. God told him he would give him a land. His descendants would be given the land of Canaan to dwell in

2. His name would be made famous

3. His descendants will be many. Abraham would be made a great nation.

4. God would protect him.

5. He was promised a son of their own.

6. God would bless him.

7. God would bless those who bless him and curse those who curse him.

8. Abraham was promised that he would die in peace and in an old age.

9. His descendants would be strangers in a foreign land but afterwards would come out with great possessions.

d. The Relevance of the Promises Made by God to Abraham to Christians Today (Gen. 12: 2 – 3, 15: 1 – 21, 21:1 – 7, 17: 15 – 18)

God called Abraham from idol worship in the same way God continues to call people to serve him.

1) Through Abraham, God had a plan to restore the relationship between man and God.

2) Christians receive the promises of blessings from God through Abraham (Gods promises to Abraham fulfilled through Christians).

3) As Abraham left his own people, Christians should leave their sinful lives and put their whole trust in God.

4) Abraham is seen as the descendant not only of the Israelites but also of Christians.

5) Christians have faith that God fulfils promises to them as he did to Abraham.

6) Christians are assured of God’s protection.

7) Through God’s dealing with Abraham, God shows that he values a personal relationship with human kind.

Through Jesus Christ Christians enter into an everlasting covenant with God. Just like Abraham entered into a covenant with God.

9) The promise to Abraham of Canaan Promised Land is to Christians the hope for new land – heaven.

10) God continues to make promises to those who believe him.

11) Abraham is the ancestor (Father) of all believers)

e. Define the Term Covenant

i. Definition.

A covenant is a solemn agreement between two persons or two groups of people. An agreement is between two separated parties.

It’s a pact, a treaty. When it is a covenant, it conveys a union or partnership.

ii. Characteristics / components of a covenant

There are components or features that must be in a covenant.

A covenant must have a ceremony, sign, witnesses, promises/vows/oaths, obligations / consequences, and participants.

A covenant establishes a sacrificial bond between the parties involved.

There are obligations or rules by which the parties must abide by, adhere to and observe in order to keep the covenant.

A covenant is an agreement and if it is broken, there are consequences for breaking it.

In the Bible, there are many covenants.

iii. Examples of covenants in the Bible

1. Adamic covenant – Agreement between God and Adam

2. Noahlic Covenant – God’s covenant with Noah where God promised to preserve life of man and not to destroy it with water.

The sign of the covenant is the rainbow.

In Gen 9 verse 3, GOD told Noah, “Everything that lives and moves will be food for you…Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything.

Verse 4 says, “But you must not eat meat that has its lifeblood still in it”

3. Abrahamic covenant – Gods covenant with Abraham.

He promised to fulfill promises He gave to Abraham.

These promises were:

(1) Increase numbers of descendant of Abraham.

He will be father of many nations, (2) Be GOD of his descendants

(3) Abraham will have a son an heir,

(4) Given land of Canaan and other lands from the river of Egypt to River Euphrates, and all for heirs of Abraham (Gen. 15: 17 – 18)

(5) Circumcision of all males at 8 days after birth even none Israelites living in their land

(6) Covenant with Isaac

4. Mosaic Covenant – is a covenant between the Israelites and GOD. Moses led Israel to Mt. Sinai. God promised to be their God. Israelites were given the law written by GOD in “tablets of stone, with law and commands I have written for…. instruction”. (Read exodus 23).

5. Davidic Covenant – covenant between David and God – God promised him that his dynasty would rule forever.

6. Messianic Covenant – new covenant between Christians and God through Jesus Christ.

iv. God’s covenant with Abraham and its importance (Genesis 15:1- 19)

The covenant was established after God appeared to Abraham in a vision.

During the visitation of God, Abraham was 100 years old and Sarah 90 years. He was promised a son.

Abraham wanted assurance from God.

God told him to bring him the following items for sacrifice.

v. Items for sacrifice

  • Three (3) years olds: heifer, goat, ram and a dove and a pigeon.

  • Abraham then cut these animals into two halves and placed them opposite each other.

  • The birds were not split.

  • After it was dark, smoking fire and a flaming torch suddenly appeared and passed between the pieces of animals.

  • Towards evening, Abraham fell into a deep sleep.

    While he slept the Lord appeared to him and told him that:

  • His descendants will be strangers in a foreign land and be slaves for 400 years.

    But they will come out of this land with a lot of wealth and God will punish the nation that will enslave Israelites.

  • He, Abraham will live up to a ripe age, and die in peace.

    Then the Lord made a covenant with Abraham and promised to give him and his descendants the land of Canaan.

    God himself passed through the sacrifices and bound himself to keep the promises.

    f) Importance of the Covenant Between God and Abraham (Gen. 15: 1- 19)

  • God bound himself in a personal relationship with a human being

  • As God passed through the meat, he showed Abraham he would always protect him.

    This passed on to the descendants of Abraham.

  • This covenant between God and Abraham begins a lasting relationship between God and all the nations of the earth.

  • Throughout this covenant God was initiating his plan of salvation for human kind.

  • The promises made to Abraham were fulfilled in New Testament blood of the lamb – death of Jesus Christ.

  • It emphasized the importance of faith followed by obedience that Abraham shared.

    g) Covenants in Modern Life and Their Importance

    Modern covenants are

    Covenants in Modern Life and Their Importance

    (a) Marriage

    (b) Baptism

    (c) Oath of loyalty and

    (d) Ordination of clergy

    Marriage ceremony:

    In marriage, the bride, bridegroom and their families come together. When the two families come together a relationship is developed.

    They make an agreement and both sides are seriously involved in the ceremony, whether the marriage is civil or religious.

    During the marriage ceremony the couple makes vows/promises to each other, before a priest/ pastor and the congregation.

    Two officials witness these agreements. Rings are exchanged as a sign of a lasting relationship.

    A certificate is given in some cases as a testimony (sign) of this agreement.

    There is eating and drinking.

    Baptism:

    In a Christian baptism, a covenant is entered into between the believer and God. The believer makes vows before God.

    The priest and the whole congregation witness this agreement.

    In some churches, a card is issued to the person who has been baptized as a sign of Christian membership.

    The baptized can now take the Holy Communion, which is a Christian Ceremony.

    But when an infant is baptized, parents take the vows on behalf of the child.

    Loyalty /oath:

    Leaders in public service for example the president, ministers, Members of Parliament, and chief officers are sworn in before they take over their new responsibilities.

    They swear (take an oath) and promise to carry out their duties firmly and without fear or favour.

    Ordination of the clergy: Church leaders, nuns and priests take oaths and make vows to God and to the congregation in a ceremony attended by worshippers.

    The importance of modern day covenants

    • They bind different groups

    • They act as a security

    • They strengthen relationships

    • They unite people together

    • They create loyalty

    • They create peace, harmony and bring a sense of permanence

    h) The Testing of Abraham’s Faith (GEN. 22: 1 – 18)

    God tested Abraham’s faith by asking him to go and sacrifice his only son Isaac.

    This was the son he loved so much.

    He was to travel to Mount Moniah.

    On reaching Mt. Moriah, he built an altar, and arranged wood on it.

    He tied up his son Isaac and placed him on the altar on top of the wood.

    He lifted a knife to kill him.

    “But the Angel of the Lord called out to him from heaven.

    Abraham! Abraham! Do not lay a hand on the boy…Do not do anything to him.

    Now I know you that you fear God, because you have not withheld from me your son, your only son” (v 11-12). Abraham had obedient reverence for God became he did not keep back his only son from God.

    God provided a ram for sacrifice.

    He named the mountain “the Lord provided” God was pleased with Abraham and promised him blessings, many descendants’ victory, and protection.

    Activity

    Read Genesis 12:1 – 9, 15:1 – 6, 17:23 – 24, 21:1 – 7, 22:1-19

    Importance of Faith in Christian Life Today

    1. A Christian today is acceptable to God through his faith in God through Jesus Christ. Without faith it is impossible to please God.

    2. A Christian can only serve God if he has faith in him. Faith enables a Christian to serve God.

    3. Faith enables a Christian to accomplish what appears to be impossible.

    4. Through faith, Christians are able to trust God to fulfill his promises to them.

    5. Faith is the foundation of the Christians salvation.

    6. Faith in God gives a Christian the power to overcome all temptations.

    8. Christians should expect to have their faith tested just like Abraham was.

    9. Faith enables Christians to patiently wait on God’s promises.

    10. Christians through faith in God help the poor, make right decisions and are able to understand and know God better.

    Jewish and African Practices of Circumcision

    A. Importance of Circumcision to Abraham and His Descendants (Gen. 17: 1 – 16)

    The rite of circumcision was started by Abraham and has been practiced by the Jews up to the present times.

    In the Old Testament, it was important because:

    (i) Through circumcision: God assured Abraham that he would fulfill His promises to him.

    (ii) Circumcision was a sign that Abraham and his descendants had entered into a covenant with God. It was an outward sign of inner faith.

    (iii) Circumcision was a mark of identity for the Jews.

    (iv) It was a sign of obedience to God.

    (v) It was an acceptance of God as the only true God and their willingness to remain faithful to him In the New Testament.

    (vi) Circumcision doesn’t qualify one to be a child of God. One is accepted as a Christian without circumcision as long as they have faith in God.

    (vii) A true descendant of Abraham is the Christian who truly believes in God and lives according to His will regardless of colour, race or creed.

    b. Circumcision in African Communities

    Circumcision is one of the rites of passage among the African people.

    It marks the transition from one stage to another.

    Many ethnic communities in Kenya still practice the rite of circumcision.

    During circumcision ceremonies, prayers are offered to God for the well being of the initiates (those who are being circumcised) and the prosperity of the whole community.

    Initiates learn secrets of their community and society.

    They are taught myths, origin, religious beliefs, and sex education.

    In some communities, initiates are given new names or ornaments to signify their new status.

    C. Jewish and African Practices of Circumcision

    Similarities In both Jewish and African communities, circumcision:

    (a) is a mark of identity

    (b) provided a sense of belonging

    (c) was observed as a religious experience

    (d) was compulsory

    (e) was a tradition passed from one generation to another

    (f) is a time for shedding blood

    (g) was a time for offering prayers to God for the well being of the initiates

    (h) was a time for giving gifts

    (i) was a ceremony for initiation

    (j) was a time for giving the initiates names

    (k) took place in sacred places.

    Differences In Jewish community,

    i. Circumcision was a rite for boys while in African society it was for both boys and girls. But it was for boys in a few communities.

    ii. Boys were circumcised when aged 8 days while in the African society; it was between 15 to 25 years old.

    iii. Circumcision was for boy’s organ while in African societies several forms of initiation were done, for example, removal of teeth, and body piercing among others.

    iv. Circumcision was a command from God while for the African communities it was in obedience to customary law where ancestors were invoked to protect the initiates.

    Among the African societies

    v. Circumcision was a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood while for the Jews it was not.

    vi. The initiates were given specialized education while the Jews were not.

    vii. The initiates were grouped into age groups, and were secluded from the community while among the Jews it was not so.

    viii. The rite of circumcision according to seasons while the Jews once a child is born, they are circumcised on the 8th day.

    ix. After circumcision, the initiates were allowed to marry, enter a warrior group, own property but for the Jews the initiate was still a child.

    Revision questions

    1.Explain why Abraham is referred to as the father of faith

    2. Give five actions from the life of Abraham that shows his faith to God.

    3. List some of the promises God gave to Abraham.

    4. Compare and contrast the Jewish and traditional African practice of circumcision.

    5. What is the importance of faith to Christians?.

    6. State the elements of a covenant.

    7. Give examples of covenants in the bible and the modern society.

    8. Discuss the circumstances that led God to enter into a covenant relationship with Abraham.

    Sinai Covenant

    The Call of Moses

    One day, Moses was looking after or tending the flock of Jethro his father-in-law.

    Jethro was a priest of Midian.

    When Moses came to mount Horeb, the mountain of God, the angel of the Lord appeared to him in flames of fire from within a bush.

    Moses saw that although the bush was on fire, it was not burning.

    Moses went over to the burning bush to look. God called him out within the bush… “Moses! Moses!” He replied, “Here I am”.

    God then told Moses not to come closer and to take off his sandals for the place where he was standing was a holy ground.

    God introduced himself as the God of his father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.

    God then said he had seen the misery and sufferings of the Israelites in Egypt. He had heard their cry.

    God had come down to rescue Israelites from the hand of Egyptians.

    God was to take them to their home, the land of the Canaanites, a land flowing with milk and honey.

    God told Moses that He was sending him to go to Pharaoh and bring out the Israelites, the people of God, from Egypt.

    Moses resisted the call.

    He asked God “Who am I, that is should go to Pharaoh and bring the Israelites out of Egypt?” God promised to be with him.

    God said to Moses… Say to the Israelites… the Lord.

    The God of their fathers, God of Abraham, God of Isaac and God of Jacob has sent me to you.

    Moses was told to assemble the elders of Israel and inform them that God was going to deliver them from Egypt.

    Moses was then to go to the king of Egypt with the elders.

    He was to tell the king “the Lord, the God of the Hebrews has met with us.

    (Exodus 3:1 – 22) God’s sign to Moses

    Moses was given several signs by God In case the people of Israel did not believe in him.

    a) First sign was his staff turning into a snake when he threw it down. When he touched the snake’s tail it turned into his staff.

    b) Second sign was God asked Moses to put his hand inside his cloak and it was as white as a snow – leprous.

    He was asked to put it back into his cloak and it was restored.

    c) Moses further complained that he was a stammerer. God then appointed Aaron, his brother, as his spokesman.

    Reasons Moses gave against the call

    1. He felt unworthy of the call.

    2. He wondered who he was to tell the Israelites that God had sent him.

    3. Moses said that he was a stammerer so he let God choose a spokesperson.

    Moses however heeded to the call and went back to Egypt together with his family.

    God promised to be with him and perform signs before Pharaoh.

    What does the name Moses mean?

    It means drawn out of water.

    What did Moses learn about God from his Calling?

    Moses learnt that:

    1. God is caring, merciful and concerned about the welfare of his people – Israelites.

    2. God is transcendent – he is beyond human understanding. He cannot be limited to time and space.

    3. God chooses whomever he wills to carry out his plans.

    He chose Abraham an old man, a moon worshipper and now Moses, a murderer, a fugitive and a stammerer.

    4. God expects total obedience and faith from those that He chooses.

    5. God is powerful, eternal and omnipresent.

    6. God is holy.

    7. God is a God of history, which means He is concerned with His people’s welfare.

    8. God is mysterious – He manifested Himself in the burning bush that was not being consumed.

    How did God prepare Moses to be the future leader of Israelites?

    1. His life was spared when he was rescued by Pharaoh’s daughter

    2. He was nursed by his own mother who taught him about Yahweh and his own true identity

    3. Life in the wilderness hardened him to be bold and to persevere hardships

    4. He learnt to be patient, keen, and responsible as a shepherd

    5. He acquired leadership skills while living at pharaoh’s palace

    6. He learnt literacy and numeracy skills (Educational skills) at the palace.

    7. He was not a stranger to Pharaoh hence he could approach him freely.

    The Ten Plagues Exodus 7:14-11:10

    During the call of Moses at Mount Sinai, God gave Moses a rod with which he could perform mighty signs before the Israelites and before Pharaoh.

    Aaron was to be his spokesman.

    Moses and Aaron gathered the Israelite elders and leaders to tell them what God had said to them. After Moses had performed the miracles that God had showed him; the Israelite leaders believed him.

    They then approached Pharaoh so that he may release the Israelites.

    However instead of releasing the Israelites, Pharaoh became crueler.

    He gave Israelites harder work.

    When Pharaoh refused to release Israelites, God instructed Moses to bring ten plagues upon Egypt.

    These plagues brought; great trouble and suffering to Israelites.

    Ten plagues

    1) The plague of blood (Exodus 7: 14 – 25)

    Moses and Aaron used the rod. They struck the waters of the river as God instructed them.

    All the water in the rivers, canals, and pools in Egypt turned into blood.

    All the fish died and there was no water to drink.

    This situation lasted for seven days. However Pharaoh’s heart was hardened. He did not release the Israelites.

    2) The plague of frogs (Exodus 8:1 – 15)

    God then sent Moses to tell Pharaoh that if he refused to release the Israelites the whole land would be covered with frogs.

    At the command of Moses, Aaron held out the rod of Moses and frogs covered the whole land. On seeing this, Pharaoh pleaded with Moses and Aaron to pray to the Lord to get rid of the frogs and he would release them.

    They prayed and all the frogs died.

    Pharaoh, however, changed his mind and refused to release the Israelites.

    3) Plague of gnats (Exodus 8:16 – 19)

    The lord instructed Moses to tell Aaron to strike the ground and Aaron did so and all the dust in Egypt turned into gnats or small flies that bites.

    The magicians of Egypt could perform the first two plagues.

    They could not bring the plague of gnats.

    Egyptians acknowledged that the presence of gnats or small flies that bites was God’s work.

    But even with this information, Pharaoh still refused to release the Israelites.

    4) Plague of flies (Exodus 8:20 – 32)

    The Lord warned Pharaoh through Moses once more.

    He was told that God would send swarms of flies to the Egyptian houses. The Israelites houses would be spared.

    Even after bringing the plague of flies, Pharaoh’s heart hardened even more.

    5) Death of cattle (Exodus 8:1 – 7)

    A plague of disease befell the Egyptian cattle.

    Not a single Israelites’ animal died. Pharaoh was not moved; and he refused to let Jews go home.

    6) Plague of boils (Exodus 9:8 – 12)

    Moses threw ashes into the air as God had instructed.

    This produced boils, which became open sores on the skin of the Egyptians.

    Unmoved by the suffering of his people, Pharaoh still refused to let the Israelites leave.

    7) Plague of hail (Exodus 9:13 – 35)

    Moses raised his rod and there was a hailstorm with lighting and thunder.

    The people, animals and plants that were struck by the lightning died.

    Pharaoh then promised to let the Israelites go but as soon as Moses prayed for the hailstorm to stop, pharaoh hardened his heart and refused to let the Israelites leave.

    8) Plague of Locusts (Exodus 19:1 – 20)

    Locusts covered the whole land and ate all the crops in the fields.

    The locusts ate all that had not been destroyed by the hailstorm.

    When Moses prayed to God, for locusts to leave; Pharaoh hardened his heart and refused to let the Israelites leave.

    9) Plague of darkness (Exodus 10: 21 – 29)

    God then instructed Moses to stretch out his hand to heaven.

    There was total darkness in Egypt for three days.

    But there was light where the Israelites they were living. Pharaoh remained unmoved and would not release the Israelites out of Egypt.

    10) Death of Egyptian first-born males (Exodus 11: 1 – 31).

    After the plague of darkness, God sent Moses once more to Pharaoh.

    He was told that this time even his family would be affected.

    The Lord would kill all the first-born Egyptian sons and first-born male animals at midnight.

    This plague occurred during the night of Passover.

    Pharaoh was moved and allowed Israelites to leave Egypt.

    What do the plagues tell us about God’s attributes?

    GOD:

    1. Empowers His people to perform miracles and to do His work

    2. Is Almighty and more powerful than the Egyptian gods.

    3. Is determined to fulfil His plans.

    4. Is a God of justice. He protects the oppressed.

    5. Gives everyone a chance to repent. Notice that each time Pharaoh promised to release the Israelites; God relieved the Egyptians from the plagues.

    6. Fulfils His promises – He had promised Abraham to deliver his descendants from foreign lands.

    7. Expects total obedience and faith.

    8. Communicates His will through natural events.

    9. Is caring and loving.

    Passover (Exodus 12:1-30, 19, 20, 34)

    The tenth plague is called the Passover. It happened on the fourteenth day of the month. The Israelites were to offer one-year-old lamb per family.

    If a family was too small, they were to share the lamb with their neighbours.

    If a lamb was not available, a one-year-old goat could also be used.

    They were told to:

    1. Slaughter the lamb/goat; smear some of the blood on the sides and tops of the door- frames of their houses.

    2. Roast the meat and eat it with bitter herbs and unleavened bread (bread without yeast).

    If there were any leftovers they were to burn them with fire.

    3. Eat in a hurry while fully dressed and having packed their belongings.

    They were told to borrow silver, clothings, jewellery, and gold from the Egyptians.

    4. That on the same night, the ‘angel of death’ would kill every first born both males and animals in the houses without blood.

    5. The angel of death would pass over the houses with blood sparing them. The blood was a sign to indicate this is a house of Israelites.

    When the Lord sees the blood, He will pass over that house (V.13).

    6. The Israelites were told to celebrate / commemorate from generation to generation the Passover as a festival to the Lord.

    7. The Israelites were not allowed to come out of their houses on the night of Passover.

    8. At midnight, the Lord struck down all firstborn in Egypt from Pharaoh’s household to the firstborn of the prisoners and firstborn of livestock.

    9. There was loud wailing over Egypt. Every house had someone dead.

    Significance of items used during the Passover

    1) Roasted Meat

    – this is the easiest method of preparing food since the Israelites were to leave in a short time.

    2) Bitter herbs

    – was a reminder of the suffering and hardships and slavery experienced in Egypt.

    3) Eating while standing.

    Deliverance was near, hence the need to leave in a hurry

    4) Eating while fully dressed with their stuff at hand

    .

    This signified a quick deliverance; hence Israelites should be ready to leave Egypt at once.

    5) Eating unleavened bread

    – the bread was to be eaten and none left over hence there was no need to add yeast for preservation.

    6) Collecting Jewellery

    – God had promised Abraham that after slavery for four hundred and thirty years, his descendants shall be freed with great possessions.

    7) Remaining indoors

    – for security from death. Anyone outside was killed.

    8) Blood on doorposts

    – a sign for deliverance. The angel of death would pass over doors with blood.

    The Exodus

    Introduction

    Exodus means movement of a large number of people.Crossing the Red Sea

    During the night of the Passover, Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and told them to leave, to go and worship their Lord.

    All the Israelites, their flocks and herds were urged to leave in a hurry.

    Pharaoh took his chariot army and followed the Israelites and found them camped by the Red Sea.

    God led the Israelites over the desert towards the Red Sea.

    Moses took the body (bones) of Joseph, as Joseph had requested the Israelites to do.

    “When God rescues you, you must carry my body with you from this place” (Ex 13 vs. 19).

    During the day the Lord went in front of them in a pillar of cloud (angel of God) to show them the way, and during the night the lord went in front in a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel night and day.

    This pillar of cloud led the Israelites by day and night.

    The Egyptian army followed Israelites and caught up with them by the Red Sea where they had camped.

    Moses asked the scared Israelites to move near the sea.

    God told Moses to lift up his stick, and hold it over the sea.

    The waters of the Red Sea divided and the Israelites crossed the sea on dry ground with walls of water on both sides.

    The angel of God, and the pillar of cloud (who had been in front of the army of Israel) moved behind the Israelites and provided light to them as they cross.

    The Egyptians army pursued Israelites.

    The pillar of cloud made it dark for Egyptians who could not see where they were going.

    Just before daylight, the Lord looked at the Egyptians from the pillar of cloud and fire and God threw the army of the Egyptians into confusion.

    Moses was asked by the Lord to stretch out his hand. He did so and waters returned to its normal level drowning Egyptian army and their horses.

    God protected the Israelites during the Exodus by:

    1) Making them cross the red sea on dry ground.

    2) Providing water in the wilderness.

    3) Providing manna and quails.

    4) Defeating Amalekites – their enemies.

    5) Protecting them from snakes and diseases in the wilderness.

    Provision of water in the wilderness

    Israelites travelled in the desert for three days without water.

    The water, which they found at Marah was bitter and could not be drunk.

    They called the place ‘Marah’ meaning ‘bitter’.

    This made them complain. Moses prayed to the Lord.

    The Lord showed Moses a piece of wood. Moses threw it into the water and it became fit to drink.

    God continued providing Israelites with water.

    Again the Israelites lacked water and complained bitterly (Ex.17:1 – 9).

    God instructed Moses to strike a rock and water came out of it. Moses called that place ‘Massah’ – which means ‘testing ‘and ‘Meribah’ – meaning ‘rebellion’. This was because the Israelites quarreled and tested God.

    Provision of manna and quails (EX 16:1 – 35)

    As the Israelites were travelling through the desert, they ran out of food.

    They were hungry and complained to Moses.

    Their complaints displeased the Lord for they often told Moses they wished he had let them die in Egypt instead of dying in the wilderness.

    This showed that the Israelites did not trust God to provide for them.

    In the morning, they were given Manna, which is a Hebrew word for the type of bread given to Israelites by God.

    The bread looked like wafers or flakes and tasted like coriander seed.

    In the evening, GOD provided Israelites with quail’s meat.

    The provision of manna and quails (meat) lasted for 40 years.

    On the 6th day of each week, God gave them food for two days one for the 6th day and the other for the 7th day (Sabbath).

    Defeat of the Amalekites (Exodus 17: 8 – 16)

    Challenges faced by the Israelites during the Exodus During the Exodus, the Israelites faced the challenge of the Amalekites.

    These were desert Nomads who attacked the Israelites in the wilderness.

    When the Amalekite army came against Israelites, Moses ordered Joshua to gather men and fight.

    God promised to destroy the Amalekites forever.

    During the battle, Moses held up his rod.

    And each time he raised his hands with the rod, the Amalekites were defeated.

    When he brought his hands down, the Israelites were defeated. Because of this, Aaron and Hur supported Moses’ hands until the Amalekites were defeated.

    In the wilderness God protected the Israelites form snakebites.

    He also used a cloud to protect the Israelites from the scorching heat during the day.

    At night, the pillar of fire provided warmth to protect them from the harsh cold of the wilderness.

    The importance of the exodus in the history of the Israelites

    The exodus showed Israelites that:

    1) God loves and tolerates His people.

    2) God did not abandon the Israelites despite their lack of faith.

    3) God gave the Israelites encouragement through his servant Moses.

    4) It was the end of the oppression of Israelites in Egypt.

    5) Moses was God’s chosen leader.

    Making the Sinai Covenant (Exodus 19: 24 1 – The Sinai covenant)

    God and Israelites.

    God had specific instructions on how the Israelites were to prepare to make the new covenant.

    Before making the covenant, God brought Israelites to the foot of Mt. Sinai and asked Moses to ask them if they were willing to make the covenant with HIM. GOD asked them to enter into a personal relationship as a community with HIM.

    The Israelites agreed to make a covenant.

    They agreed to obey all God’s comm ands.

    God then promised to make them;

    i His people

    ii. A kingdom of priests

    iii. A holy nation

    God and Moses.

    God wanted to confirm that Moses was His true prophet.

    He therefore told Moses that He would come in a thick cloud to meet Israelites.

    In preparation for God’s coming on Mt. Sinai

    The Israelites were to:

    I. Make themselves holy by washing their clothes (garments)

    II. Mark the boundaries on the foot of the mountain to prevent any person or animal from climbing the mountain.

    III. To abstain from sexual relations.

    At Mt Sinai, God manifested His presence in the form of thunder, lightening, earthquake and a thick cloud of smoke that covered the whole mountain.

    In addition, there was a loud trumpet blast that made the people tremble.

    Moses climbed the mountain.

    God gave Moses the Ten Commandments after sealing the covenant.

    Sealing of the covenant. The Lord told Moses “Come up the mountain to me, you and Aaron, Nadab, Abibu and 70 of Israel leaders.

    At a distance bow down in worship, and come alone to me.”

    A ceremony was then prepared to seal the covenant. This is how it was sealed:

    a. Moses built an altar at the foot of the mountain.

    b. He set up twelve stones, which represented the twelve tribes of Israel.

    c. He then sent young men to burn sacrifices to the Lord and sacrificed.

    some cattle as fellowship offering and peace offerings to God (EX 24 vs. 5).

    d. Moses took half the blood of animals and poured it in bowls; and the other half he threw against the altar (vs. 6).

    He then took the book of the covenant, and read it aloud to the Israelites who responded by saying “all that the Lord has spoken we will do; and we shall be obedient”

    e. Moses then took the blood in the bowls and sprinkled it over the people; saying “This is the blood that seals the covenant which the Lord made with you when he gave all these commands.”

    Theophany. God’s presence manifested itself in several ways such as:

  • The burning bush (during the call of Moses).

  • Pillar of fire and a pillar of cloud – Exodus story.

  • The mighty wind, earthquake, still small voice – story of Elijah.

  • Thunder, lighting, smoking mountain – Exodus of Israelites from the wilderness.

    These were physical manifestations of God’s presence.

    Breaking the Sinai Covenant (Exodus 32:1 – 35; 34:6 –8)

    Israelites dishonored their pledge to obey God upon sealing the covenant; Moses went back to talk to God in the mountain.

    He left Aaron in charge of Israelites’ affairs.

    He stayed in the mountain for forty days.

    The lord revealed His glory to Moses at Mt. Sinai and declared His character.

    ”The Lord the compassionate and glorious God, slow to anger and forgiving wickedness, rebellion and sin (Ex 34:6 – The Israelites urged Aaron to make them gods that they could see.

    Aaron agreed.

    He melted the rings of gold and moulded a bull calf god.

    Israelites were happy and said “this is our god who took us out of Egypt”.

    They offered burnt offerings and peace offerings to it and indulged themselves in eating, drinking and sex.

    By accepting a bull calf as their god, the Israelites expected bull calf of gold to give them the same strength and fertility like the Egyptian gods.

    Through this act, they broke their covenant with God.

    When Moses came down from the mountain, he found Israelites worshipping the gold bull calf.

    He got annoyed. He threw down the stone tablets he was holding;

    on which the 10 commandments were written.

    Moses then took the golden calf, and burnt it into powder and mixed it with water.

    He then made those worshipping the calf to drink the mixture.

    Moses ordered those who had sinned to be killed.

    Lesson Eight: Renewal of the Covenant (Exodus 34:1 – 14).

    Learning outcomes.

    After studying this lesson, describe conditions for the renewal of the covenant.

    The renewal of the covenant came after Moses pleaded with God not to destroy the Israelites after they broke the covenant.

    God spared the Israelites. God agreed to renew the covenant with the Israelites.

    He gave them several conditions for its renewal.

    Conditions for the renewal of the covenant

    The Israelites were:

    a) To obey God’s commandments

    b) Not to make any treaty with those who lived in the land where they were going.

    c) To break down their altar, smash their sacred stones and cut down their Asherah (Idols).

    Not to worship any other god and not to make idols for worship.

    d) To keep the feast of unleavened bread (Passover).

    e) Not to marry people form other tribes.

    f) To rest on the Sabbath day.

    g) To sacrifice and offer their best produce and animals to God.

    God in turn promised to

    a) Bless them. Protect and preserve the Israelites.

    b) Make them prosper so much that the surrounding nations would enquire about their source of wealth and success.

    With these conditions, the covenant between God and the Israelites was renewed.

    From the making and renewal of the covenant, it is clear that:

    (i) God expected the Israelites to obey and have faith in Him

    (ii) God wanted a personal relationship with Israelites.

    (iii) God is the only one to be worshipped.

    (iv) God is powerful.

    Lesson Nine: Worshiping God in the Wilderness

    Learning outcomes.

    After reading this lesson a. Explain God’s purpose in delivering the Israelites from Egypt

    b. Describe features of worship

    a. God’s purpose in delivering the Israelites from Egypt was to worship and offer sacrifices to Him in the wilderness.

    He also intended to fulfil his promises to Abraham.

    b. Features of worshipping God in the wilderness.

    (i) The Israelites: Worshipped God through intermediaries.

    These were the priests who came from the tribe of Levi.

    (ii) The Israelites: Were guided in their worship and in daily living by the Ten Commandments and other ordinances.

    (iii) The Ark of the Covenant was made in the wilderness. It was God’s dwelling place.

    It was a special box put into the tabernacle. A tabernacle was a portable tent.

    The ark symbolized the presence of God and the Israelites carried it wherever they went.

    (iv) Offerings of farm products or agricultural produce were given to God.

    These included among other farm products; vegetables, flour. Oil and fruits.

    (v) Other offerings to God were drinks, and incense. The offerings could be burnt, baked, boiled or roasted.

    (vi) There were several Sacrifices.

    They included:

  • Burnt offerings (Holocaust) – burning a whole animal completely

  • Sin offering /atonement – sacrifice offered when one had sinned and wanted to have his sins forgiven.

  • Peace offering – part of an animal was offered, while the people ate part of the meat.

  • Gift offering – the best animal was given to God. It was offered as a thanksgiving.

  • Animals such as sheep, goats, bulls and birds were sacrificed to God.

    (vii) Festivals and feasts. Israelites observed several festivals and feasts.

    These included:

  • Feast of Passover and unleavened bread.

  • Harvest festival – feast of weeks or Pentecost.

    It marked the celebration of the harvest of wheat.

  • Feast of gathering / shelters.

    It was celebrated during the season when the Israelites gathered the fruits from the Orchards.

  • Feast of tabernacles that was celebrated to remember when the Israelites dwelt in tents.

  • The Israelites kept the Sabbath day. They worshipped God through singing, worship and dancing.

    Lesson Ten: the Ten Commandments (Exodus. 20: 1 – 17) Learning outcomes.

    After reading this lesson, a. Recite the ten commandments

    b. Apply the ten commandments in your life

    c. Describe Israelites new understanding of the nature of God

    d. Explain to yourself and others the nature of God

    a. The Ten Commandments

    While on Mount Sinai, God gave Moses Ten Commandments written on a stone tablet.

    The first four commandments deal with relationship between man and God.

    God said:

    1. You shall have no other gods but me.

    2. You shall not make yourself a graven image.

    3. You shall not mention Gods’ name in vain.

    4. Remember the Sabbath day and keep it holy.

    The last six commandments give man’s relationship with fellow human beings.

    God said:

    5. Honor you father and mother that your days may be long on earth.

    6. You shall not kill.

    7. You shall not commit adultery.

    8. You shall not steal.

    9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour.

    10. You shall not covet your neighbor’s property.

    These are my thoughts.

    (1) Worshipping God

    (2) Being faithful to God

    (3) Resting

    (4) respecting parental authority

    (5) love humanity

    (6) Be faithful to your wife or husband

    (7) respect other people’s property

    (8) be truthful always

    (9) be satisfied with what God has given you.

    b. Israelites understand the nature of god

    The Israelites had a new and wider revelation about God.

    Besides GOD being a caring, loving, and a provider,

    they learnt that:

    a. God is a jealous God.He does not allow the worship of others gods. He alone should be worshipped.

    b. God does not condone evil. He punishes those who cause/engage in it.

    c. God values a personal relationship with his people.

    d. God wants people to live in harmony among them.

    e. God forgives those who repent. He is loving, merciful and compassionate.

    f. God is a healer – he healed Israelites in the wilderness when a snake attacked them.

    g. God is a God of victory. He defeated the Amalekites, perizzites, and Hittites etc.

    h. God is faithful and can be depended upon.

    i. God is holy, slow to anger, powerful and just.

    j. God demands obedience to His commands.

    Revision questions

    a. What are the qualities of Moses as a leader?

    b (i). Describe the call of Moses (exodus 3:1-22)

    (ii). Why was Moses hesitant to God’s call?

    c (i). What is the significance of the items used for the Passover feast (similar to what is the meaning of the Passover meal)

    (ii). Compare the lord’s supper to the Passover feast

    d. Describe how the Sinai covenant was made

    e. Describe the circumstances that lead to the breaking of the Sinai covenant.

    f. How was the broken covenant renewed?

    g. Describe how the Israelites worshipped God in the wilderness.

    h. What is the relevance of the ten commandments?

    i. What did the Israelites learn about god in the wilderness?

    Topic Five: Leadership in Israel: David and Solomon Learning outcomes.By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

    a. Explain the reasons for and against kingship in Israel.

    b. State king Saul’s achievements, failures and lessons learnt from Saul.

    c. Explain the importance of David as King of Israel and ancestor of Jesus Christ.

    d. Describe the qualities of a good leader drawn from King David’s leadership.

    e. State King Solomon’s achievements and failures.

    f. Explain the importance of the temple in Israel.

    Lesson One: Reasons for and Against Kingship in Israel Introduction

    Yahweh remained the God of Israel and the sovereign ruler of his people.

    Learning outcomes.

    By the end of this lesson, you should

    a. Define leadership.

    b. Name Israel judges in Canaan.

    Leadership refers to the manner in which a community’s way of life is ruled or controlled.

    When Israelites settled in Canaan, Judges ruled them for the first 200 years.

    Some of the judges were

    (i) Othniel,

    (ii) Ehud

    (iii) Samson

    (iv) Deborah

    (v) Gideon

    (vi) Shamgar

    (vii). Samuel

    (viii). Barak

    Duties of judges

    a. Leading Israelites to war against their enemies.

    b. Settling disputes among the people.

    c. Acting as religious leaders and leading Israelites in worship.

    d. Offering sacrifices on behalf of the people.

    e. Some of the judges acted as God’s prophets.

    f. They anointed kings, for example Samuel anointed King David.

    Demands for a King in Israel

    After Israelites settled in Canaan, the Promised Land, they started demanding for an earthly king to rule over them.

    These demands for a king ruler were brought about by:

    i Samuel’s sons Joel and Abijah were corrupt and took bribes.

    The sons of Samuel, who were judges,lacked his good leadership qualities.

    ii The Israelites wanted a warrior king who could lead them to war against their enemies.

    iii The Israelites wanted to be like the other nations around them who had kings.

    iv The Israelites wanted a human leader whom they could see, approach, and talk to him face to face.

    The Israelites wanted security, which could be provided by a stable political government ruled by law and order.

    vi They wanted a government that had a regular army.

    vii They also wanted an established law court system.

    Reasons against Kingship in Israel (Samuel 8:10 – 20)

    By demanding for a king, the Israelites were seen as rejecting Yahweh – their unseen ruler.

    Two, there would be danger of hereditary kingship which would lead to oppression / dictatorship.

    God told Samuel to give Israelites strict warnings against Kingship by explaining how the king would treat them.

    A king would: -

    (a) Recruit Israelites sons forcefully into the army.

    (b) Grab peoples land.

    (c) Force people to pay taxes to the government.

    (d) Turn people into slaves.

    (e) Introduce forced labour.

    (f) Force their daughters to work for his wives, sons, and for the royal house in general.

    The people of Israel were distinct from other nations.

    Asking for a king meant rejecting God as their unseen king.

    Further to this, Israel could become like other nations, which did not worship Yahweh.

    Then the covenant with God and the people of Israel would cease.

    Lesson Two: Achievements and Failures of King Saul (Israel 13:8 – 14; 15:7 – 25)

    Learning outcomes. After reading about King Saul, you should

    a. State his achievements

    b. Identify his failures

    c. Suggest lesson we can learn from his failures

    Samuel was directed by God to choose and anoint Saul as the king of Israel.

    Saul was from the tribe of Benjamin.

    He became the first human king of the nation of Israel. He accomplished several things.

    Successes of King Saul

    1) He was anointed by God; as king to rule the Israelites.

    2) He was chosen even though it was not God’s idea for a king over his people.

    3) He was a great warrior. He led the Israelites to war and defeated their enemies.

    Failures of King Saul

    1) God told Saul through Samuel to destroy the Amalekites completely.

    Saul however disobeyed God. He spared the king and the fat livestock.

    He claimed to have spared the fat animals for sacrifice to God.

    Because of this disobedience, God rejected Saul as king.

    2) The Israelites were faced with many enemies.

    The worst were the Philistines.

    It was a custom for the king of Israel to enquire from God whether to go to the battle or not.

    The priest/prophet gave permission to the king to go to war. When Saul was faced with the dilemma whether to fight or not, Samuel enquired from God.

    Saul did not wait for permission to go to war from Samuel the priest.

    He decided to bypass Samuel by offering a sacrifice to God before going to war.

    This action displeased God because it was not his work to offer sacrifice to God.

    It was the work of priests.

    3) After God rejected Saul as the king of Israel, Samuel was guided by God to go to Bethlehem.

    He was asked to go to the home of Jesse who had eight (8) sons.

    In that home,God was to show Samuel the next king of Israel.

    Samuel would then anoint the chosen son of Jesse.

    Seven of Jesse’s sons were brought before Samuel one by one.

    God told Samuel that he had not chosen any of them.

    When David, a shepherd, was brought before Samuel God said to him ’this is the one – anoint him!” (1 Samuel 16:12).

    David was anointed (poured oil on) as the next king of Israel.

    However he had to wait until Saul died before he could take over kingship.

    4) After Samuel anointed David to become the next king of Israel, Saul was jealous and plotted many times to kill him.

    David was employed to serve Saul. He played the harp, lyre wherever an evil spirit possessed Saul.

    5) When Samuel died; the Philistines gathered to fight Israel. Saul was filled with terror.

    Saul enquired from God whether he should go to war, but did not get an answer.

    Saul disobeyed God by asking a medium (witch) to consult the dead for him.

    This act led to the death of Saul together with his son Jonathan in battle.

    6) Saul was concerned with what people thought of him than pleasing God.

    He wanted to please people and not God.

    He was disobedient with God (1 Samuel 15:24)

    Lessons, which Christians can learn from King Saul’s failures

    1) Value of being patient.

    2) Christian should obey God, follow His commands and not be afraid of people.

    3) Christian should obey religious leaders placed over them by God.

    4) Christian leaders should be humble.

    5) It is against the teachings of God, against the will of God to consult the spirits of the dead through mediums.

    7) Without faith, it is impossible to please God.

    8) God desires sincere worship.

    9) Political leaders should consult and listen to religious leaders.

    10) Christians should not turn against their enemies or rivals.

    They should not plot to have them destroyed and killed.

    Lesson Three: Importance of David (1 Samuel 16: 1 – 23, 2 Samuel 6:1 – 15)

    Learning outcomes. After reading about King David, you should

    a. State his importance to God and the Israelites

    b. Analyse achievements and failures of King David

    c. Trace David lineage up to Jesus Christ

    d. Narrate fulfillment of the promises to David in the New Testament

    e. Give reasons why God rejected David’s offer to build him a temple

    David took over kingship of Israel though some people resisted his rule.

    At first he ruled the house of Judah.

    Later on the other tribes rallied behind him.

    Importance of King David

    David became king after the death of Saul.

    He ruled for over 40 years as king of Judah and Israel.

    Achievements of David

    1) He was a brilliant military commander.

    2) He captured the old fortress of Jerusalem from the Jebusites and made it his capital city.

    3) He removed the ark of covenant from the house of Abinadab in Shiloh and brought it to Jerusalem.

    4) He expressed great faith in God. Through his faith in God, he was able to kill Goliath, the great Philistine warrior.

    5) He was a skilled musician and composed marry psalms that were used and are still being used in temple and church worship.

    7) He expanded the geographical boundaries of Israel through conquests.

    8) He was a great diplomat and established good political relations with the neighboring kings.

    9) He was a shrewd administrator who chose wise elders and counselors to advice him.

    10) God promised to establish an everlasting kingdom for David.

    11) David ruled over Israel, administering law and justice to all people.

    12) He took a census of the Israelites and used the information to

    (a) recruit young men into military service and

    (2) decide on the policy of taxation.

    13) David had remarkable leadership qualities. He was kind. He spared mephibosheth, Saul’s grandson.

    14) David was humble. He was ready to accept sins he had committed and repent e.g. he repented after committing adultery with Bathsheba.

    David as an ancestor of Jesus Christ (2 Samuel 1 – 29, LK 1:26 – 33)

    David intended to build a splendid temple for God in Jerusalem. He felt it was not fair for the Ark of the Covenant to continue dwelling in a tent while he himself lived in a magnificent palace.

    To achieve this goal, David consulted Nathan, the prophet on whether to build the temple.

    The prophet approved the idea.

    But that night, Nathan received a revelation form God that stated that David was not to build a house (temple) for God.

    David’s son would build the temple of God (2 Samuel 7:5 – 6). Prophet Nathan gave David God’s message to David.

    The message was that

    a) His son will build the temple

    b) God would give David’s descendants a place to settle

    c) God promised to raise up an heir from the house of David to sit on the throne

    d) God promised to make David’s name great or famous among all other leaders of the earth.

    Reasons why God rejected David’s offer to build him a temple

    Here are some of the reasons:

    a. David had been involved in a lot of wars with the Israelites’ enemies and had thus shed a lot of blood.

    b. God was a God of the people and could not be confined to a house.

    c. It was the will of God to establish the house of David (build David a house) rather than David builds a house for him (God). The human body is the temple of God. God dwells in the hearts of people.

    d. David had grown old. God wanted him to rest.

    e. God had planned that David’s son would build a house for him – a place to house the Ark of the Covenant.

    King Solomon, David’s son built the temple and fulfilled.

    God’s promises to David. Solomon’s rule was peaceful and prosperous.

    The New Testament is a fulfillment of God’s promises to David

    1) The gospel writers tell us that Jesus was born in the family of David (Luke 1:26 – 27)

    2) The angel of God during the annunciation of the birth of Jesus said that He will be like his ancestor David (Luke 1:32 – 33)

    3) Jesus was born in Bethlehem which was also the birthplace of David (Luke 2:4)

    4) Bartimaeus the blind man of Jericho hailed Jesus as the son of David.

    5) During his triumphal entry to Jerusalem, Jesus was hailed by the crowd as the messiah descended from David.

    6) In his genealogy, saint Mathew says that Jesus was a descendant of David (Matt.1: 1)

    Failures of King David.

    Although David had many virtues:

    1) He ordered Uriah to be placed at the battle forefront so that he can be killed.

    2) Uriah was the husband of Bathsheba. David had committed adultery with her.

    3) He took Bathsheba as his wife.

    Lesson Four: Leadership of King David

    Lesson outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should assess leadership qualities demonstrated by king David

    David showed

    1) Courage and bravery.

    David was courageous and brave. Modern leaders should be ready to die with and for their subjects.

    2) Gratitude

    Thankful and grateful. David always thanked God for any success or favors he received.

    Good leaders should be thankful and grateful to God as well as to their fellow human beings.

    3) Loyalty.

    David was loyal to God and to the Israelites. A good leader should be loyal, and never betray his people.

    4) Justice.

    David administered justice to all his subjects without favoring anyone. No tribalism or nepotism.

    A leader should be fair to all (2 Samuel 8:15).

    5) God – fearing

    Having faith. David was God fearing. He expressed his total trust in God. Modern leaders need to emulate this quality.

    6) Humility.

    A leader should be a humble person. Though David had been appointed as the king, he continued to serve Saul until Saul died. He accepted his failures and asked for forgiveness.

    7) Kind.

    David was a kind leader. Leaders should be kind. David spared the life of Saul twice yet Saul wanted to kill him.

    8)Wisdom.

    David was careful when choosing legal advisors to assist him in his rule. He was also wise.

    He reduced tribal jealousies by choosing Jerusalem; a neutral spot for administrative purposes.

    9) Delegation

    – A shrewd administrator. A good elder should be able to delegate duties. David delegated duties.

    He involved others in advising, and administering

    Lesson Five: Achievements and Failures of King Solomon (1 King 3 – 12)

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should:

    a. Analyse achievements of king Solomon

    b. State failures of king Solomon

    After David died, his son Solomon became the next king.

    Kingship in Israel was hereditary.

    Solomon was chosen by David to be his successor.

    He took over from David at a time of peace and security established by David.

    Achievements

    1) He made Israel rich by establishing trade with other countries

    2) He was a good trader and a successful merchant. He traded in copper, horses, timber, silver and gold.

    He established international trade with the neighboring countries.

    For example, he traded with Tyre in cedar and pine logs.

    3) He established a well equipped large army for Israel

    4) He was a builder. He built a magnificent temple for God in line with God’s promise to David.

    He also constructed other cities (Megiddo) and a palace for himself.

    5) He is remembered for his amazing administrative skills.

    He had 550 officials in charge of labour force.

    6) He was a diplomatic ruler. He established friendly ties with his neighbours.

    This ensured continued peace. For instance he married the daughters of the kings of Egypt, Moab,Eden and Sidon so as to establish strong ties with those nations.

    7) He had great wisdom. He judged a difficult case between two women who were claiming ownership of the same child.

    He composed many wise sayings known as the proverbs of Solomon. He also composed songs like Song of Solomon and Song of Songs and poems in Ecclesiastes.

    9) He dedicated the temple of God with great rejoicing.

    10) He brought the Ark of the Covenant to the temple of Jerusalem.

    Failures of King Solomon

    1) He married women from many foreign countries.

    These actions made Solomon break the Torah as Israelites were not supposed to marry foreigners.

    Through these marriages, idol worship started in Israel.

    This was because he allowed his wives to worship their gods, build temples and altars for them.

    This led to introduction of idolatry in Israel.

    2) Solomon constructed his palace for 13 years. He then built God’s temple for 7 years.

    This showed that he probably loved himself more than God.

    3) He killed his own half brother Adonija on suspicion that he could be a rival to the throne.

    4) Solomon lived lavishly, and expensively. He thus burdened the Israelites with high taxes.

    5) He used forced labour. This was the same as enslaving the Israelites.

    6) He worshipped idols. Solomon’s heart was turned to such other gods as Ashtoreth / ashitarte – goddess of Sidon and Molech – the god of the Ammonites. This was breaking God’s commandments.

    7) He sold part of Israelite territory to the king of Tyre He used pagan skills when designing, decorating, and furnishing the temple.

    9) He made treaties with other nations inspite of the fact that God had forbidden Israel from making treaties.

    10) He was extravagant. He used a lot of state wealth to entertain and please his many wives and concubines.

    Activity

    . Many husbands in Kenya practice polygamy. I want you to find out from your neighbours what are the advantages and disadvantages of polygamy.

    Then write a paper arguing either for polygamy or monogamy.

    Lesson Six: Importance of the Temple in Israel

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should

    a) Define a temple

    b) State the importance of the temple to Israelites.

    Definition of a temple

    This is a building dedicated to the worship of God. Solomon built the temple as a fulfillment of the promises that God gave to David, that his son would build a house for him.

    Importance and uses of a temple

    1) It was a centre of worship. Prayers and sacrifices were offered to God from the temple.

    2) It symbolized the presence of God among the Israelites.

    3) The Ark of the Covenant was kept in the temple as a symbol of God’s presence among his people.

    4) The temple acted as a symbol of unity in Israel. Every year all the Israelites had to go to Jerusalem to celebrate such feasts as the Passover, feast of tabernacles’ day of atonement. This led to the unity of the Israelites.

    5) Dedication of children and purification were done in the temple.

    6) It was a residence for the priest.

    7) It was a business centre where people bought and sold animals needed for sacrifice.

    The temple acted as a school to the scribes, rabbis and others who studied and interpreted the Mosaic Law.

    9) The temple also acted as the judicial court of Israel. Judges worked from the temple.

    10) It is where religious ceremonies like naming and circumcision of baby boys took place.

    11) It was a house of prayer.

    Revision questions

    a. Explain the reasons against kingship in Israel 1 Sam 8: 10-20

    b. Explain the importance of David as king of Israel

    c. How did Jesus fulfil the prophecies of prophet Nathan as a descendant of David? (i.e. areas where Jesus is mentioned as coming from David)

    d. What are the failures of king Solomon?

    e. Which leadership qualities can modern leaders learn from David?

    Topic Six: Loyalty to God – Elijah Lesson One: Effects of Idolatry in Israel Introduction

    After the death of Solomon, the kingdom of Israel split into two countries. the southern kingdom called Judah ruled by King Rehoboam and the Northern kingdom called Israel led by King Jeroboam.

    Other kings who ruled these two nations were King Abijah, King Asa of Judah, and king Nadab, Baasha, Elah,Zimri, Omri, and Ahab of Israel. During the time of Elijah king Ahab ruled – Israel.

    Learning outcomes. After studying this lesson on idolatry, you should

    a. State factors that led to spread of idolatry in Israel

    b. Analyse religious schism between Judah and Israel

    c. Describe King Ahab’s marriage to the Phoenician princess (Tyre)

    d. Explain the failure to completely destroy temples, and places of worship

    e. State effects of idolatry in Israel

    a. Factors that led to spread of idolatry in Israel

    When Israelites intermarried with other communities, they worshipped their gods.

    The Bible makes it clear that

    i There was a lot of influence by Canaanite religion

    ii There was division /schism of Israel into 2 kingdoms

    iii Ahab’s married the Phoenician princess

    iv Israelites did not destroy all gods after settling in Canaan. Influence of the local Canaanite religion Idolatry is the worship of idols.

    An idol is an image representing a god made using precious materials such as gold, bronze, stone, and hardwood images kept in the places of worship.

    God had forbidden Israelites from bowing down to images and worshipping idols, intermarrying with non-Israelites, and making treaties.

    When Israelites settled in Canaan, they forgot God’s commandments.

    They intermarried and were greatly influenced by the local religion. Israelites changed from being pastoralist to farmers.

    They therefore worshipped Baal the god of rain,agricultural fertility, and storms. Israelites worshipped Baal, for rain for their crops.

    The Israelites were also attracted to the visible gods of Canaan as opposed to the invisible Yahweh.

    This is how idolatry spread in Israel.

    However some Israelites maintained worship of Yahweh only (monotheistic) while others worshipped Yahweh and Baal (syncretism).

    Characteristics of the Canaanite religion.

    Canaanite religion was:

    1. Polytheistic.

    They worshipped many gods.The Israelites religion was monotheistic. They worshipped Yahweh and no other God. They abandoned their religion and worshipped many gods like Canaanite.This influenced the Israelites.

    2. A nature religion.

    The gods were related with the forces of nature such as rain, sun, storms, drought,famine, wind, water and death.

    3. Ensured continued fertility of land, people, animals

    4. Based on many families of gods.

    There was

    a. EL – Chief god – who was their father, king, creator

    b. Asherah – wife of El – the goddess of motherhood and fertility

    c. Baal – also referred to as Baal Hadad, son of El and Asherah – the god of rain, agricultural fertility,storms

    d. Astarte – wife of Baal -the goddess of war

    e. Anat – sister of Baal – the goddess of war and love

    f. Maat – the goddess of love

    g. Mot – most feared. The god of drought, famine and death

    5. Free and temple of prostitution. Israelites turned to temple prostitution.

    Women who wanted to increase vitality of their husbands had sexual relations with the male priests in the Baal temples.

    6. Had many places of worship. One could pray in the temple, under sacred trees, and on top of the hills among others.

    7. Based on offerings and sacrifices of human beings.

    Exercise. State differences between Israel and Canaanite religion.

    b. Religious schism between Judah and Israel

    Schism occurred among the Israelites because there were sharp differences within them.

    These differences were religious, political and social. After the death of Solomon, the nation of Israel was split.

    Rehoboam ruled one group while the other was ruled by Jeroboam.

    Because of this split, Jeroboam could not go to Jerusalem to worship in the temple. He thus set up other places of worship one at Bethel, and another at Dan. Jeroboam also set up images to represent Yahweh.

    Though he had no intention of Idol worship, it turned out to be so because he made his subjects to offer sacrifices to these golden calves, which he had designed as images representing Yahweh.

    He also built places of worship on hilltops like the Canaanites.

    He chose priests from other families in addition to the Levite Family.

    Furthermore, he organised religious festivals and feasts in the month of his choice.

    As it were, they coincided with the Canaanites calendars.

    He then burnt incense at the altar of idols.

    Jeroboam therefore started idol worship and gave room for idolatry.

    Kings who succeeded him followed this idol worship.

    c. King Ahab’s marriage to the Phoenician/Tyre princess

    Ahab married Jezebel, the daughter of the King Ethbaal of Sidon (Tyre) to strengthen ties with Tyre/Phoenicia.

    Queen Jezebel was ambitious, and a strong follower of Baal religion.

    Ahab allowed her to bring her gods to Israel.

    She forced Israelites to worship Baal and not Yahweh.

    She imported prophets of Baal and supported them using public treasury.

    Ahab built a temple to Baal In Samaria.

    He also put up an image of goddess – Asherah. d.

    When Israelites settled in Canaan, they did not destroy temples, places of worship, idols, images that they found there.

    As a result Canaanite’s religious practices influenced Israelites’ worship of Yahweh leading to idolatry.

    The effects of idolatry harmed Israelites as:

    1) Syncretism developed. This was a process of mixing beliefs andbpractices from different religions.

    Israelites worshipped Yahweh and the gods of Canaan.

    2) Former places of worship for the Canaanite gods were used as places of worship for Yahweh.

    3) The Canaanite agricultural calendar was adopted by Israelites.

    4) Names of the Canaanite gods were used for Yahweh. For example, EL was referred to as Yahweh.

    5) Parents began naming their children after Baal.

    6) Feasts and celebrations were changed to correspond with those of Canaanites when they celebrated their feasts.

    7) King Ahab declared worship of Baal as the state religion.

    8) Queen Jezebel ordered the destruction of the altars of Yahweh

    9) Prophets of Yahweh were killed. Elijah went into hiding.

    10) The 450 prophets of Baal were made the officials of the royal court in order to promote and protect Baal religion

    11) Israel started to experience long droughts because Yahweh withdrew his blessings.

    This made Israel worshippers of El

    Lesson Two: Elijah’s Fight Against Corruption and False Religion in Israel

    Learning outcomes. After studying Elijah, you should

    a. Describe the contest at Mount Carmel

    b. Explain how Elijah fought against corruption

    c. Explain the relationship between Ahab and Naboth

    d. Describe God’s sentence to Ahab.

    e. Relate Elijah’s encounter with Yahweh at Mt. Horeb

    f. Identify forms of corruption

    a) The contest at Mount Carmel (1 King 18:17 – 46).

    Carmel refers to the vineyard of the Lord.

    King Ahab brought trouble to Israel because of worshipping the idols of Baal. Elijah told Ahab that the problemsIsrael was facing were due to worship of Baal, The decision.

    Elijah requested king Ahab to call a meeting at Mt Carmel.

    In attendance would be all Israelites, 450 prophets of Baal, and 400 prophets of the goddess Asherah who were supported by Queen Jezebel and Elijah.

    Elijah told Israelites it was decision time.

    They had to choose their God. Would it be Yahweh, the God of Israel or Baal the god of Jezebel of Phoenician/Tyre. If it was to be Baal, then they were told to follow him, if they select Yahweh as their God then they were to follow him (1kings 18 vs. 21).

    The choice.

    Elijah proposed a contest between him and Baal prophets.

    He asked for two bulls one for him, the other for 450 prophets of Baal.

    The contest was who can light fire? Yahweh or Baal? He proposed that Baal prophets and himself be given each a bullock.

    Both shall cut the bull into pieces and put them on wood without lighting fire.

    The Baal prophets shall pray to their god and Elijah shall pray to the Lord.

    The one who sends fire to consume the sacrifices .. he is God. The people of Israel accepted Elijah’s proposal.

    Actions.

    The prophets of Baal prayed first because they were many. They took the bull, prepared it and prayed to Baal until noon (vs. 26).

    They prayed louder, and cut themselves with knives and daggers; but there were no answer.

    The prophets of Baal kept on ranting and raving until evening but there was no answer (vs. 29).

    Elijah asked people to gather near him.

    He prepared the altar of the Lord to repair work. He took 12 stones representing the 12 tribes of Israel (who were named after the 12 sons of Jacob or Israel) and used them to rebuild the altar.

    He then dug a trench around the altar.

    This trench could hold 14 litres of water.

    He placed the wood on the altar; cut the bull into pieces and laid them on the wood.

    He asked for four barrels of water and poured it on the offering and wood.

    He poured water on the altar three times until the water overflowed, run around the altar and filled the trenches.

    Elijah then called on the Lord “O Lord, the God of Abraham, …prove now that you are the God of Israel and that am your servant and have done all this at your command” (vs. 29).

    The Lord sent fire down and it burnt up the sacrifice, wood, stones, and dust and licked up the water that was in the trench. When people saw this, they proclaimed ‘The Lord, is God; the Lord alone is God”.

    Elijah asked people to arrest the prophets of Baal, led them down to the river Kishon and killed them.

    And after this there was rain in Israel (vs.40).

    Lessons learnt from Mt. Carmel.

    Israelites acknowledged that Yahweh is:

    i Is their only God and that Baal was not God

    ii Is powerful

    iii Is a merciful God

    iv Is a jealous God as He will have no other gods but him

    v Is a God of justice who punishes idolaters and sinners

    vi Answers prayer

    vii Is a forgiving true God

    viii Protects his servants

    b) Elijah’s fight against corruption (1 Kings 21: 1 – 29)

    Corruption is defined as dishonesty.

    It’s a form of injustice when dealing with either an individual or the community for selfish gain and benefit.

    In a corrupt society people in leadership or with wealth take advantage of the weak, and the poor.

    The powerful exploit the poor and the powerless by denying them their rights. An example of corruption in Israel is the story of the Naboth’s Vineyard.

    Naboth’s vineyard. Ahab wanted Naboth to either sell to him his vineyard or exchange it with another vineyard.

    Naboth refused to sell his inheritance. Jezebel, on seeing that Ahab was sorrowful told him that she will get him Naboth’s vineyard.

    Jezebel sent out letters in Ahab’s name to the elders of the city.

    She found two witnesses who could bear witness that Naboth had blasphemed God and king Ahab. Witnesses testified that Naboth had blasphemed God. He was stoned to death.

    God then sent Elijah to meet with Ahab as he went to possess the vineyard of Naboth.

    God’s sentence to Ahab.

    God pronounced to Ahab through Elijah that (1) dogs shall lick his own blood from the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth

    (2) His sons shall be killed

    (3) Dogs shall eat Jezebel by the wall of Jezreel

    (4) Evil shall be brought upon Ahab’s house.

    This was because Ahab had broken these commandments:

  • The 6th commandment – which forbids murder

  • The 9th commandment which forbids bearing of false witness.

    Ahab allowed his wife to bear false witness against Naboth.

  • 10th Commandments – you shall not covet your neighbor’s property.

    Elijah’s encounter with Yahweh at Mt. Horeb (Mr. Sinai) 1 Kings 19 After killing the prophets of Baal, Elijah was threatened by Jezebel.

    She vowed to kill him.

    Elijah ran away to the wilderness.

    The angel of God fed him with a loaf of bread and a jar of water.

    After eating and drinking Elijah walked to Mt. Sinai – the holy mountain of God.

    He stayed there for 40 days and 40 nights. In the mountain God appeared to him.

    There was a strong wind, an earthquake, a fire but the Lord was not in them. Then the lord spoke to Elijah in a still small voice.

    God told Elijah “ return and anoint Hazael as king of Syria, Jehu as king of Israel, and anoint Elisha as a prophet and your successor. Self-assessment question.

    How can Christians help reduce corruption in Kenya?

    Answer

    First is to recognize the various forms of corruption like: tribalism,bribery, cheating in business, stealing, misuse of public funds, grabbing public land, robbery with violence and dishonesty Self-assessment question.

    How can Christians fight corruption? Christians can fight corruption by:

    a). Employing life skills

    a) Applying their critical thinking.

    This is the ability to make appropriate decisions; by weighing in the consequences of actions before taking decisions.

    b) Creative thinking and being imaginative.

    This is the ability to explore new ways of handling issues.

    c) Decision making

    which is the ability to make the right choices.

    d)Assertiveness. This is the ability to express ones opinion with confidence.

    e) Praying for the corrupt to change their behaviour.

    f) Setting a good example by acting as a good role model.

    g) Educating people on the evils of corruption.

    h) Reporting those who are engaged in corrupt dealings / practices to the relevant authorities.

    i) Obeying the laws of the society /country.

    Voting for morally upright leaders.

    Lesson Three: Reasons Why Elijah Faced Danger and Hostility as a Prophet of God

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you shall

    a. Explain why Elijah, faced hostility

    b. Show relevance of Elijah’s prophetic mission to Christianity today

    It’s not easy for a person to oppose the government and its policies.

    The person normally faces danger and hatred.

    Elijah faced hostility from King Ahab, his wife Jezebel and the 450 prophets of Baal.

    Elijah faced hostility because a. He pronounced a three years drought in Israel, which brought sufferings.

    b. He put to death 450 prophets of Baal.

    c. He boldly condemned king Ahab for taking away Naboth’s vineyard.

    d. He preached at a time when there was idolatry, and Baal was the official religion in Israel.

    e. He identified himself with Yahweh in the midst of prosecution of God’s prophets by Jezebel.

    Relevance of Elijah’s prophetic mission to Christians today Lessons Christians learn from the life of Elijah

    1) Elijah was courageous. Church leaders should remain courageous and condemn any form of social injustice.

    2) Modern Christians learn to remain faithful to God through word and deed even if it would cost them their lives.

    3) As God helped Elijah in difficult times he will also help the Christians hence they should not despair.

    4) Elijah was a man of prayer Christians should pray to God always.

    5) Christians should advocate for the rights of the poor and speak out against any form of oppression.

    6) Christians should not give false evidence against their neighbours.

    7) Christians should be persistent like Elijah was in their struggle against injustice.

    God communicated with Elijah in a still small voice indicating his intimacy with the prophet.

    This means that God is able to establish an intimate relationship with his faithful.

    Review questions

    a) Describe the qualities of Elijah that led to his achievements

    b) What is schism and syncretism

    c) What are some of the characteristics of Elijah that a modern Christian should strive to emulate?

    d) What are the effects of idolatry in Israel today?

    e) Describe Elijah’s fight against false religion in Israel

    f) Describe Elijah’s fight against corruption 1 kings 21

    g) What can Christians learn from the teachings of Elijah?

    Topic Seven: Selected Aspects of African Religious Heritage. Introduction

    All Traditional African Communities believe in a Supreme Being who is the origin and sustainer of all things:

    He is the creator of the university and all that it contains.

    All Africans agree that nobody has ever seen God.

    Therefore, nobody can really describe Him, yet through their religious insights, Africans have formulated ideal about the nature of God.

    These ideas concern His real being and His activities. “Traditional religion” refers to African culture that existed in the sub – Saharan Africa.

    African traditional culture had no scriptures or texts because most of it was oral.

    It was preserved and handed down from generation to generation-through oral traditions; ceremonies; rituals, and leading personalities.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to

    a) Explain and appreciate the African concept of God spirits and ancestors

    b) Identify attributes of God

    c) Explain the African understanding of the hierarchy of beings

    d) Describe the role of God, spirits and ancestors

    e) Explain the responsibilities of the living towards God, spirits and ancestors

    f) Describe the traditional African way of worshipping God, venerating and communicating with the ancestors and spirits.

    Lesson One: African Concept of God, Spirits and Ancestors

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should

    a. Describe the African concept of his/her religion

    b. State attributes of God

    c. Draw a diagram showing hierarchy of beings

    Africans believed in existence of a supreme being who lived in mountains, clouds and the sky. God was the creator of the universe.

    In African traditions, religion was integrated in every aspect of life and daily activities.

    For example, farming activities involved God, spirits and ancestors. People would pray to God,spirits ancestors so as to ask for blessings in order to have a good harvest.

    Livestock keepers believed that fertility of their animals is a result of the blessings of God.

    If God was appeased, animals would increase.

    Natural phenomena such as thunder, lightning, rain; good harvest, and birth were linked to the Supreme Being and the invisible world.

    If there were calamities such as drought, disease, famine, and death, it was an indication that God, spirits and ancestors were displeased with humankind. Many communities have invocations uttered through out the day Nature or Attributes of god God is described with many names, which are God’s attributes.

    These are among others:

    a) God is Good

    – Nearly all-African communities describe God as being good to all people and things.

    He gives rain, sunshine and life among many other gifts.

    b) God is merciful.

    The Akamba refer to God as “God of pity”, the‘merciful one’.

    God shows mercy in times of danger, illness, difficulty or anxiety.

    c) God is holy.

    He is pure, holy and does not make mistakes. Yoruba call him God who is pure, without blemish.

    The Kikuyu say God is “Possessor of whiteness” and the Bukusu – ‘master whitewash’. African traditions all approach God with reverence, fear, respect and honor.

    For example when offering sacrifices, they would offer a one-colour animal either white, black, or brown and not a spotted animal.

    d) God is powerful i.e.

    Omnipotent. God is described as almighty. His power is expressed in natural occurrences like thunder, lighting, earthquakes, rains, and floods.

    e) God is all knowing (Omniscient).

    God knew all things; nothing can be hidden from him. He discerns hearts.

    f) God is all present (Omnipresent).

    He is present everywhere in the universe.

    g) God is limitless.

    God has no limit. He is both very far and very near, beyond and within.

    h) God is transcendent.

    God cannot be exhausted by human imagination. He is unexplainable, beyond human experience and understanding.

    i) God is all understanding

    j) God is self existent

    .He made all things but he himself is not made. He exists on his own. Zulu explain that God is ‘he who is of himself.

    k) God is a spirit He is invisible, and everlasting.

    . Shilluk of Sudan refer to him as ‘great spirit’ ‘the formless spirit.

    l) God is everlasting.

    God is eternal, never changes, and never dies. The Yoruba call him ”the mighty immovable rock that never dies.

    m) God is God created the creator .

    The world Kikuyu call him “Mumbi”

    n) God is just. Kikuyu refer to God as “Mugai” meaning “divider”. ‘One who shares out’.

    God judges fairly, punishes those who do wrong and rewards the good with blessings.

    o) God is the provider.

    All communities acknowledge that God provides them with everything they have.

    Africans built representation of the power of God.

    They identified sites, places and things that represented the presence and power of God.

    For example things like big trees, thick forest, high mountains, unique rock formations and large rivers and animals. In these places they built sites, and shrines.

    Shrines were regarded as holy and people approached them with reverence Spirits.

    They were believed to exist between God and human beings in the universe.

    Spirits were diverse and created by God.

    Some spirits were dead human beings. Spirits were divided into nature, sky, earth and human spirits that were either long dead (ghosts) or recently dead (ancestors).

    There were different types of spirits. These were:

    a. Divinities.

    These are spirits created by God. They are close to God and act as his agents.

    They are in charge of natural phenomena like the sun, moon and stars. They are intermediaries between God and ancestral spirits, human beings and other creatures.

    They reveal God’s plans through diviners and mediums.

    b. Human spirits / common spirits.

    These are inferior to divinities but higher than human kind.

    They are remains of human beings after their death. These spirits monitor human activities.

    Human spirits have lost their names and are not longer remembered by the living.

    They are believed to live in the under world, undergrounds, in thick bushes, forests, rivers, mountains, lakes, skies, and caves among other places.

    These spirits can bring harm to the living if disrespected.

    They appear to people in dreams or in form of shadows.

    They can also enter or possess a person and cause abnormalities.

    3. Ancestors / living dead

    These are spirits of the recently dead. They are remembered by the living when children are named after them.

    They are actively involved in the lives and activities of the living.

    Their offerings (food or drink) are poured on the ground for them to receive.

    Ancestors are in a period of transition between the living and the higher categories.

    They are believed to know the problems of the living and therefore consulted constantly.

    They are also associated with evil such as revenge for burying them without honor, or not following the instructions they gave before they died or failing to pour them libations.

    When they are happy with the living, they are a source of blessings.

    Ancestors who did evil things or committed suicide are forgotten and ignored.

    Hierarchy of beings.

    Hierarchy means the order or ranking from the highest to the lowest of created beings.

    At the top is Divinities

  • Ancestors
  • Human Beings
  • Animals and Plants
  • Non-living Things

    Lesson Two: the Role of God, Spirits and Ancestors

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson: -

    a. Write a description of God from an African perspective

    God is the creator.

    The Akamba community believed that God whom they called Mulungu created man and woman.

    He then tossed them to the earth. The Luhya claim God created them from the black topsoil hence their skin complexion.

    God is the source of life and giver of life.

    Barren women pray to God to ask for children. Human beings depend on God for life, rain, air, and sunshine.

    God is the provider.

    He gave domestic animals to human beings for their use.

    Domestic animals have many uses such as repayment of dowry, food, and sacrifices to God,payment of a fine by an offender.

    Many wild animals are used in folk songs and tales to discourage cowardice, and laziness God is a protector of human beings from evil.

    God is the giver of moral laws and a judge of people

    God offers solutions to man’s problems through mediums, and prophets

    God gives power to the specialists such as medicine men, women and priests.

    God punishes people for wrong doing

    Wild animals such as hyena are used in folk stories to discourage cowardice. Stories of tortoise illustrate the importance of being slow but sure.

    Snakes in some communities such as the Luhya were not killed.

    The community believed snakes were immortal ancestors coming to visit the living.

    Plants were used as food for people and animals.

    Trees were used for fuel and building materials. Some trees were used as sacred places of worship.

    Non-living things such as the rain, rocks, and rivers had a religious importance.

    Rain is seen as a blessing from God. When rain fails, diviner/rain maker was consulted.

    Rocks, and mountains were believed to be dwelling places for the living, the dead and the spirits.

    The spirits were viewed as neither good nor evil.

    Human beings feared them.

    Their roles were many.

    They;

    i Appeared in dreams especially to diviners, priests, medicine men and women, and rain makers to relay information.

    ii Were consulted by religious specialists to find the cause of a problem in a given situation.

    iii Were bad (naughty) spirits, which disturbed people. African communities believed that bad sprits could call out one’s name but on turning there’s no one. iv Were manipulated by some human beings to cause harm to others.

    v Relayed God’s messages to human beings.

    vi Sometimes possessed a person causing the person to be sent away from the village to the forest, or away from home.

    vii Acted as intermediaries between humans,’ divinities and God.

    Role of ancestors is to: -

    1) Appear to families in dreams, and visions.

    2) Give family instructions i.e. what should be done.

    3) Rebuke those who fail to honor them and warn them of impending punishment.

    4) Act as mediators between the living and God.

    5) Enquire about family affairs as they considered as members of the family.

    6) Request for sacrifice of an animal which is slaughtered for them

    7) Cause illness or mental disturbance to members of a family if they are disregarded or disobeyed.

    8) Preserve the culture of a community

    9) Welcome those who die to the spirit world.

    Lesson Three: Responsibility of the Living Towards God, Spirits, and Ancestors

    Learning outcome. After studying this lesson, you should

    a. State responsibilities of the living to God, spirits, and ancestors.

    b. Explain the various forms of worship.

    Responsibilities of living include

    Human beings are expected to worship God, spirits and ancestors and show

    (i) reverence and respect or veneration to God.

    They are also expected to

    (i) pray

    (ii) sing and

    (iii) dance.

    Worship. This is our major responsibility as God expects us to meet and communicate with the spiritual world and God.

    There are several ways of worshipping God.

    These include among others:

    (a) Sacrifices and offerings.

    Sacrifices include shedding of blood of animals and birds.

    Offerings are in the form of foodstuffs, milk, water and honey.

    God was worshipped because He is recognized as the absolute owner of life and property.

    We also worship God in order to

    (i) invoke Him for special blessings

    (ii) thank Him

    (iii) express our personal fellowship and communion with God

    (iv) avert or prevent evil.

    Evils bring about epidemics, famine, floods, and drought.

    (b) Singing and dancing.

    Africans worshipped God through singing, dancing, clapping of hands,drumming, and use of musical instruments.

    (c)Prayers, invocations and blessings.

    Prayers were accompanied with sacrifices or offerings. Community leaders prayed to God, spirits and ancestors.

    (d) Invocations are shortened form of prayers e.g.

    “Help me oh God” ‘Oh great God”. These are prayers at the spur of the moment. They are few words full of meaning and calling for help form God.

    (e) Formal blessings.

    An elder or older person gave blessings. It is believed that the person blessing the other one is doing so on behalf of God.

    (f) Venerations.

    Africans treated their ancestors with great respect and honor.

    They for example worshiped ancestors daily.

    Worshipping included placing food or pouring libation of beer, milk, water and honey for the spirits.

    As this act was done, they uttered words to accompany the offerings. Libations were done daily by some communities.

    (g). Ancestors were honored by:

  • Mentioning their names at prayers was offered to God.

  • Naming children after them.

  • Inviting them to participate in family ceremonies and rituals. For example during birth, and initiation.

  • Maintaining their graves well.

  • Giving the dead a decent burial.

    Communication with spirits

    Diviners and mediums talk with ‘spirits”. To do so, they sit quietly in a place; singing, dancing and clapping their hands. As they dance, sit and sing, diviners lose their senses and get possessed by the spirit.

    The spirits speak give them messages for individuals and communities.

    Spirits communicate on issues such as

    (i) lost property

    (ii) revealing by name the enemy in the society

    (iii) making demands on the living

    (iv) giving advice

    (v) giving warnings on impending danger and

    (vi) making promises to bless a family or clan.

    Spirits that possess mediums are not harmful.

    There are bad evil spirits harmful to people whom they possess. Some evil spirits cut themselves; others throw themselves into a fire, river, and lake.

    Revision questions

    a) Explain African beliefs about god ( or qualities)

    b) Describe the African understanding of the hierarchy of being

    c) Describe the role of the ancestors to the living

    d) What was the responsibility of the living towards God?

    e) Describe the T.A. ways of worshipping God.

    Topic Eight: African Moral and Cultural Values Learning Outcomes:By the end of the topic, you should be able to

    a Explain the meaning of life and its wholeness in the traditional African society

    b Explain the African concept of community and kingship system

    c Outline the factors contributing to harmony and mutual responsibility in the African communities

    d Describe rites of passage and their role inculcating moral values in the traditional African society

    e Explain the role of religious specialist and their relevance in modern society

    f Explain the African moral values

    g Discuss and evaluate continuity and change in the African understanding of leisure, dress, old age, widows, orphans, dowry, community, land, medicine, worship and property.

    Lesson One: Meaning of Life and Its Wholeness in the Traditional African Society

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to:-

    1. Describe the meaning and wholeness of life in the traditional African society

    2. Describe the African understanding of a community Life originates from God and it progress from one stage to another with a certain rhythm each person has to follow. Each stage of life is marked by rites of passage. Life is continuous and unending.

    Each person is expected to value life and to be responsible. Life involves sharing.

    It is immoral to be greedy and self centred. People are to be hospitable, warm and caring toward other people.

    Unity and harmony are to be upheld.

    Life is viewed as whole only if a person went through all the stages or rites of passage Life was propagated through bearing children.

    Life cannot be divided into religious and secular.

    Every element of life has a religious meaning.

    Life is communal.

    Life was celebrated at every stage.

    Everyone depends on others. Labour was divided. There were duties for men, children and women.

    In African traditional society, human life is precious.

    Murder was condemned harshly.

    Suicide was considered the worst thing anyone could do.

    It was seen as a curse on the family.

    If one died at childhood, it was regarded as abortion. Death did not mark the end of life.

    Death is referred to as ‘saying goodbye to food”, “sleeping,” “going home”, “being called by the ancestors”.

    African concept of a community

    A community is a group of people who share a common language, religion, and culture and may live in the same geographical location.

    This group of people or an ethnic group shares common interests and characteristics.

    For example, African communities:

  • Share common features, and interests

  • Have the same origin and are likely to be related by blood.

  • Share a common language.

  • Live together and inhabit the same geographical location.

  • Are divided into smaller units called clans

    A clan is made up of people who have the same forefather.

    A clan is composed of families.

    A family is made up of members (living or dead) who are related by blood and marriage.

    Family members therefore include the ancestors and the unborn.

    Lesson Two: Kinship System in African Communities

    Learning outcomes. After studying African kinship system in African communities, you should be able to:

    a. Explain the importance of kinship system

    b. Give factors that contribute to harmony and mutual responsibility

    Kinship refers to the relationships between people. These can be by blood, marriage or adoption.

    People that belong to the same kinship system are referred to as kin.

    Importance of kinship system and ties

    Kinship relationships were and still are important among African communities.

    This is because these ties:

    i Provided company. This ensured that people were not lonely.

    ii Provided a sense of belonging which one of the human needs. We all want to belong.

    iii Controlled social relationships between people related by blood or marriage.

    iv Promoted mutual responsibility and help.

    v Enhanced a sense of security which is a human need.

    vi Regulated marital customs, rules and regulations.

    vii Enabled people to live peacefully and in harmony.

    viii Bind the community together enhancing social cohesion and loyalty to each other.

    ix Facilitated care for the disadvantaged members of community.

    x Ensured that all members of the community are have knowledge of community beliefs and practices.

    xi Provided a peaceful way of settling disputes.

    xii Provided mechanisms for proper inheritance of property for example land.

    Factors contributing to harmony and mutual responsibility in African communities.

    These are many.

    Some of them are

    (i) rites of passage

    (2) good morals

    (3) participation in communal activities such as ceremonies, work, leisure activities and worship

    (4) sharing of property and ideas

    (5) division of labour. Tasks were distributed according to one’s age, gender and status. (6) rules/social norms regulated how people grew up; knowing what is wrong and right.

    Good morals help people to live in peace and harmony.

    Lesson Three: Rites of Passage

    Learning outcomes. I expect you to read this lesson and

    a. Name the main stages of human life

    b. Explain the rite of circumcision in your community

    c. Narrate initiation rituals

    d. Discuss the importance of marriage in your community with peers

    e. State the importance of funeral and burial rites.

    In traditional African society, there were four main stages of life.

    These were

    (i) birth and

    naming

    (ii) initiation

    (iii) marriage and

    (iv) old age and death Birth and naming.

    When a woman conceived, and pregnancy was visible, she was treated specially.

    She wore charms to keep away evil eyes. She ate special food and avoided sexual relations.

    The family and husband did not expect her to perform heavy task. When she was ready to deliver, mid wives helped in delivery.

    After delivery, the placenta was seen as a sign of fertility hence it was buried in the fertile land such as a banana plantation.

    Some communities preserved placenta while others threw it into a running stream. Birth The arrival of a baby and its sex was announced through ululations or shouts.

    The placenta was disposed off ceremoniously. The mother was purified and baby protection rites were conducted. Once purified, a mother could wear charms to protect herself and the baby from malicious spirits, sorcery, witchcraft, and evil eyes.

    Thanksgiving ceremonies were performed to show gratitude to God. The hair of the mother and child was shaved as a sign of purification and newness of life.

    Naming

    Naming of babies was carefully chosen. A baby could be named after either a season, weather, ancestors, place or time of delivery, occasion, experience of mother during delivery, significance events such as war, and drought, personality of the child, and names of heroes and gods.

    A good example is the name ‘Were’ amongst the Luhya. Twins had special names.

    Initiation

    The second rite of passage.

    There were different types of initiations such as circumcision for boys and clitorisdectomy for girls, excision of teeth and body marks.

    Initiation rites were important and every individual was expected to go through them or be rendered an outcast. Initiation practices were seen as tests for courage and bravery.

    They helped the communities when identifying future leaders and warriors.

    Initiation was very important in communities where it was practiced. Initiation marked a transition from childhood to adulthood. In this transition, the initiate acquired new rights, new status in life, and privileges.

    For example the new initiates were allowed to marry, own property, and inherit the father’s property.

    In addition the initiates received specialized education.

    They were taught how to behave as adults, warriors, future husbands and parents.

    The education brought families, relatives and friends together.

    This act strengthened kinship ties.

    It also prepared the initiates to face the difficulties and challenges of adult life.

    In addition, initiation helped to structure the community. Initiation was programmed to fit an age set; and it marked passage of specific time.

    Thus each initiation ceremony was held regularly, normally between 16 – 21 years of age.

    If you calculate, you can see that 16 to 21 years introduced a new age set or group of young people.

    The age set held power for 16 to 21 years and handed over to the new generation. Initiation was therefore a mark of identity.

    It gave the initiate a sense of belonging. It bonded the initiates together with the ancestors.

    Initiation rituals are not popular today as they were in the past.

    This is because many communities have undergone social and cultural changes because of modern education.

    As a result some families take their sons to hospitals to be circumcised to prevent HIV/AIDs and to avoid infections because of unhygienic traditional initiation practices.

    Other reasons are

    (i) urbanization and migration,

    (ii) individualization

    (iii)Christians religious values.

    These have made some communities abandon some rites e.g.

    clitorisdectomy and

    (iv) some countries have made girl’s circumcision illegal and an issue of human and health rights.

    Attitude to birth and naming

    There has been a change in attitude to birth and naming. This is because initiation is no longer a community but a family affair.

    In addition, pregnant women attend antenatal clinics.

    Majority of pregnant women give birth in hospitals and health centres.

    Thus a doctor and not a midwife announce the sex of the baby. In modern society, the mother and child are no longer secluded.

    Lastly most parents prefer western names for their babies.

    Marriage was a requirement for all members of the community.

    It was a source of status in the community. Since a leader had to be married.

    Young men and women married after initiation. Marriage was a happy occasion and a source of wealth.

    The father gave young initiates some animals for dowry. Fathers of girls received dowry payments, as bride price was mandatory.

    It was given to the parents of the girl in form of

    (a) Cows

    (b) Goats

    (c) Camels

    (d) Jewellery

    (e) Poultry.

    The young men inherited the father’s property.

    Importance of dowry.

    Dowry unified the community. When young women were married, their parents lost their labour.

    Dowry payments compensated for this loss.

    Men paid dowry as a sign of commitment to their wife and parents.

    Importance of marriage

    Marriage was sacred. It was and ordained by God. Marriage created new social relationships and expanded web of kinships.

    During the marriage ceremonies the whole community rejoiced, and feasted together.

    The newly married couple learnt new knowledge and skills.

    The community and society respected the newly married couple.

    Children born from this union propagated and ensured continuity of family, and the community.

    Modern community and marriage.

    There has been a change in attitude towards marriage.

    As a result:

    marriage is no longer seen as sacred and divorce is common. In addition, dowry has been commercialized, as it is no longer seen as important.

    Some young men do not pay dowry.

    In fact marriage is no longer seen as a sign of status Children were important in marriage.

    Barren women were frowned upon.

    Polygamy solved issues of

    childlessness. Couples without children can now adopt them from the Child Welfare society.

    Divorce. This was very rare.

    It happened only if the girl

    (i) was not a virgin

    (ii) practiced witchcraft

    (iii) and did not show respect towards her husband.

    Old age and death.

    This is the age of wisdom. Old people were respected. Grey hair was a sign of respect and wisdom.

    In all culture, the elders were the custodians of the law,norms and regulations. Social and religious specialists were seers, rainmakers, priests, diviners, and medicine men among others

    Death.

    Old age is followed by death. It was seen as a transition into the spiritual life.

    Besides old age, many cultures believed that death was due to either breaking of the traditional customs and taboos, curses, evil spirits, witchcraft, war, diseases and epidemics.

    Burial rites were performed in many African communities. Disposing of the dead body. Several methods were used to dispose the body.

    These were burials, leaving bodies in the forest, and throwing body to animals or placing the body in an abandoned house.

    African communities believed that animals carried the spirit of the dead person to the next life.

    Burial rites were performed by the bereaved. They buried the body with ones person belongings and tools.

    Thus if a person was a great warrior, he was buried with a war coat. Celebrations accompanied funeral rites.

    Funeral songs (dirges) were performed.

    There was drinking and eating.

    Importance of funeral and burial rites

    Burial rites created a good relationship between the dead and the living.

    They were therefore given to appease the world of spirits, express unity in the society, cleanse the remaining relatives and obey the customs of the community.

    Rituals that were performed depended on the community.

    Some of the rituals for the dead included.

    a) Shaving of heads. Some mourners shaved their hair completely, while others shaved in a specific pattern.

    b) Dancing and singing, and giving gifts to the bereaved family

    c) Mourning

    (d) Drum beating

    (e) Horn blowing

    (f) Grave side fires

    Here are some questions to make you think about marriages

    1. In your opinion, what has brought changes in modern marriages?

    2. Explain why divorce is rising in Kenya and Africa.

    3. What changes do we see in contemporary marriages?

    4. What has brought about these changes?

    5. What are the major causes of death in Kenya today?

    Lesson Four: Religious Specialists and Their Relevance in Modern Society

    Learning outcome. After studying this lesson,

    1. Identify religious specialists

    2. State the role of medicine men, priests, mediums, prophets, diviners, and seers

    3. Describe roles of herbalists, elders, and rainmakers

    4. Explain the role of religious specialists in your culture

    Religious specialists include Medicine men / healers, Herbalists, Diviners, Mediums, Prophets / Seers, Rainmakers, Priests and Elders.

    Religious specialists were given power by their parents who taught them religious duties.

    Others received divine call through dreams and visions.

    A few learnt from experts via apprenticeship.

    This is learning by observing and practicing what one sees the master teacher doing.

    Roles of the medicine women/men in the Community.

    Medicine women/men are healers who were and are respected by the community. This is because they were and are able to:

    1) Treat and heal the sick

    2) Solve serious and complicated chronic illnesses

    3) Give medicine in form of powder, herbs, minerals or liquid form and observed patients swallowing, drinking, sniffing, and applying on the skin.

    4) Offer prayers and sacrifices to God.

    5) Give charms to protect individual persons from evil spirits.

    6) Perform specialized medical roles in some communities in spite of the fact that we have modern hospitals, counselors and psychologists.

    Elders were and still are community leaders.

    They were not religious specialists but the community gave elders duties, which made them close to religious leaders.

    Herbalists and their relevance.

    Herbalists were synonymous with witch doctors.

    They cured people through herbs just like the medicine women/men. Communities’ belief:

    that herbalists are witchdoctors and possess magical powers. Herbalists continue to be consulted as ‘witch doctors’ or “waganga”.

    Today herbalists do religious tasks that were traditionally done by diviners.

    Diviners were able to find hidden secrets and knowledge; reveal witches and thieves.

    They communicated with spirits and enhanced the work of healers and medicine people.

    They worked as medicine people and were healers of people.

    They used magic powers and predicted future occurrences.

    They used items such as pebbles, water, bones or gourds in divination.

    They also warned of future calamities.

    They were mediators between God, ancestors and the people. To be a diviner, one had to be trained.

    There was a specialized curriculum prepared by diviners.

    Relevance of diviners in modern society.

    Diviners (‘witchdoctor’“mganga”)

    are not popular today and are hardly consulted. But the unfortunate Kenyans consult them who:

    need a job, promotion, and children.

    This consultation is secret. Mediums were channels of communication between the living and the spirits of people’s ancestors.

    The ancestor spirits possessed mediums and through them ancestors gave information and messages to their relatives.

    Priests were religious leaders and functionaries.

    They were intermediaries between people, ancestors,spirits and God. Their work was to make sacrifices and give offerings on behalf of the people.

    They officiated during planting and harvesting rituals. They offered prayers and blessed the needy.

    They cared for the shrines and poured libations to the ancestors.

    They led the community in public worship.

    They were political heads and judges.

    Today, traditional priests are not relevant since most Kenyans follow several religious practices like Christianity, Hindus, Islam and many others.

    But there are however, a few traditional priests who take care of community shrines.

    Prophets / Seers predicted the future. They foretold events such as invasions, wars, drought, and epidemics.

    They gave advice.

    They also performed religious duties.

    They could bless and curse.

    Religious prophets are common today but traditional prophets are not common.

    Rainmakers were responsible for bringing or withholding rain to a community.

    They interpreted weather conditions.

    They performed certain rituals like asking God for rains.

    They were highly respected in the society.

    Modern science has replaced rainmakers Meteorological departments have made the rainmakers redundant.

    Elders were custodians of community values and secrets.

    They acted as educators.

    They gave punishment to offenders of social norms/rules. They acted as counselors and guided the youth on matters of sex and marriage. They helped in maintaining roles for important religious functions, such as rites of passage.

    They were political leaders in the community.

    They were negotiators and solved conflicts since they settled family disputes especially agreements concerning land.

    They were custodians of the traditional values, customs and history of the people.

    Relevance.

    Elders are relevant in modern society.

    They are referred to as village elders and are recognized by the government of Kenya.

    Lesson Five: African Moral Values Introduction.

    African communities were regulated by a strict code of laws and moral values.

    In this lesson we shall study moral values, which regulated individual members of society as well as the community itself.

    Learning outcomes.

    After reading this lesson, you should

    1. Give examples of cultural values

    2. Define moral values

    3. Identify forms of misconduct

    3. State a punishment for each misconduct

    What is a cultural value?

    These are community practices and beliefs. Each community has cultural values that it accepts and upholds. These cultural values are laws, customs, and forms of behaviour, regulations, rules, observances and taboos.

    The cultural values form a moral code, which regulates the community.

    For example, if the culture, values private property, it will have laws that forbid theft of property.

    These laws are cultural values. Cultural values influence the social order and peace.

    God gives peace and harmony. God is seen as the giver and guardian of the law.

    Disobedience was and still is regarded as evil, wrong and was and still is punishable by law.

    What is a moral value?

    Moral values are standards of behaviour towards others. They are based on what is valued by the community.

    Moral values are also positive attitudes. Each community decided what is important to it and what is desirable for its members to practice and uphold.

    The moral values that communities observed were many.

    They included amongst others:

    1. Hospitality and Love for self and others. This is the habit of welcoming all people, treating oneself and others well.

    Members of the community were taught how to be hospitable to visitors, strangers and how to assist the needy.

    2. Honesty. This is developing good habits like telling the truth, Loyalty, Respect, Co – operation with all.

    3. Obedience to parents, elders, community leaders and elders. Cultural regulations were followed and adhered to leading.

    4. Caring for others. This is being responsible to members of the community,

    5. Developing social moral behaviour like Humility, Sharing, Responsibility, Chastity, Integrity, Tolerance,Perseverance, and Courtesy.

    6. Working Hard. Do chores. These were according to sex, age and socialeconomic status.

    7. Cooperation. Members cooperated and worked together with others. Moral values were learnt in the process of socialization.

    Leisure activities helped in acquisition of moral values.

    Learning moral values was a lifelong process. The most valued behaviour was obedience.

    Children were to obey their parents; wives obey their husbands; community obeys their leaders, and elders.

    Learning to obey was a life long process. An obedient person was respected and rewarded.

    Misconducts. There were taboos that the community observed. Failure to obey community laws resulted in punishments.

    The community did not allow stealing of livestock. Domestic animals were the most valued private property.

    Individuals owned livestock while land ownership was communal.

    There were many forms of punishment for stealing livestock and committing other crimes.

    For example

    a. Payment of heavy fines to replace stolen livestock

    b. Being beaten in a sack

    c. Thrown down a hill

    d. Cast out of community. Thieves and murders built their homes at the outskirts of the community.

    They were not allowed to interact anymore with the members of the community.

    e. Being covered with dry banana leaves and then set on fire.

    Lesson Six: Continuity and Change Introduction

    Learning outcome. From this lesson, you should be able to:

    1. Compare traditional and modern way of life

    2. Trace property ownership in traditional and modern communities

    3. Explain how money economy has affected the traditional way of life

    4. State how communities can look after orphans, widows, and old people

    Community. Formal education introduced the western way of life.

    Employment and trade forced

    Africans to leave their villages to look for employment and markets in towns.

    These actions led to urbanization and pluralism.

    As a result different communities came to towns and lived together.

    1. Paid employment.

    Workers were paid by money. The concept of money changed community life.

    Individualism ownership of money replaced communalism.

    2. Land used to be communal.

    There was plenty of land for everyone. But changes were brought by modern life.

    For example, health improved and people lived longer.

    There were fewer deaths and population increased. With money, there was an expansion of trade.

    Individuals started buying land with money instead of clearing forests.

    Modern life changed the concept of land. Individual started owning land.

    The colonial governments introduced policies about land ownership in different African countries.

    In communities where education was accepted and money economy took over from livestock economy, communal land disappeared.

    Parents did not have land for inheritance.

    As a result, people moved and bought land away from their ancestral birthplaces. This resulted in both migrations and immigrations.

    3. Property.

    Traditionally property included land, cattle (Livestock), women/ wives, and children.

    In African traditional culture, this property belonged to men or the first-born son in paternal societies.

    In maternal communities, it belonged to wives and daughters.

    Today property or wealth is in different forms such as money, buildings, vehicles, land, shares, stock, jewels, insurance, and others. Women, men and children own property.

    Because of this, the status of a person is measured by:

    property.

    Dowry – Bride price / bride wealth

    In African societies, bride price was very important.

    It was given in various forms. For example cows, animals skin, and camels.

    Today dowry is commercialized. It’s mainly in form of cash money.

    This has made marriage costly for the poor.

    Some young people are staying together without a formal wedding in church or in the community. Others do not want to pay dowry.

    Young couples are living together in what is called – come – we – stay arrangements.

    4. Health Medicine

    In traditional society, Illness was caused by witchcraft, sorcery, bad omen, or curses. Diviners, herbalists, and healers treated the sick people.

    Today bacterial, viruses, or environmental factors, cause illnesses. These are treated by nurses, and doctors; in hospitals and health centres. There is however a craze for herbalists.

    The communities are consulting herbalists and are taking herbal tea, and medicine

    5. Dress

    Mode of dressing varied between countries.

    It was dependent on the type of climate. African communities were clothes made from skins or hides, leaves of bananas and trees.

    Women wore beads, and necklaces for decoration. Modern mode of dressing is a mixture of African, Asian and European wear.

    There are clothes for men,women, and unisex. African and western ornaments are worn for beauty and style.

    6. Worship.

    Worship is an important activity in African communities. There are different forms of worship, which are done in various places. Those who were converted to Islam worship in Mosques.

    Those converted to Hinduism worship in temples. Christians worship in churches.

    The few traditional African communities continue to worship their ancestors in shrines.

    These are very few. But a few groups are turning back to traditional worship and reviving worship of ancestors and spirits, and their traditional God. For example “Mungiki” a cult in Kenya, made up of young people, worship the traditional Ngai and practice traditional culture.

    Traditional religions have many offerings such as foodstuffs and sacrifices such as goats, cows, sheep and chicken. Human sacrifice has been discarded. It is illegal, and it is murder.

    In the news, we have heard of cases of body parts being stolen from a dead body in mortuary probably for religious rituals.

    This is illegal and a criminal offence.

    Modern offerings in most religious institutions consist of money.

    7. Death

    changes immediately the status of families. Mothers and fathers become widows and widowers. Children become orphans. Many parents, wives and husbands have died because of HIV /AIDS, road accidents, diseases and other modern calamities. They have left orphans, widows and widowers.

    Orphans used to be looked after by grandmothers, brothers and uncles.

    Today government, churches,charities, NGOs, well-wishers, and guardians, the elder sibling looks after orphans.

    Some orphan sisters and brothers drop out of school to look after the rest. Some orphans have ended up in the streets because there is no one to look after them Widows.

    Traditionally brothers inherited widows. However, widow inheritance is being discouraged to prevent HIV / AIDS.

    But on the other hand, widows are encouraged to remarry as society has become individualistic and no longer assists community Widowers are not inherited and many of them remarry soon after the death of their wives.

    8. Old age.

    In traditional African communities, old people were respected.

    But now old age is not respected.

    The aged are seen as a burden to their children.

    This is because the need medical care, food, and other forms of care to meet their needs.

    Most of them are neglected and mistreated.

    In traditional communities, children took care of their aged parents. Today some children care for their parents.

    Fortunately, churches have set up homes for the aged.

    An example is “Nyumba za wazee”.

    A few old people can look after themselves since they have pension schemes, life insurance policies, income generating projects, investments and bank deposits. They can care for themselves.

    Revision questions

    a) What is the significance of the kingship system

    b) Outline and explain factors contributing to harmony and mutual responsibility in the traditional African society

    c) What was the purpose of the bride wealth in the traditional African society?

    d) Explain the role of medicine men in the African communities and their relevance today.

    Study Activities

    Read the Bible quotations given

    Carry out role-plays e.g. the sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham

    Consult the aged to assist in the understanding of African traditional practices

    Form one answers Topic: one

    1.What is the importance of reading the Bible?

  • Strengthens people’s faith.

  • Helps in spreading the gospel.

  • Helps in composition of songs and hymns.

  • Acts as a reference when we write its translations and other books.

  • Promotes good relationship between God and man.

    2. In society, people in schools, crusades, churches, lodgings, homes, and hospitals read the Bible.

    3.In the government, the Bible is used for swearing in the Courts, Parliament and Cabinet when members of parliament are nominated to become ministers of the government.

    4.The major divisions of the Bible are the old and the new testaments. Read 1.3.4. Above for more information.

    2. What are the effects of Bible translation on African languages? The Effects of Bible translation into African languages

    The translations increased and deepened people’s faith in God.

    They also led to the establishment of schools.

    The Gospel spread to local communities and many of them became Christians.

    The missionaries and colonialists learnt African Languages. This led to the promotion of African languages.

    This helped the African converts to judge when the missionaries were unfair or when they practiced inequality of races.

    8. Why is the Bible referred to as (a) a Library and

    (b) the Word of God

    (a) The Bible is referred to as a Library because its:

    1. Books are arranged in a series and in order.

    2. A reference book

    3. Is a book of literary works

    4. Books were written under different situations and circumstances

    5. Books are many

    1. Inspiration is a process through which God took the initiative to prompt and enlighten the writers of the Bible its Godly influence.

    Topic Two: Creation and the Fall of Man

    1. Find answers on the differences between the two creation stories in lesson four

    2. Traditional African view of creation is in lesson four. Africans’ view was that:

  • God is the architect of the world

  • God existed from the very beginning of time

  • God created everything from nothing

  • God provides for the needs of human beings, animals, and all creation

  • God continues to create through human beings

    3. Human beings continue with the work of creation in lesson four

    4. The origin of sin and evil read again lesson five

    5. Consequences of sin in lesson five

    When Adam and Eve sinned

  • Man’s friendship with God changed to fear of GOD

  • What had been innocent and good became shameful

  • Relationship between GOD and man was damaged and became spoilt

  • Man began to toil for food, safety and other basic needs

  • Pain became part of human experience

  • Death sentence was passed 6. Consequences of evil are in lesson six Africans understand evil as barrenness, war, drought, epidemics, madness, sickness, death, burning in a house and others.

    7. God’s plan of salvation is lesson seven.

    The lesson tells us that GOD saved human kind by providing:

  • Clothing for Adam and Eve

  • Means to find food

  • A decree to defeat serpent through the seed of the woman

  • A solution in which he choose Abraham and separated him from others
  • A delivery of Israelites from Egypt

  • Prophets with messages for Israelites

  • The Messiah to die on the Cross to save humankind

    8. Compare the biblical concept of sin and the African concept of evil. Similarities:

  • Both agree that God is good and did not create evil.

  • In both, sin is a result of disobedience, greed and selfishness of humankind.

  • In both cases, sin leads to human suffering.

  • Both hold the view that sin/evil befalls humankind in the form of a curse.

  • Sin brings separation between God and man.

  • In both, there is reconciliation and forgiveness between God and man.

    Thus sin does not end a relationship.

    Differences

  • In the bible, the serpent is seen as the cause of sin whereas in many Traditional African communities, the spirits of the dead causes evil.

  • In the bible, there is external punishment (hell) for sinners while the African communities believe that punishment is here on earth.

  • Biblically, human beings are born sinners because they are descendants of Adam (1st parents’ sin).

    In Traditional African Community, a child is born free of evil.

  • Biblically had taken the initiative to end sin but in Traditional African Community, man does through sacrifice to the ancestral spirits.

    9. Subdue the earth in genesis 1 verse 28

    Topic Three: Faith and God’s Promises to Abraham.

    Qn 1. Explain why Abraham is referred to as the Father of Faith

    Faith is complete trust in somebody or something.

    This is because he demonstrated faith in his life’s actions.

  • Accepting to move from his homeland to an unknown land.

  • By accepting circumcision at an old age and change of name.

  • Being ready to sacrifice his only son – Isaac.

  • He made altars for the worship of God at Bethel etc.

  • He believed in a God he did not know/see.

  • By accepting to enter into a covenant relationship with God where he gave his best animals as a sacrifice.

    Qn 2. Give five (5) actions from the life of Abraham that shows his faith in God

  • Abraham obeyed God’s call and left his homeland Haran to go to an unknown land.

  • He believed in the promises God gave him.

  • Build altars for the worship of God, one at Schecher and the other at Bethel.

  • Covenant – accepted to make a covenant with God where he sacrificed the best of his animals.

  • Circumcision – accepting the command to circumcise himself and all male children in his household.

  • Sacrifice of son – willing to offer his only son Isaac as a burnt offering to God.

    Qn 3. List some of the promises God gave to Abraham.

  • Abraham and his wife Sarah would have a son.

  • Abraham would be famous.

  • He would become the father of a great nation.

  • God would curse those who cursed him and bless those who blessed him.

  • God assured Abraham of a personal protection.

  • Many descendants – like stars on the sky.

  • The descendants would be slaves in a foreign land but God would deliver them.

  • He would live to a ripe old age and die in peace.

  • God would establish an everlasting covenant with him and his descendants.

  • Some of his descendants would be kings.

  • God would give him and his descendants land.

    Qn 4. Compare and contrast Jewish and Traditional African practice of circumcision

    A. Similarities

  • In both communities, circumcision is taken as a physical sign of membership to the community.

  • It involves the cutting of the foreskin.

  • Members who refuse to be circumcised are treated as outcasts in the community.

  • The shedding of blood is symbolic as it binds the people with God and ancestors.

  • It has a religious significance.

  • Special people in both do circumcision.

  • The occasions are accompanied by a ceremony which being kinsmen together.

  • The rite is compulsory for males.

  • The practice is handed down from one generation to the next.

  • Names are given during the occasion.

  • In both cases, it is done in special or religious places e.g. temple/under mugumo tree/ shrine etc.

  • It is a command from God/ancestors.

    Differences

  • For African, initiation leads to adult responsibilities such as marriage, becoming a warrior, decisionmaking and property ownership. In Jewish community, the boys are too young to take up responsibility.

  • In the Jewish community, only males are circumcised while in the Traditional African Community, both boys and girls are.

  • For Jews, one remains a child while in the Traditional African Community, they move from childhood to adulthood.

  • Jewish community circumcise at the age of eight days while in the Traditional African Community, it is at puberty.

  • Among the Jews, it is a sign that they have become God’s people, but in Traditional African Community, one is bound to the ancestors.

  • The Jewish circumcision is a command from God as a sign of their covenant with him while Traditional.

    African Communities do it in obedience to the customs and traditions of their duty.

  • The rite, taken place on the 8th day of both in Jewish community while in the Traditional African Communities, it occurs after every four – six years.

  • Done to individuals in Jewish community while it is done to a group of age mates in the Traditional African Communities.

  • No seclusion period among Jews as is the case in most African communities.

  • In African communities, the ceremony enables them to choose future leaders, which is not the case with the Jews.

  • Helps one endure suffering (pain) in future in the African communities unlike in the Jewish communities.

  • Only one form of initiation (cutting of foreskin) is done. Various forms are practiced in the Traditional African communities.

    These include:

  • Cutting of foreskin

  • Lib/ear piercing

  • Removal of lower teeth

  • Scarification (putting marks on face/body)

    Qn 5. What is the importance of faith to Christians?

  • Faith is the foundation of Christian life today. It makes Christians part of the great nation of God.

  • Through faith in Jesus, Christians became the chosen people of God.

  • Faith enables Christians make correct choices in life e.g. When choosing a career, marriage partners etc.

  • Faiths help them to face temptations and challenges in their lives and are able to overcome them.

  • It gives them perseverance in prayer as they wait for God’s answer.

  • It gives them the courage to commit their lives to God totally.

  • It is through faith that Christians obey God.

  • They are able to achieve impossible things through faith.

  • They are able to believe what they have not seen through faith.

  • They are able to serve the world, help the needy because of their faith in Christ.

    Qn 6. State the elements of a covenant

  • Partners two or more partners are involved.

  • A physical reminder – a certificate/sign.

  • Promises: – given by both partners.

  • Ceremony – whose blood seals it or an oath taken.

  • Witnesses – must be present.

  • It requires faithfulness, obedience and loyalty to the regulations.

  • It spells out serious consequences for those who break it.

    Qn 7. Give examples of covenant in the bible and the modern society The Bible

  • God’s covenant with Noah: where he promised never to destroy the earth with flood – rainbow is the sign of the covenant (Gen 9).

  • God’s covenant with Abraham: God promised to fulfil the promises he made to Abraham. The sign was circumcision (Gen 15 & 17).

  • The covenant between God and the Israelites on Mt Sinai – sign was the Law – 10 commandments (Exd 24).

  • The covenant between God and King David – promise to David’s kingdom would last forever (2 Sam:7).

  • Jeremiah’s covenant: The new covenant with God’s people (Jr 31: 31 – 34).

    Modern Society

    • Baptism

    • Marriage

    • Oath of allegiance/loyalty

    • Ordination

    • The National Anthem binds all

    • The loyalty pledge

    • Employment contract

    Qn 9. Discuss the circumstances that led God to enter into a covenant relationship with Abraham

  • To seal the promises given unto Abraham e.g. a great nation, son, many descendants.

  • It was an assurance of the fulfillment of God’s promises to Abraham.
  • It was to unite God and the Israelites.

  • It was to be a source of blessings to all.

  • A starting point for the salvation of mankind, whereby he would renew the relationship between himself and man after the separation by the 1st parents.

    Topic Four: Sinai Covenant.

    Qn a. What are the qualities of Moses as a leader?

  • Education: he received education while in the pharaoh’s palace where he grew up.

  • Jewish religion knowledge: his own mother who was his maid taught him the history of Israel.

  • He learned leadership skills from the King as he grew up.

  • Shepherd: herding the father-in-law’s herds made him gain experience of shepherding people.

  • Life in the wilderness where he lived after killing an Egyptian gave him experience in desert life through where he would lead the Israelites.

  • Father/parent: his marriage to Zipporah helped him learn family leadership. Later he applied this to his work.

  • Prophet: Enabled him to foresee the future and inform the community.

  • Miracle-maker: helped him solve problem facing his people in the wilderness e.g. lack of food, water.

  • Lawgiver: gave laws that were used to govern the community of Israel i.e. the Ten Commandments.

  • Hard work: worked for his father-in-law serving the family e.g. fetching water. Later he was able to serve the Jews.

    Qn b (i) Describe the call of Moses: Exodus 3: 1 – 22

  • God called Moses as he herded his father-in-law’s flock at Mt Sinai.

  • Moses saw a burning bush, which was not consumed. He drew nearer to get a better look.

  • God called Moses by name from the middle of the burning bush and told him to remove his shoes.

    because he was standing on holy ground.

  • God told Moses that he had seen the suffering of his people in Egypt and heard their cry.

  • He told Moses that he had chosen him to go to Pharaoh and release them from bondage.

  • Moses objected to the task because he felt inadequate.

  • God promised to be with Moses and to protect him.

  • Moses asked for the name of God so that he would have a point of reference when asked who sent him.

  • God revealed himself to Moses saying, “IAM WHO I AM”

  • God gave Moses power to perform miracles that he would use as proof of his work.

  • Moses protested further saying he was a stammerer.

  • God commissioned Aaron, Moses’ brother as his spokesman.

  • Moses then told God he was afraid to go to Egypt.

  • God assured him that the man he was afraid of was already dead.

    Qn b (ii) Why was Moses hesitant to God’s call?

  • It is because he was already a criminal and wanted in Egypt after having killed and Egyptian and ran away.

  • He was not a good speaker (stammerer).

  • He did not know the name of God who was sending him.

    Qn c (i) what is the significance of the items used for the Passover feast (similar to what is the meaning of the Passover meal)?

  • The Lamb: reminded the Israelite of the sacrificial lamb whose blood saved their 1st born from the angel of death.

  • The unleavened bread signified purity.

  • It too signified the hurry they had to leave Egypt, as unleavened bread is easy to bake.

  • Roasting the meat was the easiest method of cooking.

  • Not breaking bones and spilt blood signified forgiveness.

  • Bitter herbs symbolized the bitterness of slavery in Egypt.

    Other Meanings:

  • Eating while standing symbolized the haste with which the Israelites were to leave Egypt.

  • They were not to leave any meal to avoid profanation in the form of flies. Burning was the simplest way of disposal & sacred.

    Qn c (ii) Compare the Lord’s Supper to the Passover feast

    Similarities:

  • Both are acts of salvation from suffering. Passover saved Israelites from slavery while the Lord’s Supper saved people from bondage of sin.

  • Both are celebrated in memory of a past event – suffering.

  • Lambs offered in both Hebrews – the Passover lamb in the Lord’s Supper Jesus is the paschal lamb.

  • In both a symbolic meal was taken.

  • In both cases each group is saved through a mediator – Moses and Jesus respectfully.

  • God’s covenant is remembered in both cases i.e. Old testament and new covenant respectfully.

  • In both the religious significance of the feasts is taught and emphasized.

    Differences:

  • In the Passover feast, animal sacrifice is offered while in the Lord’s Supper, Jesus was the last sacrifice and instead bread and wine are offered to represent his blood and body.

  • Whereas the Jewish Passover was compulsory for every few, the Lord’s Supper is not compulsory in all Christian churches.

  • The blood shed in the Jewish Passover is for the salvation of the Jews only while the blood of Jesus shed on the cross is for the salvation of the whole human race.

  • Passover lamb offered in Hebrew while Jesus was the lamb offered in the Lord’s Supper.

    Qn d. Describe how the Sinai covenant was made

  • The Israelites arrived at Mt Sinai through God’s saving power.

  • Moses was instructed by God to tell the elders to do the following in preparation for the making of the covenant.

  • All Israelites were to cleanse themselves and wash their garments.

  • Mark the boundaries of the mountain and avoid going near or crossing the border.

  • Avoid sexual relations between married couple.

    Note: All these happened after Moses had gone up the mountain and God had promised to make the Israelites the following if they obeyed him.

    i. His people

    ii. A kingdom of priests

    iii. A holy nation

  • On the third day after cleansing, Moses took the Israelites to meet their God.

    God manifested himself in the following forms: thunder, lightening, earthquake and a thick cloud that filled the mountain and a loud trumpet blast.

  • Moses came down and told people about the laws which was to guide them as a covenant people.

  • The people agreed to obey all the words the Lord had spoken (Ex 24: 3 – 4)

  • Thus the covenant was made.

    Qn e. Describe the circumstances that led to the breaking of the Sinai covenant

  • Moses went up the mountain to receive the stone tablets on which the Ten Commandments where written. He delayed (40 days) thus forgetting God.

  • The Israelites became impatient.

    They forgot the saving power of God that had delivered them from Egypt.

  • Aaron was a weak leader who failed to lead the people to uphold the covenant.

    He yielded to their demands to make and worship idols.

  • Availability of gold jewellery: used to make the calf image.

  • Idolatry was a practice done while in Egypt so they copied/continued with it.

  • They were used to God’s (idols). They could see while in Egypt unlike the Yahweh who was invisible.

    Qn f. How was the broken covenant renewed?

  • Moses pleaded to God not to destroy the Israelites.

  • God spared them.

  • God commanded the Israelites to cut two stone tablets where he would rewrite the commandments.

  • God gave conditions to be fulfilled by the Israelites in the renewal of the covenant.

    These were:

    a) To obey God’s command.

    b) Not to make treaties with other nations.

    c) To tear down the altars of the gods of other nations and temples.

    d) Not to worship idols.

    e) Not to make images to represent God.

    f) Not to marry foreign wives.

    g) To keep and celebrate the three festivals namely, Passover, feast of weeks and the feast of in gathering.

    h) To keep the Sabbath day holy.

    i) Dedicate to God 1st born male children and animals.

  • God promised that if they obeyed Him, He would:

    a) Protect and preserve them

    b) Bless them

    c) Make them prosper

  • After this Moses was ordered by God to write a new set of Laws on the stone tablets.

  • Thus the covenant was renewed.

    Qn g. Describe how the Israelites worshipped God in the wilderness

  • Worship is the practice of showing respect and love for God.

    The Israelites showed their respect and love for God in the wilderness in the following ways: -

    1) The Ark and the Tabernacle: The Ark was a wooden box where the Ten Commandments were kept.

    They signified the presence of God. The tabernacle was a portable tent for meeting between God and the Israelites.

    2) The Sabbath: They observed the Sabbath as a sacred day for resting and worshipping God.

    3) Festivals: Celebrated many festivals as one way of worshipping God. E.g. Passover.

    4) Altars – built them when there was need to worship God – meeting place between God and the people and sacrifice to God.

    5) Observance of the Ten Commandments. These guided them on how to live with God and man.

    6) Religious leaders: God chose priest from the tribe of Levi to organize worship.

    Qn h. What is the relevance of the Ten Commandments to Christian today?

  • Christians learn that God is a jealous God. They avoid holding other things in their lives strong in the place of God.

  • Christians learn that God is unique and cannot be represented by visible man-made objects or described in human terms.

  • They are reminded to observe the Sabbath by worshipping God.

  • They strive to have a good relationship with God.

  • They are taught to respect other people and their property.

  • They learn that long life is a result of honoring and respecting their parents.

  • They strive to live upright and moral lives.

  • They learn that lust for money and other property is sinful.

    Qn i. What did the Israelites learn about God in the wilderness?

  • They learned that God is faithful. He keeps promises.

  • A provider – provided manna, water etc.

  • God is the controller of natural forces e.g. Red sea, a pillar of cloud & fire, earthquakes etc.

  • A jealous God – no worship of other gods.

  • Just – forgave those who broke the covenant and punished those who refused to repent.

  • Merciful and compassionate. Give them a 2nd chance after breaking the covenant.

  • A God of victory – helped them defeat Amalekites.

    God valued a personal relationship – commandments given.

    Topic Five: Leadership in Israel

    Qn a. Explain the reasons against Kingship in Israel (1 Sam 8:10 – 20)

  • The King would force the sons of the Israelites to serve him as soldiers in the army.

  • The King would create forced labour and enslavement by making the young men work in his farms and in making weapons.

    Daughters would work in his house.

  • He would also grab their land and give it to his loyal servants.

  • He would overtax them in order to maintain his administration.

  • It would be seen as a rejection of Yahweh as their King.

  • Israel would be like other nations who did not know Yahweh.

  • Yahweh would reject them when they cried to him.

    Qn b. Explain the importance of David as King of Israel

  • David was important because he was chosen by God and publicly anointed by elders in a religion ceremony. He too became ancestor of many communities.
  • David was a great musician and wrote many songs for promising God.
  • He killed Goliath the philistine soldier.

  • He conquered the enemies of Israel such as Amalekites, Ammonites etc.

  • He expanded Israel through his military conquests and marked the boundaries of the nation.

  • He captured Jerusalem from the Jebusites and made it a capital city.

  • He too made it a religious centre by placing the Ark of the Covenant there, which had been housed – Abidjab’s.

  • He had good diplomatic relationship with other nations.

  • He encouraged trade with other nations thus making Israel prosperous.

  • He was a shrewd administrator who chose wise elders to advise him.

  • He was filled with the Holy Spirit.

  • He established the largest and most enduring dynasty that lasted 400 years.

  • He composed the books of Psalms used to praise God.

  • Whenever he wronged God, he genuinely repented and humbled himself before God.

  • He was a just ruler.

  • He respected the prophets of God and consulted them before making decisions.

  • He was prayerful and consulted God in his undertakings.

  • He united the twelve (12) tribes of Israel.

  • He set a good example of faithfulness to Yahweh that he wanted all the Israelites to emulate.

    Qn c. How did Jesus fulfil the prophecies of prophet Nathan as a descendant of David? (i.e. Areas where Jesus is mentioned as coming from David)

  • Angel Gabriel announced the birth of Jesus to Mary who was engaged to Joseph, a descendant of David.

    The Angel referred to Jesus as the King whose wisdom would last forever (Lk 1:26-33).

  • Jesus was born in Bethlehem – the birth place of David (Lk 2: 4 – 5)

  • Abraham and David are mentioned as the ancestors of Jesus.

  • During the triumphant entry into Jerusalem, the crowds who met him sang with joy and shouted ‘Hosanna to the son of David.’

  • On the days of Pentecost when Peter addressed the crowd, he referred to Jesus as a descendant of David (Acts:2 29-35).

  • Zechariah in his Benedictus, says that God has promised a savior descended from the house of David (Lk 1:69)

  • The blind man at Jericho referred to Jesus as the son of David (Lk 18:38).

    Qn d. What was the failure of King Solomon?

  • Solomon was the 2nd King of Israel, succeeding his father King David.

    He failed to live according to the covenant way of life in the following ways.

  • He married foreign wives thus breaking the Toral that clearly stated that the Israelites should not marry foreigners because they can come with their gods – idols.

  • He allowed the wives to worship their gods (idols) thus leading to spread of idolatry in Israel.

  • He not only worshipped the gods of his wives but also built temple for their worship.

  • He, by worshipping the gods became a bad example to Israel, as King. They copied him.

  • Although he built God’s temple, he erred in many ways:

    i. He built his palace for 13 years but took only 7 years to build God’s temple. Shows he loved himself more the God.

    ii. He used foreign designs and materials in the construction of the temple, ignoring God’s specifications on how to build it.

    iii. He liaised pagan craftsmen from Tyre to design, decorate and furnish the temple.

  • He broke the sixth commandment by killing his half brother, Adonijah. He suspected that Adonijah would become his rival to the throne.

  • He spent a lot of Israel’s money on his lavish lifestyle. He had a large army and servants.

  • He overtaxed the people to meet the amount.

  • He used forced labour in his development projects.

  • He enslaved young men and women who went to work in the palace as servants for the wives.

  • He practiced nepotism. He exempted them from forced labour.

  • He sold part of Israel – sold 20 towns of Galilee to King of Tyre as payment of a debt he could not pay contrary to God’s command.

  • He made treaties with other nations that were against the condition set during the renewal of the Sinai covenant.

  • In the above ways, he oppressed the people of God. Qn e. Which leadership qualities can modern leaders learn from David?

  • Justice: A good leader is one who does not favour some people like David (I Sam 24: 1 – 12).

  • Courage: David showed this while fighting Goliath. Leaders need to be brave and courageous in their work (I Sam 17:41 – 54).

  • Fear of God and Faith: David consulted God before any undertaking. Leaders should do the same.

  • Gratitude: David was thankful to blessings he received. Leaders should be happy and grateful to God.

  • Loyalty: Modern leaders should remain loyal to their office. David was loyal to God and his people (2 Sam 2:7)

  • Kindness: Good leaders should show mercy to their people like David did e.g. he forgave Saul twice (2 Sam 19: 9 – 39).

  • Humility: Leaders should not hesitate to ask for forgiveness from God and people. David was humble and asked for forgiveness any time he went wrong.
  • Willingness to delegate:

    Learn to delegate future as David did (2 Sam 20: 23 – 26)

  • Wisdom: Be wise in choosing legal advisers as David did.

  • Respect: Leaders should show respect to God and preaches those they serve as David did to the prophets and his people.

    Topic Six: Loyalty to God- Elijah.

    Qn a. Qualities of Elijah that led to his achievements

    • Elijah was fearless and courageous.

    His courage helped him to face king Ahab and queen Jezebel and condemn them for their wickedness such as corruption and idolatry.

    • He was faithful to God. Yahweh guided him in his dealings with Baal prophets and king Ahab.

    • He lived a simple life. For example, he wore simple clothing made of carmel’s skin.

    • He stood for the covenant at a time when the religion of Yahweh was in danger.

    • He had the power of God in him and was able to control rain.

    • He confirmed that Yahweh had authority over land and over the people.

    b) Schism is sharp religious, social, political differences within a group or organization Syncretism is the process of mixing religious beliefs and practices.

    c) Some characteristics of Elijah that a modern Christian should strive to emulate.

    1) Courage

    2) Faithfulness

    3) Zealousness for God

    4) Concern for the needy / poor

    5) Provision of social justice

    6) Patience

    Qn d. What were the effects of idolatry in Israel?

  • Syncretism developed where the Israelites worshipped Yahweh alongside the gods of Canaan.

  • The Israelites started calling Yahweh by the names used for Canaanites gods e.g. El.

  • The Israelites started naming their children after Canaanite gods like Baal.

  • They changed their religion calendar and celebration to correspond with their Canaanite celebrations and feasts.

  • They converted the high places used for worshipping Baal to Yahweh’s shrines without removing the graven images of idols.

  • The unity that existed between the two tribes of Israel was destroyed. They no longer treated one another as brothers.

  • The Kings of Israel behaved like the Canaanites leaders by oppressing the weak and grabbing other people’s property.

  • The people neglected Yahweh’s holy places.

  • God’s prophets were mistreated, persecuted and even killed.

  • God withdrew his blessings from the Israelites because they angered Him by worshipping other gods.

  • They broke God’s commandments, which forbade worship of other god a part from Yahweh.

  • The Israelites practiced temple prostitution and other Canaanites rituals and sacrifices.

    Qn e. Describe Elijah’s fight against false religion in Israel

  • Elijah rose to challenge false religion at a time when Baalism had become the official religion.

  • He prophesied a three and a half years drought because the people had turned away from Yahweh.

  • After the drought God appeared to Elijah and told him to go to King Ahab and tell him that the drought was as a result of idolatry in Israel.

  • Elijah requested the King to order all the people to meet at Mt Carmel to hold a contest.

  • Elijah asked the King to invite the 400 prophets of Asherah and Baal’s 450, saw that they could prove who the true God is.

  • Elijah would sacrifice a bull and the false prophets would too sacrifice their own to call on their Gods to send fire.

    The one who could send is the true God.

  • The prophets of Baal were the 1st to pray to their god but he never sent fire.

  • The prophets cut themselves with knives to please their god but he never sent it.

  • Elijah then prepared the altar with 12 pillars representing the 12 tribes of Israel.

  • He dug a trench around the altar, placed wood and put the cut bull on top of the wood.

  • He ordered for water to be poured around the trenches until it flooded.

  • Then in the evening Elijah prayed and called upon the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob to send fire.

  • Fire came and consumed the whole sacrifice, including the water in the trenches.

  • As a result, the Israelites bowed down and declared that Yahweh was the true God.

  • Then Elijah ordered the killing of all the prophets of Baal and the prophetesses of Asherah.

  • Elijah went to the top of the Mt Carmel and prayed for rain. Yahweh sent His servant to watch for the sign of rain from the sea.

  • The servant looked towards the sea seven times after, which he saw a small cloud forming.

  • Then heavy rain fell, signaling end of drought.

    Qn f. Describe Elijah’s fight against corruption – 1 Kings 21

  • Corruption: Can be defined as dishonesty or misuse of power for personal gain.

  • In a corrupt society, the rich and powerful people tend to take advantage of the weak/poor by exploiting them and denying them their rights.

  • King Ahab of Israel desired a fruitful vineyard owned by a man named Naboth.

  • King Ahab approached Naboth to sell him the vineyard or exchange with another one.

  • Naboth declined the offer because in Israel, selling ancestral land was against the covenant law.

    The land belonged to God.

  • Jezebel, Ahab’s wife, soon learned, Naboth’s refusal and she arranged Naboth’s murder through false accusations.

  • After Naboth was killed, Ahab possessed the vineyard.

  • God commanded Elijah to go and declare His judgement on Ahab for committing such an evil act in Israel.

    Elijah declared the following judgement on Ahab:

    i. Dogs would lick Ahab’s blood at the same place where they had licked Naboth’s.

    ii. Ahab’s dynasty would fall kike those of the Kings before him who had disobeyed God.

    iii. All family members of Ahab would face violent deaths.

  • On hearing this, Ahab humbled himself before God and repented. God postponed Ahab’s punishment to the days of his son.

    Qn g. What can Christian learn from the teachings of Elijah?

  • From the Mt Carmel incident, they learn that Yahweh controls the forces of nature – can bring rain or stop it.

  • Yahweh is the only true and living God – Mt Carmel.

  • Yahweh is forgiving – pardoned those who repented on Mt Carmel.

  • Yahweh is a jealous God. He will not share honor with any God – killed the 450 prophets worshipping Baal.

  • A prosecutor – protected Elijah.

  • A provider – provided Elijah with food.

  • Yahweh answers prayers. He is faithful.

  • They also learn that church leaders should condemn evil like Elijah did in the case of Ahab and Naboth.

  • Christians should work to protect the poor from exploitation.

  • They should be prayerful so that God can help them overcome difficulties like Elijah.

  • They should strive to lead lives free from corruption.

  • They should remain faithful even if it means costing their lives to Naboth.

  • Leaders should realize authority comes from God and are accountable to Him.

  • They should avoid idolatry, which Elijah condemned.

  • Perform tasks given by God however had they may be as Elijah did – facing Ahab, killing the 450 false prophets etc.

  • Finally, they should invite sinners to repeat and bring them back to God.

    Topic Seven: Selected Aspects of African Religious Heritage

    Question a: Explain African beliefs about God (or qualities)

  • African beliefs about their God are found in their proverbs, myths, songs, prayers, narratives and religious ceremonies.

  • God was believed to be a supreme being who was beyond human understanding.

  • The African communities believed that God was all-powerful – omnipotent.

  • They believed that God’s power is expressed in natural occurrences such as thunder, earthquake floods and volcanic eruptions.

  • God is believed to be all-knowing omniscient.

  • He is limitless and knows hears and sees everything.

  • He is also omnipresent – meaning he is everywhere at all times.

  • Transcendent – beyond human understanding.

    Because of the transcendent nature, Africans found it impossible to represent him using physical representations.

    They viewed him as being far yet too near them.

  • He was seen as the provider and sustainer of creation.

  • They believed that God is everlasting. He has no beginning or end.

  • God is merciful.

  • They believed he is incorruptible.

  • African communities associated God with justice.

  • Physical features were often seen as a representation of awesome power of God.

    This is why large mountains, thick forest, unique rock formation were used as shrines.

  • African viewed God to be mysterious.

    Qb. Describe the African understanding of the Hierarchy of Beings

    Hierarchy of Beings

    Divinities

  • Ancestors

  • Human Beings

  • Animals and Plants

  • Non-living Things

  • God as the creator occupies the highest rank in the hierarchy of being – creator.

  • The Divinities: Came next and control natural forces in the universe, created by God.

  • The Common Spirits: Comprise spirits of people who died long time ago.

  • Ancestors: (living dead): Spirits of those who died recently and are still remembered by the living.

  • Human Beings: Consist of the living and the unborn.

  • Animals and Plants: Come next – for man’s use as food and sacrifice to God.

  • Last (7th) are Non-living things: Such as mountains, rocks, rivers, caves, dwelling places of God and Spirits.

    Qc. Describe the Role of the ancestors to the living

  • The ancestors acted as intermediaries between God and human beings.

  • They communicated the problems and wishes of human beings to God.

  • God and the spirits used the ancestors to express their wishes concerning human beings.

  • The ancestors welcomed those who died to the spirit world.

  • They helped to preserve the culture and standards of a community.

  • The ancestors blessed the living and corrected them through punishment.

    Qd. What was the responsibility of the living towards God?

  • To show gratitude to God and give thanks to him as an acknowledgement that He is the giver of life.

  • To honor, worship and adore God by praying to Him for their needs.

  • To pray to Him during or before a war, before planting, etc.

  • To obey and trust Him.

  • To take care of God’s creation.

  • To teach children about God.

  • Appease him through sacrifice.

    Qe. Describe the Traditional African ways of worshipping God

  • Sacrifice: They were used to ask God’s favour, thanksgiving, to avert evil and ask for forgiveness,before planting and after harvest, epidemics, birth, naming, invitation,weddings, funerals etc for different reasons.

  • Offerings: Foodstuffs e.g. grain, honey, beer, milk was offered in recognition of God as owner of property and provider.

  • Prayers and invocations: Commonest act of worship. A continuation activity done anytime as the need arises.

  • Song and dance: People were involved both physically and spiritually. This brought the city together.

  • Blessings and Salutations: Expressed in greetings and farewells e.g. “Go with God”, God be with you”.

    Qf. What were the African ways of venerating and communicating with the spirits and ancestors?

  • Venerating means showing respect to somebody

  • Spirits and ancestors were venerated because they were believed to be senior to human beings and closer to God.

  • Sacrifices were offered to them as the ways of venerating them.
  • Pouring libation was done.

  • The living invited them during ceremonies such as birth, invitation, marriage and burial.

  • They consulted diviners, mediums and medicine men to keep in contact.

  • The living named after them – thus they became immortal and members in the physical world again.

  • Their names were mentioned during prayer.

  • By maintaining their graves.

    Giving them proper burial ceremonies.

    Topic Eight: African Moral and Cultural Values.

    Qa. What is the significance of the kinship system?

  • Kinship means being related either by blood or marriages.

    The kinship system was important in the traditional African society because of the following factors.

  • The kinship system regulated people’s behavior towards each other. This promoted peaceful and harmonious relationships.

  • It promoted co-operation among community members especially in times of difficulty.

  • It helped to ensure that the disadvantaged members of the community were taken care of.

  • The living dead and the ancestors were part of the African kinship system.

    This showed concern or the families or relatives they left behind.

  • The kinship system led to the preservation of cultural identity.

  • It provided a peaceful way of settling disputes with the elders acting as arbitrators.

  • It ensured fairness and transparency in sharing out inheritance.

  • The kinship system united the members of a family and clan by giving them a sense of belonging.

  • It helped people to establish new relationship, especially through marriage.

  • Kinship ties regulated marital customs rules and regulations. People who were related in any way could not be allowed to marry.

    Qb. Outline and explain factors contributing to harmony and mutual responsibility in the Traditional African Society.

  • Good morals: Every member of the community was expected to do the right thing according to the norms of the community.

  • Participation in communal activities: Means of the community were expected to participate in communal activities e.g. wrestling, dances and communal work.
  • Sharing: People shared ideas and even property, which created harmony among the people.

  • Division of labour: Tasks were distributed according to one’s age; gender to avoid conflicts in roles.

  • Rules: In Traditional African Communities, elders, men youth, and women had their respective roles to play that enhanced harmony in the community.

  • Virtues: Virtues like generosity, obedience, kindness and honesty were encouraged since they contributed towards harmonious living.

  • Religious beliefs and practices: A common belief in God, the spirits and ancestors created a sense of togetherness.

    Qc. What was the purpose of bride wealth in the Traditional African Society?

  • It was a way of thanking the bride’s family for taking good care of her.

  • It was a form of compensation to the bride’s parents because the woman would now belong to another family.

  • It was a sign of contract that the man would marry the girl and they would live together until death.

  • It represented evidence of the groom’s ability to take care of a wife and a family.

  • It was a sign of generosity on the side of the man.

  • It initiated a long-lasting friendship between the families of the groom and the bride.

  • It cemented a marriage.

  • It was a symbol of the marriage covenant between the bride and the groom.

  • Bride wealth served as an outward seal of the marriage contract.

    Qd. Explain the role of medicine-men in the African Communities and their relevant today

    1) Medicine men

  • They are also referred to as healers, herbalists or traditional doctors.

  • They identified illness and their causes.

  • They identified appropriate treatment and prevention measures for the illness.

  • They averted the effects of a curse.

  • They offered sacrifices and prayers to God and the ancestors.

  • They prepared charms for protection against witchcraft and evil spirits.

  • They gave medicine to increase fertility in both people and animals.

  • They acted as counselors, guiding people on all issues of life.

    2) Relevance of Modern Society

  • Modern medicine has not fully displaced herbalists.

  • Medical doctors and scientific researchers today work side by side with traditional healers since herbs.

    are used to make modern medicine.

  • Some people still believe that there are some illnesses that cannot be treated in hospitals hence; they turn to herbalists.

  • Some people also believe that medicine people who practice magic have the power to change their fate.

    Form Two God Meets Us in Jesus Christ St. Luke’s Gospel Introduction

    Matthew, Mark, Luke and John record the life of Jesus Christ and his ministry in the four Gospel books.

    We shall trace the life, and ministry of Jesus Christ as written by St Luke to Theophilus. St Luke was a medical doctor.

    Topic One: Old Testament Prophesies About the Messiah Introduction: Read 2 Samuel 7:13, Isaiah 7:10-16

    Messiah

    The word Messiah is from a Hebrew word meshiach, which nmeans the anointed: thus a Messiah is one called, anointed and appointed by God to serve Him.

    Prophecy:

    A prophecy refers to a prediction of what will happen in future.

    Messianic Prophecies:

    These are those predictions that were made by the prophets to describe the coming of a righteous King who will rule Israel according to God’s will.

  • The origin of the Messianic prophecies in the Bible starts with prophet Nathan’s prophecy to King David.

    NOTE:

    The Roman ruled the Israelites before the birth of Jesus. They hated the Roman leadership and longed for somebody of their own to lead them into victory over the Roman rule.

    The prophet of Israel (the Old Testament) communicated a message that God would send a messiah to bring all people into a lasting relationship with Him.

    The prophets who were sent had different ideas about the Messiah.

    Their ideas about the Messiah were different from the Jewish expectations – whereby they hoped for political King to lead them into victory over the Roman rule.

    But the prophets were talking about a religious one – to free them from sin.

    Topic Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

    a) Explain the Old Testament prophecies about the coming of the Messiah.

    b) Relate the concept of the Messiah in the Old and New testaments.

    c) Explain the link between the Old and the New Testament.

    d) Discuss the role of John the Baptist.

    Lesson One. Old Testament Prophesies About the Coming of the Messiah.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    describe prophesies of Nathan

    Isaiah, Jeremiah, Psalmist prophecy (David) and Micah concerning the Messiah

    (i) Nathan’s Prophecy (2 Samuel 7:3 – 17) and (Psalms 89: 20 – 38).

    David proposed to build God a house.

    Nathan, the prophet was given a message (an oracle) for David.

    In this prophecy, God told Nathan to tell King David that:

  • God would ensure that the Kingdom of David would last forever.

  • An heir from David’s lineage would rule.

  • David’s heir shall build a house for God’s name.

    God would establish the throne of his Kingdom forever.

  • David heir shall be God’s son and God shall be his father.

  • David house and Kingdom shall be established forever.

    David died. But God’s mercy shall not depart from the heir of David.

    Hence the promise that the Kingdom of David, shall last forever referred to the messiah who was to come.

    David is an ancestor of Christ.

    (ii) Isaiah’s Prophecy – Isaiah 7: 10 – 16; 9: 1- 7; 61:1 –2; and 63.

    In these readings, Isaiah prophesied that the Messiah would be:

  • Born of a virgin

  • A boy, born of a virgin and called ‘Emmanuel’ that is ” God with us”

  • A Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, The everlasting Father, and the Prince of Peace.

  • The Spirit of God inside him.

  • Anointed of God.

  • Sent to preach the good news to the poor, to bring liberty to the captives, proclaim the year of favour from God.

  • Isaiah also prophesied that the Messiah would be the suffering servant (Isaiah 53).

    Characteristics of the Suffering Servant – Isaiah 53

  • He would bear the sins of human kind.

  • He was oppressed, afflicted, despised, rejected of men.

  • He bore suffering and disgrace submissively.

  • He was mocked and spat on and wounded.

  • He was innocent of sin and yet treated as a criminal.

  • He was pierced and wounded in the sides.

  • He was crucified with thieves and made intercession for the sinners.

  • He was buried in a rich man’s tomb.

    iii. Jeremiah’s Prophecy- Jeremiah 23: 5 – 6.

    God promised to rise up a (branch) who shall:

  • Choose as King, a righteous descendant of David.

  • Prosper.

  • Rule wisely, do what is right, and just in the world.

  • Execute justice on the earth.

  • Ensure that Judah and Israel are safe and live in peace.

  • Be called ‘the God our righteousness” – “The Lord our salvation’.

    What does the term a ‘righteous branch ‘means?

    iv. Micah’s Prophesy, (Micah 5: 1 – 5).

    Micah prophesied that:

  • The Messianic King shall come from Bethlehem.

  • He shall lead with authority.

  • He will bring peace.

    v. The Psalmist Prophecy (Psalm 41:9 and 110:1 –2).

    David spoke of

  • Betrayal by a close friend.

  • Messiah is referred to as ‘ the Lord’.

  • The messiah shall rule/reign in the midst of enemies.

    Summary

    Nathan, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Psalmist prophecy (David) and Micah prophesied of a Messiah to come.

    The Jews expected a Messiah who would be a political leader, a victorious ruler and a King. They expected a Messiah:

  • Who would lead his people into a time of great national power and prosperity;

  • In whose reign, there shall be no illness, no sorrow, no injustice,.

  • In whose reign, there shall be no fear.

  • In whose reign, land shall be filled with joy and peace
  • Who shall rule forever.

    Revision questions

    1) Describe the prophecy of Jeremiah concerning the Messiah

    2) What does the term Messiah mean?

    3) Highlight the Jewish expectations of the Messiah in the Old Testament?

    4) Did Jesus Christ fulfill the O.T. prophecies concerning the Messiah? How?

    5) Which prophets in the Old Testament prophesied about the expected Messiah?

    Lesson Two. The Concept of the Messiah in the New Testament

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    Explain the concept of the Messiah in the New Testament

    The concept of messiah is found in Luke 1:26 – 38; 2:1-23; 23:1 – 35; 24:50 – 51.

    The writer of Luke’s Gospel makes it clear that Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies concerning the coming of the Messiah.

    How did He do this? Well Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies because;

  • Jesus was born from the lineage of David (Mathew 1)

  • Angle Gabriel said the child to be born shall rule forever (Luke 1:32)

    Nathan’s prophecy

  • Jesus was born of Mary a Virgin, as pre told by Isaiah 7:14

  • Messiah is called Emmanuel, Isaiah’s prophecy. Mathew 1:18 – 25

  • Jesus was born in Bethlehem – Micah’s prophecy

  • The Messiah would be a ‘Son of David’ – Nathan, and Jeremiah prophesies.

    Jesus was referred to as a‘Son of David’ (Luke 18:38)

  • Jesus would bring salvation said by Simeon during dedication of Jesus.

    Luke 2:29 – 32.

    This was a fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy.

  • Jesus referred to himself as the Messiah by reading the scroll. Isaiah 61:1 – 2. and Luke 4: 18 – 19

  • Isaiah prophesied that the Messiah would perform miracles. Jesus performed many miracles.

  • The prophecy of the suffering servant (Isaiah 53) was fulfilled through the passion, death and crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

  • We see Jesus betrayed by one of his disciples – friend, fulfilling the Psalmist prophecy.

    Note that the Jews in the New Testament expected a messiah who would deliver them from the rule of the Romans.

    Jews expected Jesus to be a political leader or king.

    However, Peter called him ‘the Christ of God’ (Luke 9:20). Matthew called him King of the Jews in chapter (2 verse 2). Hence, Jesus came as a Spiritual Leader and King, and not as a political Leader / King.

    Self-Assessment Questions

    1. What does the name Emmanuel mean?

    2. Explain the concept of the Messiah in the New Testament?

    Lesson Three. Annunciation of the Birth of John the Baptist Introduction

    The parents of John the Baptist were Zechariah and his wife Elizabeth. Zechariah’s name meant ‘God has remembered’.

    Elizabeth’s name meant ‘God has sworn’. Learning outcome.

    By the end of this lesson, you should be able to describe the annunciation of the birth of John the Baptist and Jesus.

    John the Baptist

    1. The Annunciation – Read – Luke 1:5 – 25.

    Zechariah was a priest. He and his wife Elizabeth were old, good and righteous people of God.

    But they did not have a child. They were barren. But God gave them a child, John the Baptist.

    His birth was announced to his father, Zechariah, when he was in the temple offering incense.

    An Angel appeared to Zechariah and told him that his prayers had been heard.

    His wife Elizabeth will bear a son.

    The angel said the child would be called John, which means that ‘God is gracious’.

    The child

  • Will be set aside to serve God.

  • Will be filled with the Holy Spirit As an adult, John.

  • Will be a Nazarite. He should neither cut his hair nor drink wine.

  • Shall turn many hearts of people to the Lord their God.

  • Shall also turn the hearts of the fathers to their children Zachariah expressed unbelief to these words.

    Angel Gabriel told him that he shall be dumb until the fulfillment of the God’s words.

    The Birth, Circumcision and Naming Of John the Baptist Elizabeth brought forth a son.

    This brought great joy to her and Zachariah.

    The cousins, and neighbours of Elizabeth wanted the Child to be named Zechariah after the father.

    But Elizabeth insisted on the name John.

    When Zechariah was asked to name the child, he wrote down the name John.

    On the 8th day, the child was named John as the angel had said.

    John was circumcised on the 8th day according to the Jewish traditions.

    After naming his Child John, the mouth of Zechariah opened immediately and he started to speak.

    He sung a song – referred to as Benedictus in Luke 1:67 – 79. As he sung the Benedictus,

    Zechariah prophesied that God has:

  • Raised up a horn of salvation on the house of David.

  • Remembered his covenant with Abraham.

    Zechariah said this about his Child John:

  • He shall be the prophet of the most high.

  • The child/John shall prepare the way of the lord by.

    (i) Calling men to forgiveness.

    (ii) Showing men the light of salvation.

    (iii) Guiding people into peace.

    Lesson Four. The Role of John the Baptist

    The role of John the Baptist is found in Isaiah 40: 3 – 5, Malachi 3:1, 4:5 – 6, and Luke 7: 20 – 35. 143

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    describe the role of John the Baptist in the Gospel.

    John the Baptist had an important role to play according to the Angel who announced his coming birth.

    His role was to: .

  • Be a Prophet with qualities of Elijah (see Malachi 3:1, 4:5)

  • Announce the good news to come just like Elijah did.

  • Be the link between the Old Testament and New Testament.

  • Prepare the way for the Lord.

  • Announce the coming of God’s reign that was near.

  • Preach a baptism of repentance.

  • Baptize with water.

  • Introduce people, and his disciples to the Messiah – Jesus Christ.

  • Fulfil the Prophecy of Elijah that a messenger was sent before the coming of the Messiah.

    John the Baptist was likened to Elijah.

    Topic review questions

    1. Outline the qualities of John as described by angel Gabriel to Zechariah.

    2. Why was John referred to as the second Elijah?

    3. What lessons do Christians learn from annunciation of the birth of John the Baptist?

    4.describe the birth of John the Baptist.

    Topic Two: the Infancy and Early Life of Jesus – Luke 1:26 – 38

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should:

    a. Explain events leading to the birth of Jesus

    b. Describe the meeting between Mary and Elizabeth

    c. Describe the birth of Jesus

    d. Explain the dedication of Jesus

    e. Describe Jesus at the Temple

    a. Angel Gabriel announces the birth of Jesus.

    Angel Gabriel said that Mary would conceive and bear a child.

    Angel Gabriel called Mary ‘ the highly favoured one’. Mary was an ordinary virgin girl in Galilee engaged to marry Joseph, a descendant of David.

    The Angel said that Mary will bear

    (i) A Son

    (ii) called Jesus (which means God serves.

    (iii) The child shall be great

    (iv) He shall be called the son of the highest.

    (v) He shall be given the throne of his father David

    (vi) He shall reign forever

    (vii) His kingdom will never end.

    Read again and explain what angel Gabriel said concerning the child to be born to Mary?

    b. Mary visits Elizabeth. Luke 1:39-56

    Angel Gabriel had told Mary that her cousin Elizabeth was also going to have a child.

    Mary went to visit her.

    The child in Elizabeth’s womb leaped when Mary greeted Elizabeth.

    The Holy Spirit revealed to Elizabeth that Mary is the mother of her Lord, the Messiah.

    Mary answered Elizabeth by singing the hymn “The Protector” in Psalm 121:3, The Love of God. Psalm 103:17, 98:3.

    The Magnificent. In this hymn Mary says:

    Her soul magnifies the Lord.

    The Lord has regarded the poor and those of low estate.

    God’s mercy is on them that fear him from generation to generation.

    God humbles the proud and mighty, and exalts those of low estate (the lowly) God has filled the hungry and sent the rich away empty Through the magnificent, Mary, expresses her joy, gratitude and favour given to her and the world.

    c. The birth of Jesus Christ. Luke.2: 1 – 20

    The birth of Jesus took place in Bethlehem, in Judea, during the reign of Augustus Caesar, a Roman Emperor.

    During that time, Rome was conducting a census of the people / citizens for the purpose of collecting taxes.

    The census was ordered by the emperor to determine payment of taxes.

    The method that Rome was using was counting. Joseph, of the house of David went to his hometown, called Bethlehem; for the census. Jesus was born during this time.

    He was wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a manger because there was no accommodation in Bethlehem.

    The first people to receive the news that a Savior was born were the shepherds.

    An angel announced the birth of the Savior, Christ the lord, to the shepherds.

    The shepherdswent to Bethlehem and saw the child Jesus. They spread the word concerning what had been told them about the child.

    How was the annunciation of the birth of Jesus extraordinary?

    d. The dedication of Jesus – Luke..2: 22 – 38

    Like John the Baptist, Jesus was circumcised, and named on the 8th day. He was named Jesus which means ‘the savior’ or Yahweh or save’s.

    Mary and Joseph observed the Jewish customs according to the Law of Moses.

    For her purification and dedication of the child Jesus, Mary brought a pair of turtledoves as an offering.

    The fist born males were dedicated to God as Holy.

    Simeon took the child up in his arms for dedication and said that:

    “The child is set for the fall and rising of many in Israel.

    A Sword will pierce Mary’s soul on account of the child.” Prophet Anna also came to the temple and prophesied that the child shall bring deliverance.

    e. Jesus at the Temple Luke 2:42 – 52

    The parents of Jesus Mary and Joseph, went to Jerusalem every year for the feast of the Passover.

    When Jesus was 12, he accompanied them to Jerusalem. After the feast the parents went home without realizing that their child, Jesus was not with them. But while on the way, they realized he was not amongest them.

    They returned to Jerusalem, and looked for him for 3 days.

    They found him sitting in the temple; listening and asking teachers questions.

    All those who were in the temple were astonished by his wisdom and intelligence.

    It is in the temple that Jesus is revealed, first as a true son of his people and also as light and salvation for all people. On being questioned by Mary and Joseph, Jesus answered thus:

    ”Didn’t you know I had to be in my Father’s house, about my Father’s business?” This was an echo of Malachi 3:1 “the Lord whom you seek will suddenly come to his temple”.

    Answer these questions

    1 Trace occasions when angels appeared to people in the new testament.

    2 How did Jesus follow the customs and traditions of the Jewish people?

    Answers 1. Occasions when angels appeared to people in the New Testament.

    (a) Angel appeared to Zechariah to announce birth of John the Baptist

    (b) Angel appeared to Mary to announce the birth of Jesus Christ.

    (c) Angels appeared to the shepherds on the night Jesus was born.

    (d) Angel appeared to Joseph in a dream warning him to flee to Egypt with the child and Mary.

    2. How Jesus followed the customs and traditions of the Jewish people

    (i) He was named on the 8th day

    (ii) He was circumcised on the 8th day

    (iii) His parents took him to the temple for the annual cerebrations of the.

    Passover

    (iv) He went to the synagogue

    (v) In his dedication as a first male, his parents offered the sacrifices expected from them.

    Topic Review Questions

    1. Explain events leading to the birth of Jesus

    b. Describe the meeting between Mary and Elizabeth

    c. Describe the birth of Jesus

    d. Explain the dedication of Jesus

    e. Describe Jesus at the Temple

    Topic Three. The Galilean Ministry – Luke 3-8

    John the Baptist and Jesus Christ

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should:

    a) Explain the teachings of John the Baptist.

    b) Describe the baptism and temptation of Jesus and its relevance to Christians today.

    c) Give reasons as to why Jesus was rejected at Nazareth.

    d) Describe the first miracles of Jesus at Capernaum.

    Lesson One. The Preaching of John the Baptist (Luke3: 1 – 20)

    John the Baptist preached about

    a. Baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. Baptism means to dip in water’. Repentance means‘change of heart/mind, turning around.

    Baptism was a symbol of repentance, which means a total change heart/mind, a confession of sins).

    Baptism of water was a preparation of the baptism of fire and Holy Spirit by Jesus.

    b. He warned people of God’s coming Judgment.

    The religious leaders stressed outward observance of the law rather than inner righteousness. John the Baptist told them to bear fruits worthy of repentance.

    He told them to live righteous lives and not as hypocrites (brood of vipers).

    Religious leaders also assumed that since they were descendants of Abraham, God would not punish them.

    He warned them that God could raise descendants of Abraham from stones.

    c) He announced the coming of the Messiah as Judge. John the Baptist became famous that some thought he is the promised messiah.

    He however pointed to a messiah who will not baptize with water but with the Holy Ghost and fire (Jesus Christ).

    d) He preached on social justice. He taught, emphasized, advised:

  • That those who have should share with those who do not have.

  • The need for fairness and honesty for example tax collectors not to collect more than what was required.

  • That soldiers should not to abuse their power by accusing others falsely, robbing. They were told to be content with their wages.

    e). He condemned King Herod’s immoral behaviour. King Herod had married Herodians – his own brother’s wife. Herod imprisoned John the Baptist and this led to his death (Luke 3 v.22).

    What does the term social justice mean?

    Find the answer in (d).

    Summary of the teachings of John the Baptist

  • He taught on repentance and forgiveness of sins.

  • He warned people of God’s coming judgment.

  • He announced the coming of the messiah who would be judge.

  • He preached on social justice. Those who have should share with the poor.

  • He emphasized the need for fairness and honesty.

  • He warned against abuse of power by those in power and authority.

  • He condemned taking of bribes, corruption and over taxation.

  • He condemned sexual immorality (adultery).

    Relevance of the teachings of John the Baptist to Christians today The teachings challenge Christians to be fair, honest, and just in their dealings with other people.

    Christians should avoid being hypocritical to one another.

    Christians need to know that God will judge them for their wrongdoing. Hence Christian should repent their sins sincerely and seek forgiveness.

    Christians should warn non-believers of the coming judgment.

    They should preach against evils without fear; and avoid corruption, and sexual immorality.

    Christians should live together in harmony.

    Baptism was important to Christians.

    Group Activity. Read Luke and find out how John the Baptist was killed, why and by whom

    Lesson Two. The Baptism of Jesus and Its Relevance Today

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

    a. Describe the baptism of Jesus Christ.

    b. Give reasons why Jesus was baptized.

    c. State relevance or the importance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians.

    a. The baptism of Jesus Christ (Luke 3: 21 – 22)

    When Jesus was around 30 years of age, He went to be baptized by John the Baptist.

    Jesus was the last to be baptized.

    Although he did not need to repent as He did not sin ; He nevertheless was baptized even though He was without sin.

    When he was baptized, the heaven opened and the Holy Ghost descended on Him in the form of a dove.

    At the same time, a voice from heaven said, “This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased”.

    b. Reasons why Jesus was baptized. He was baptized because:

    a. Jesus wanted to show his approval of John’s Ministry of baptism.

    b. Jesus accepted the work of redemption of human kind to be completed through suffering and death.

    c. Jesus identified himself with the sinful humankind who needed redemption through baptism.

    d. Jesus carried all the sins of humankind (baptized last).

    e. He wanted to carry sins of people/humankind upon himself in order to bring about reconciliation between people and God.

    f. God can confirm to the people that Jesus Christ was the messiah (Psalms 2:7).

    g. It was an act of preparing those who were ready to receive the Messiah.

    h. Baptism was a way of fulfilling the Old Testament prophecy.

    c. Relevance or the Importance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians.

    1) Christians practice baptism. They follow example of Jesus baptism.

    There are many forms of baptism

    such as full immersion in water, sprinkling of water on the forehead, partial immersion (head only) and passing under a flag.

    2) Christians teach importance of baptism. It qualifies a new convert to become a member of Christian fellowship.

    3) Through baptism, Christians receive the power of the Holy Ghost.

    4) Through baptism, Christians identify themselves with Jesus Christ and all that he stands for.

    5) Baptism unites Christians in the body of Christ.

    6) Baptism is a symbol of death and resurrection. In some denominations, the baptized are given new names of other Christians and Jews.

    7) Baptism signifies the forgiveness of sins.

    Through baptism one is considered a child of God.

    9) Baptism is a form of preparation for the kingdom of God.

    10) Baptism is a sign of Christ’s forgiveness of sins.

    Lesson Revision questions

    a. What is the relevance of john the Baptist teaching to Christians today?

    b. Give reasons why Jesus accepted to be baptized

    c. Describe the baptism of Jesus

    d. What is the significance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians today

    Lesson Three. Temptations of Jesus: Relevance to Christians Today Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should

    a. Narrate temptations of Jesus.

    b. State relevance of the temptations of Jesus to modern Christians.

    c. State lessons that Christians can learn from temptations of Jesus.

    a. The temptations of Jesus (Luke 4:1 – 13). Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit returned from Jordan into the desert. Like Elijah, Moses, He ate and drunk nothing for 40 days and nights.

    He was hungry after 40 days.

    It is at this time of weakness when the devil tempted Him.

    First temptation.

    The devil told Jesus to proof that He was the Son of God by turning the stones to become bread.

    Jesus however replied that it is written man does not live on bread alone to sustain him but on everything that the Lord says (Deut 8:3).

    Satan was telling Jesus to use his Messianic power and Spirit to obtain material security for himself and his followers for selfish, materialistic purposes.

    What can we learn from this temptation? Jesus was not seeking to establish a material paradise on earth.

    Second temptation.

    The devil led Jesus up to a high place (High Mountain) and showed Him in an instant all the Kingdoms of the world.

    He told Him that he would give Him all their authority and splendor, if He bows and worships Satan.

    Jesus replied… it is written worship the Lord your God and serve him only.

    Do not worship other gods (Deut.6: 13-14).

    Satan wanted Jesus to use Godly power and influence.

    This was idolatry i.e. worshipping other gods.

    What can we learn from this temptation?

    Jesus did not come to seek a worldwide political military reign as many Jews expected Him to do.

    Third Temptation.

    The Devil led Jesus to Jerusalem and had Him stand on the highest point of the temple.

    He told Jesus to throw Himself down if He was the Son of God for it is written that the Lord will command angels to guard him (Psalm 91:11 – 12). Jesus replied and said it is written, do not put the Lord your God to the test.

    Satan wanted Jesus to presume on God’s good care by jumping from the roof of the temple.

    What can we learn from this temptation? Jesus will not force belief in His Messiah ship through a spectacular sign.

    Notice that the temptations came after Jesus’ Baptism, where he had solemnly accepted the opening of his public ministry and God confirmed it.

    Therefore the temptations were a testing of his loyalty to God’s chosen way of life.

    b. Relevance of Jesus temptations to Christians.

    Jesus, though without sin was tempted.

    His followers must expect to be tested in their faith.

    Christians learn that it is not sinful to be tempted.

    Since Jesus was tempted, he understands Christian’s difficulties when they are tempted.

    Jesus is always ready to help Christians to cope with temptations.

    Why do you think Christians are tempted?

    Through temptations and trials, Christian’s faith in God is strengthened. Christians learn to refer to the Bible for guidance when tempted.

    Jesus said that it is written… in reference to scripture.

    Christians should seek the Holy Spirit to give them strength to fight any form of trials and temptations.

    Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit went to the wilderness and was tempted by the devil……………” In temptation, God does provide a way out.

    Thus followers of Jesus Christ (Christians) should not be seekers of spectacular signs.

    Lesson Four. Rejection of Jesus at Nazareth Learning Outcomes.

    By the end of the lesson, you should

    a. Describe rejection of Jesus at Nazareth

    b. Suggest possible reasons for rejection

    a. Rejection of Jesus at Nazareth (Luke 4:14 – 30).

    After the temptation, Jesus went to Galilee, His home district to begin his ministry.

    As a faithful Israelite,Jesus attended service in the synagogue every Sabbath day.

    During that time, it was customary for visiting Rabbis (Teachers of the law) to be given the honor of reading from the law or to address the congregation.

    When Jesus was given this opportunity, He opened the scroll and read from Isaiah 61: 1 – 3 …’The Sovereign Lord has filled me with his spirit.

    He has chosen me and sent me.’

    Luke writes in 4 18 “ The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has chosen me to bring good news to the poor”.

    On completion of the reading, Jesus told them that today this scripture has been fulfilled in their hearing.

    From this reading Jesus referred to himself as the Messiah.

    The people of Nazareth in indignation wanted to kill Jesus by throwing him over a cliff.

    b. Possible Reasons for Rejection.

    Jews of Nazareth rejected Jesus because one, they knew him as the son of Mary and Joseph. They did not know Him as the Son of God.

    Two, Jesus did not fit into the idea of a political King that the Jews were expecting.

    They were waiting for a King with an army and horses.

    Three, Jesus preaching was seen as being against that of Pharisees,Scribes and Sadducees: the religious leaders at that time.

    Four, Jesus pointed out evils of religious leaders. Five, a leader is never accepted at home especially in a superior or senior position.

    Six, Jesus did not follow the general rules of the Mosaic Law.

    These were fasting, healing and working on the Sabbath day.

    Worse still Jesus associated Himself with Jewish outcasts such as sinners, and the sick.

    Discussion question 1. What are the possible reasons for rejection of Jesus at Nazareth?

    Answers

    (i) He was known by people as son of Mary and Joseph.

    (ii) He did not fit in the idea of a political king that Jews were expecting.

    (iii) Often times one is not accepted at home and at a senior position.

    (iv) He did not follow the general rules of the law of Moses.

    (v) He associated with sinners, and outcasts.

    Lesson Five. Healing at Capernaum

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson:

    a. Describe Jesus’ healing at Capernaum

    b. Explain healing of a man possessed with an evil spirit

    c. Describe Jesus healing of Simon’s mother – in law

    a. Jesus’ healing at Capernaum LK. 4:31 – 44

    After his rejection in Nazareth and an attempt to throw him down a hill, Jesus went on to Capernaum.

    Here he cast out demons (Luke 4: 40 – 41).

    He was teaching people. He performed many miracles of healing. For example:

    i. Healing a man possessed by an evil spirit.

    A man was possessed by an unclean demon/spirit.

    He was in the synagogue.

    When he saw Jesus, the evil spirit shouted, “Ah! What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are, the Holy one of God” (Luke 4:34). Jesus replied, “Be silent and come out of him.” The Demon threw the man down and came out without doing any harm.

    The man was made whole.

    ii. Jesus heals Simon’s mother – in law. After Jesus left the synagogue, he went to the house of Simon.

    Peter’s mother in law. She had a fever, Jesus commanded the fever to leave and she was made whole immediately.

    Which lessons do Christians learn from the healings at Capernaum There are many lessons. These are that

    1) Jesus is the son of God.

    2) Jesus came to establish the Kingdom of God and destroy the kingdom of Satan.

    3) Jesus has power over evil spirits / demons.

    4) Jesus came to save human beings from the slavery of sin.

    5) God cares for his people.

    Lesson Six. The Calling of the First Disciples Luke 5: 1 – 11

    Introduction:

    A disciple is a learner, a student or a follower. Learners followed a master so as to learn about religious matters.

    Disciples were followers of Christ.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to

    describe the call of the first disciples.

    Rabbis. These were teachers of law. They had special schools where they taught law.

    In these schools,learning was by memorization and repetition what students heard from the rabbis.

    The disciples of Jesus did not memorize. They learnt by observation. They were witnesses – and they spoke what they heard and described or explained what they saw.

    Call of the first disciples

    Jesus entered into Simon’s ship and started to teach people who were there. Later, He told Simon to “push off a little from the shore”. Jesus sat in the boat and taught the crowd.

    After speaking, he told Simon, and his partners James and John; “Push the boat out further to the deep water…and let down your nets for a catch of fish”.

    Simon told Jesus that they had toiled all night, and caught nothing.

    But if you say so, I will let down the nets. Simon obeyed.

    They let down the nets and caught a multitude of fish.

    They called for assistance from other fishermen. When Simon Peter saw this, he told Jesus “Go away from me, Lord! I am a sinful man!” Jesus said to Simon “Don’t be afraid, from now on you will be catching people”.

    On getting to the shore, Peter and his friends James and John sons of Zebedee forsook all and followed Jesus Thus the first disciples of Jesus were Simon Peter; James and John.

    Lessons from the call of the first disciples

    1) God can choose anybody to serve him regardless of his or her social status.

    2) God still calls people to serve him in various capacities as evangelists, pastors and others.

    3) Those called should repent their sins as Peter did.

    4) Christians should trust in God – Simon Peter trusted Jesus and cast his nets even though they had.

    caught no fish from the same spot.

    5) God can intervene in people’s lives through miracles (miraculous catch of fish).

    6) Christians should work together as a team. Fishermen worked together.

    7) There is hope for those who follow Jesus. He told them ‘follow me and I will make you fishers of men’.

    God reveals himself to people in everyday activities as Jesus revealed himself to Simon Peter, and his friends James and John through fishing.

    9) Christian’s vocation may require renunciation of family ties and occupations or a change of life.

    10) Those called to serve God are expected to be humble

    Lesson Seven. Opposition in Galilee

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should

    a. Describe the Pharisees? Scribes? Sadducees.

    b. Identify the differences between the Pharisees and the Sadducees.

    c. Explain why Jesus faced opposition from Pharisees, Sadducees, and Scribes.

    Jesus ministry consisted of teaching, healing and doing many miracles. Because of this work, Jesus faced opposition from the Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes. These were Jewish religious leaders.

    a. Opposition by Pharisees and Sadducees. Luke 5:12- 6:11

    Why did Jewish religious leaders; the Pharisees? Scribes? Sadducees oppose Jesus?

    There were many reasons for Jewish opposition to Jesus.

    These were:

    1) Jesus was becoming more famous than the religious leaders.

    2) His claim to forgive sins. This was reserved only for God.

    3) His association with tax collectors / publicans and sinners.

    For example, Jesus ate with Levi.

    4) His failure to observe the law of fasting.

    Jesus disciples did not fast like the disciples of the Pharisees and John the Baptist.

    5) Doing what religious leaders regarded as unlawful things on the Sabbath day. For example, a. Eating on Sabbath with unwashed hands (disciples).

    b. Plucking corn on the Sabbath day.

    c. Working. Jesus healed on the Sabbath day.

    This was considered as work, which was unlawful.

    Jesus healed a man with a paralyzed hand on the Sabbath day.

    d. Touching the unclean. Jesus reached out his hand and touched a leper and healed him.

    Religious leaders were not allowed to touch the unclean lepers.

    e. Associating with tax collectors who were regarded as sinners because they were corrupt.

    They collected more tax than the required amount. Jesus was supposed not to associate with them or support them in any way.

    Who were the Pharisees? These were

  • Referred to as the ‘separated ones’.

  • Religious leaders who expected people to respect and honour them.

  • Pious leaders and wanted everybody to recognize them.

  • Rich Jews and looked at their riches as blessings from God.

  • Called ones and thought of themselves as the ‘righteous’ ones.

  • Popular to the poor who respected them.

    Characteristics of Pharisees

    a. They believed in the Law of Moses and accepted the first five books of the Bible as God inspired.

    They insisted on strict observance of the law.

    b. They upheld and insisted on the observance of the oral traditions of the elders.

    c. They followed strictly 632 distinct rules and regulations broken down from the ten commandments.

    d. They believed in the teachings of the prophets and other writings of the Old Testament.

    e. They passed religious traditions of the Jews from generation to generation and regarded this as a duty or obligation.

    f. They believed in the existence of angels and regarded them as intermediaries between God and human beings.

    g. They believed in the existence of demons and Satan.

    h. They believed in and waited for the Messiah of God to come.

    i. The believed in the resurrection of the dead.

    j. The believed in the judgment of God at the end of time for all human kind.

    k. They were strong nationalists and political leaders who resisted all foreign influences and power.

    Who were the Scribes?

    The word Scribe means ‘a writer. The work of a scribe was to rewrite by hand – new manuscripts of the Jewish scriptures. The copied the word exactly as it was. The scribes were either Pharisees or Sadducees.

    At the time of Jesus, majority of the Scribes were associated with the Pharisees. A scribe was also a ‘Rabbi’ – teacher. Some scribes managed schools called ‘Rabbinical Schools’.

    In these schools, Jewish male youth learnt the Mosaic Law from the age of 13 years.

    Scribes were represented in the Jewish religious council called the Sanhedrin. Sanhedrin was the Jewish Court of Justice, which tried those who committed religious sins.

    Who were the Sadducees?

    Sadducees were the wealthy people.

    They were an influential group. These were the majority in the Sanhedrin, the Jewish Court of Justice. The poor hated them. They were also members of the Jerusalem priesthood. The chief priests were mainly drawn from the Sadducees.

    They believed in the divine authority of the Law of Moses and the Pentateuch’s first five Books of the bible.

    They believed that Moses wrote the first 5 books of the Bible.

    They regarded all the other books in the Old Testament as not divinely inspired. Hence they rejected them.

    They rejected and did not believe in

    (a) The resurrection of the dead

    (b) Last judgment

    (c) Coming of the Messiah

    (d) Angels and demons and

    (e) the oral traditions of the Pharisees.

    They were enemies of the Pharisees particularly because of religious matters. However, they joined with the Pharisees and Scribes to oppose Jesus Christ.

    Lesson Eight. The Sermon on the Plain (Luke. 6:12–16, 27– 49)

    Review In the previous section, we learnt that Jesus chose His apostles. He came down the hill and stood on a level place.

    He gave a sermon to those present.

    This address is referred to as the sermon on the plain in Luke’s Gospel.

    The people had come to hear Jesus’ word to receive healing and for Jesus to exercise unclean spirits from them.

    In the sermon, Jesus talked of the characteristics of the new community.

    All those who would listen to His word would be the “New Israel”.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to

    (a) Name the12 disciples.

    (b) Summarize the teachings of Jesus on true discipleship.

    © Analyse the teachings of Jesus on the plain (sermon on the plain).

    Selection of 12 disciples (Luke. 6:12 – 16)

    Jesus went into a mountain to pray. In the morning, he called his disciples.

    From them, he selected 12 disciples, whom he also called apostles. Apostle means one who is sent, a missionary.

    The 12 disciples were:

    (1) Simon Peter

    (2) Andrew

    (3) James

    (4) John

    (5) Phillip

    (6) Bartholomew

    (7) Mathew (Levi)

    (8) Thomas

    (9) James son of Alphaeus

    (10) Simon who was called the Patriot

    (11) Judas son of James and

    (12) Judas Iscariot who became the traitor (Luke vs. 14-16)

    Jesus teachings’ on true discipleship Jesus taught that a follower or disciple of Christ should:

    (a) Have unshakeable faith.

    (b) Be obedient to God’s word.

    (c) Be self-critical/analytical/self-searching.

    (d) Be kind, loyal, objective, fair, and generous.

    (e) Accept others without discrimination.

    (f) Be a disciple and show concern for others.

    The Sermon on the plain (Luke 6: 17 – 49)

    The Sermon on the plain is a lecture or lesson that Jesus gave to “ a large number of his disciples and a large crowd of people who had come from Judea, Jerusalem, tyre, and Sidon.

    They came to listen to the sermon of Jesus and to be healed of diseases, evil sprits.

    The purpose of the sermon was to teach the crowd the meaning of following Christ.

    Jesus covered 6 beatitudes or topics in his sermon. These are.

    1) Blessings and woes – beatitudes

    (2) Love for enemies

    (3) Judging others

    (4) Giving to the needy

    (5) A tree and its fruits

    (6) Wise and foolish builders – hearing and doing the words of Jesus.

    We shall now discuss each of these beatitudes in detail.

    1. Blessings and woes. Jesus taught that:

    (i) Blessed are the poor for theirs is the Kingdom of God.

    (ii) Blessed are the hungry for they shall be filled.

    (iii) Blessed are those who weep now for they shall laugh.

    (iv) Blessed are those who men shall hate, reject, reproach for the sake of Christ’s for their great reward is kept in heaven.

    (v) Woe to those who are rich, for they have already received their reward.

    (vi) Woe to those who are full for they shall go hungry.

    (vii) Woe to those who laugh now for they shall mourn and weep.

    (viii) Woe to those whom people speak well, for ancestors said the same about the false prophets.

    Those who accept to be followers of Christ are promised blessings while those who reject Christ are to suffer in future.

    2. Love your enemies. Luke. 6: 27 – 36.

    Love is often defined as a warm feeling / affection towards somebody or something.

    Jesus taught his followers to love their enemies and do well to those who hate you.

    Bless those who curse you. Pray for those who mistreat you.

    Do unto men as you expect them to do unto you.

    Lend also to your enemies.

    Love your enemies and do good to them. Lend and expect nothing back.

    Be merciful.

    From these teachings: true discipleship of Jesus Christ:

    a) Entails unconditional love even for enemies.

    b) Doing good without expecting any returns.

    c) Praying for those who mistreat us.

    d) Showing love to our enemies by exhibiting God’s love in us.

    e) Is love; because those who love are children of the most high who is kind and merciful to the sinners.

    (3) Judging others Luke. 6: 37– 42

    Jesus taught his followers not to judge others lest they are also judged. They should not condemn others lest they are also condemned. He asked disciples to forgive others and they shall also be forgiven.

    True discipleship requires acknowledging one’s shortcomings and avoiding criticism of others.

    (4) Giving to the needy.

    A true disciple should share what they have with the needy. Those who share shall be rewarded.

    He also said that the blind couldn’t lead the blind. There is a master and a follower.

    The disciple is not above his master.

    (5) A tree and its fruits.

    A healthy tree bears good fruits. A poor tree bears poor fruit. Neither does a corrupt tree bring forth good fruits.

    A tree is known by its fruits. Followers of Christ are evident to others by their actions.

    They are not hypocritical or fault finding.

    (6) Wise and foolish builders.

    A wise builder digs a deep foundation on a rock. When floods come, the house is able to stand.

    A foolish builder builds his house upon the sand. Without a foundation, when floods come, the house falls and is ruined.

    Wise builders are those who hear the word of God and do what is required.

    Those who do not adhere to the teachings are the unwise builders.

    True discipleship entails obedience to the teachings of Jesus Christ.

    Relevance of the lessons of the Sermon on the Plain to Christian Life

    Christians are urged to love even those that hate them. The challenges that followers of Christ.

    encountered in the New Testament are not different from those that Christians experience today.

    Christians should forgive others, share with the needy, avoid judging others, and follow the teachings of Christ.

    Lesson Revision questions

    1. Give the main teaching of Jesus on the sermon on the plain

    2. What is the relevance of the (beatitudes) sermon on the plain to Christians today?

    Lesson Nine. Jesus’ Works of Compassion

    In this lesson, Jesus’ works of compassion is discussed.

    These include the works of mercy for those in distress and pity for the suffering.

    Jesus’ mission lays its foundation in these works of compassion, because He came to establish the kingdom of God by conquering all forms of suffering caused by Satan.

    Compassion is a feeling of empathy for other people’s sufferings. It’s being merciful, showing concern and affection for others.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

    a) Give examples of Jesus works of compassion

    b) Narrate Jesus works of compassion

    c) Give reasons why Jesus used parables

    d) Identify categories of the miracles of Jesus

    e) Give lessons learnt from each example in each category

    a. Examples of Jesus works of compassion. There are many examples of compassion

    i) Healing of the centurion’s servant (Luke 7:1 – 10)

    Centurion is an officer in charge of 100 men. Jesus healed the servant of a Roman soldier and a Gentile.

    The Centurion showed love and concern for his servant. The centurion sent Jewish elders to Jesus with a request to heal his servant.

    The leaders said ‘this man deserves to have you do this, because he loves our nation and has built our synagogue’ (Luke 7:5). Jesus agreed and went with the elders.

    But before Jesus reached the centurion’s house, the centurion sent his friends to stop him from coming to his house.

    He said that he was not worthy to have Jesus under his roof. He said that he was a man of authority. Hence Jesus could give an order and the servant would be healed.

    On hearing this, Jesus declared to the crowd ‘ I tell you, I have not found such great faith even in Israel’.

    When the men returned, they found the servant well.

    Lessons Christians can learn from the healing of the centurion servant.

    1. Faith in God is important for healing to occur.

    2. We should confess our faith in Jesus. The centurion declared his faith in Jesus by saying he believed.

    that Jesus could heal his servant by his word.

    3. Christians should have compassion like Jesus. He took compassion on the servant and was ready to go and heal him.

    4. Salvation was not for Jews alone, but for all who believed in Jesus.

    Centurion was not a Jew but a gentile officer in the Roman army. But he had faith in Jesus healing.

    5. Christians should love each other regardless of their background or social status – the centurion loved his servant dearly.

    6. Christians should learn to relate well with all around them – the centurion related well with the Jewish elders and others.

    7. Jesus has power to heal any form of sickness.

    ii) The raising of the widows son – Luke 7:11 – 17.

    A widow is a woman whose husband is dead.

    The widow was of the city of Nain.

    When Jesus neared the gates of the city, he saw the funeral procession of the widow’s son, the only son of his mother. Jesus had compassion on the widow and told her ‘ weep not’.

    Jesus then touched the casket and said ‘young man I say unto you, arise’.

    The dead sat up and began to speak.

    All the people were filled with fear and glorified God, saying God has visited his people.

    Lessons Christians learn from the raising of the widow’s son

    1) Jesus has power over death

    2) Jesus empathizes with the suffering

    3) Acts of love should not be hindered by traditions – Jesus touched the casket even though Jewish traditions forbid it.

    4) The Widow of Nain was a gentile. This is a sign that salvation was universal.

    5) The crowd acknowledged Jesus’ lordship; Christians should acknowledge the lordship of Jesus.

    What are the practices pertaining to the disposal of the dead in your culture? and community?

    iii) Assurance to John the Baptist (Luke 7:20 – 30).

    A question arose whether Jesus Christ was the Messiah. John the Baptist wanted to assure his disciples that Christ; was the expected messiah: and not him (John the Baptist).

    He sent his disciples to Jesus to ask “if you are the one he said was going to come, or if we should expect someone else?” (Vs. 20).

    Jesus told the disciples of John to go back and tell John of the miracles works they saw and heard.

    Jesus then gave a testimony of John the Baptist as a prophet, whose life and missions is beyond that of ordinary prophets.

    Jesus testified that John the Baptist; was the forerunner or messenger of Jesus Christ: as the prophets in the Old Testament had written.

    The Pharisees and the publicans (teaches of the law) however rejected the testimony about John the Baptist. They had refused to be baptized by John.

    Those baptized by John the Baptist, the tax collectors acknowledged the testimony of Jesus. Jesus rebuked the Pharisees and teachers of law for their hypocrisy.

    In what ways were the Pharisees and teaches of law hypocritical?

    iv) The forgiveness of the sinful woman (Luke 7: 36 – 50)

    Jesus was invited by one of the Pharisees called Simon to his house to dine with him. In that city, there was a sinful woman. She went to the house of Simon when she learnt that Jesus was in the Pharisees house.

    She brought with her an alabaster jar full of perfume.

    She stood behind Jesus. She was weeping and washing his feet with her fears. She then wiped the tears from the feet of Jesus with her hair, kissed his feet, and anointed them with oil (an alabaster box of ointment).

    When Simon, the host saw this he said within himself, ‘if this man was a prophet, he would know who this woman is who is touching him” a sinful woman. Jesus told Simon a parable of a man who forgave two people that owed him money – one 500, the other 50. Jesus asked which of the two debtors would love him most.

    Simon said the one that was forgiven much, Jesus then told Simon that when he came to his house, Simon did not give him water for his feet; neither did he welcome Jesus with a kiss; nor provide him with olive oil.

    But the woman washed his feet with her tears, and wiped them with her hair.

    She also kissed his feet.

    Jesus told the people that her sins, being many are forgiven for she loved much. Jesus turned to the woman and told her ‘thy sins are forgiven’.

    ‘Thy faith has saved thee, go in peace’.

    The people who were eating with Jesus murmured. Who was Jesus? He forgives sins.

    Lessons from the forgiveness of the sinful woman

    1. The Jews believed that by associating with sinners, one becomes virtually defiled. Jesus however allowed the sinful woman to touch him.

    2. By her actions, the woman acknowledged that she was a sinner, and repented. This was in contrast to the Pharisees who were self-righteous and therefore did not repent.

    3. The Woman’s great love for Jesus led to her being forgiven of her sins.

    4. Christians need to accept their sinful nature and seek forgiveness from God.

    5. Faith in Jesus is necessary.

    Summary.

    Jesus is accepted women to be his followers unlike the Jewish customs which viewed women as lesser than men.

    Other women that played a key role in the ministry of Jesus include Mary Magdalene, Joann Joanna and Susanna among many others.

    Lesson Revision questions 1. What role do women play in the church ministry?

    2. Narrate the story of the forgiveness of the sinful woman (Lk 7: 36, 8:3)

    3. What lessons do you learn from the above story?

    4. Describe the story of the raising of the widow’s son at Nain (Lk 7: 11- 17)

    Answers

    Women play many roles in the church ministry. Some of these are:

    (i) Carrying out duties of pastors, bishops, and deacons

    (ii) Management. Some are heads of the women groups

    (iii) Leading in church service

    (iv) Participating as church ushers, choir singers, and youth leaders

    (v) Attending church. Women are part of the congregations

    Lesson Ten. Jesus Teaching in Parables (Lk. 8: 4- 21)

    Introduction

    Jesus used parables to teach. A parable is a Greek word. It means comparing or ‘putting side by side’ in order to understand.

    A parable is defined as a short story or description, which teaches something or answers some questions.

    It is an allegory – an earthly story with a hidden or heavenly meaning.

    a. Use of parables.

    Jesus used parables in his teachings in order to explain unfamiliar messages in a language that his hearers could understand.

    Other reasons were because Jesus wanted to:

    1) Provoke critical thinking

    2) Make the audience understand issues from a different point of view

    3) Explain the nature of the kingdom of God by giving real life examples.

    4) Explain the nature of God. The parables brought out the attributes of an invisible God. For example, the parable of the prodigal son who had been lost.

    5) Attract the attention of his audiences so that they could listen and understand.

    6) Make people understand how they should relate to one another. Read the parable of the good Samaritan.

    7) Teach God’s love to mankind. The parable of the lost sheep, lost coin. Separate / identify those who were sincere in seeking the kingdom of God from the onlookers.

    9) Challenge the imagination of his hearers since entry to God’s kingdom was a personal decision.

    10) Make an indirect attack on his opponents like the Pharisees, the scribes and the Sadducees.

    11) Teach his disciples that they should be persistent and never be discouraged.

    12) Make his teachings interesting and easy to understand.

    1. The parable of the sower Lk 8:4 – 15

    Jesus told this parable to the crowd that followed him. He said that a farmer went out to sow corn.

    He scattered seeds in the field. As he did so, some of them fell on the path, and they were trampled on and eaten by birds. Other seeds fell on the rock ground. When they germinated, they withered because they lacked moisture.

    Some seed fell among thorns bushes.

    They grew with bushes, which choked them as they grew.

    Some other seeds fell on fertile soil.

    They grew up in fertile soil and their yield was100 seed for each seed sown.

    Meaning or interpretation of the parable

    Jesus gave the meaning of the parable to his disciples.

    He said that the seed is the word of God.

    i. Seed that fell on the path represents people who hear the word of God, and then the devil comes and takes away the word from their hearts so that they do not believe.

    Such listeners are like the seeds that fell on the path.

    They hear the word but soon after the devil takes away the message to stop them from believing and being saved.

    ii. Seed that fell on the rocky ground are people who receive the word with joy but it does not stay with them.

    They believe for a while but when faced with trials and temptations they stop believing and fall away.

    iii. Seed that fell on the thorny bushes stands for people who receive the word.

    However, they fail to follow their beliefs because of interference by life’s worries, riches and pressures of the world.

    They fail to mature as believers. iv. Seed that fell on the good soil are those people with a noble and good heart.

    They hear the word, and retain it in their hearts. Such people persevere and produce good harvest.

    v. Interpretation. The different types of soil in this parable refer to different kinds of Hearts of people.

    The farmer is Jesus, God or Preacher. We learn that:

  • One should not despair and

  • It’s important to receive the word of God, practice it and persevere so as to bear fruits.

    2. The parable of a lamp under a bowl (Lk.8: 16 – 18).

    Jesus taught that no one lights a lamp, then covers it with a bowl or hide it under a bed. When one lights a lamp, they put it on the lamp stand so as to illuminate a room and for people to see the light. For whatever is hidden or covered up shall be revealed.

    In this parable Jesus is the light.

    The disciples had a duty to pass on to others messages they had learnt from Jesus.

    They should not keep messages to themselves.

    Interpretation.

    From this parable of a lamp under a bowl, we learn that:

    i A Christian has a duty to share the knowledge of God with others.

    ii One cannot be a Christian if this knowledge is hidden.

    iii Those who do not share may loose their beliefs.

    3. Jesus mother and brothers. Luke 8:19 – 21

    The mother of Jesus and brothers came to see him. Someone told Jesus that they were there.

    He told the crowd. “My mother and brothers are those who hear the word of God and obey “.

    Accepters and believers are the members of the family of Jesus.

    Lesson Revision Questions

    1. Give reasons why Jesus used parables.

    2. Identify various methods used by Christians in spreading the gospel today.

    3. Discuss the reasons why Jesus faced opposition fro the Jewish leaders.

    Lesson Eleven: Mighty Works of Jesus

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson

    a. Organise in categories miracles performed by Jesus.

    b. Narrate each miracle.

    c. Discuss the significance of the miracle and lessons to learn.

    Jesus continued to do miracles; and teach. His work is referred to as the mighty works of Jesus in various books.

    Miracles can be defined as acts of power whose purpose is to establish the kingdom of God.

    Miracles can also mean extraordinary events that go against the laws of nature.

    a. Categories / types of miracles

    Jesus performed four types of miracles. These were:

    1) Nature miracles – miracles that dealt with nature e.g. calming of the storm.

    2) Raising of the dead e.g. Jairus daughter.

    3) Healing miracles – healing Simon’s mother in law of fever, healing of the woman with the flow of blood.

    4) Exorcism miracles – casting out of evil spirits e.g. the Gerasene demonic.

    i) The calming of the storm.

    One day, Jesus entered a boat with his disciples to go across Lake Galilee.

    As they sailed Jesus was asleep in the ship.

    Suddenly, there was a strong wind and the boat began to sink.

    The disciples woke him up saying, “ Master, we are about to die”.

    Jesus woke up and gave an order to the winds and the raging waters.

    They obeyed and there was calm.

    He then said to his disciples ‘where is your faith?’ Disciples were afraid and amazed and wondered, “Who is this man?” Winds and waves obey him.

    This miracle teaches Christians to have faith and to depend on Jesus when they face raging temptations and persecutions. Jesus has power over nature.

    ii) Jesus Heals a Man with demons (Lk8: 26 – 39)

    Jesus and his disciples sailed to Gerasa town across Lake Galilee. On arrival a man who had demons in him for a long time met Jesus.

    He lived naked in tombs, and wilderness.

    On seeing Jesus, he cried out, threw himself down at the feet of Jesus and shouted; “Jesus son of the Most High God! What do you want with me?” ” I beseech thee, torment me not’. Jesus had ordered the demons to go out of him.

    Jesus asked him “what is your name?” He replied Legion or Mob.

    This was because the man had been possessed by many demons.

    The demons begged Jesus not to send them into the deep but to let them go into some pigs (swine) that were feeding by.

    Jesus allowed them and the devils went out of the man, into the pigs.

    The herd ran down the cliff into the lake and drowned.

    The herders run to the city and spread the news.

    The multitude found the man sitting at the feet of Jesus clothed, and in his right mind.

    The multitude asked Jesus to leave their country region.

    The healed man wanted to follow Jesus but Jesus declined and told him to go and tell others of the great things that God had done for him.

    The man went to town and told all “what Jesus had done for him”.

    This miracle teaches Christians that:

    1. The mission of Jesus’ was universal.

    2. Jesus mission is to teach all the people irrespective of their race, tribe or geographical location.

    The demon man was healed in a Gentile area. 3. Jesus has power over evil

    4. Powers of evil (demons) are real

    5. Human life is more valuable than man’s material things

    6. The demons – evil spirits identified Jesus as the Son of the most High

    7. Christians need to fight the power of evil

    SAQ. What were the causes of mental illness and spirit possession in traditional African society and in modern society?

    iii) Jairus daughter is raised. Lk.8: 40 – 42, 49 – 56

    Jairus was an official in the local synagogue. He begged Jesus to come to his house and heal his only daughter who was 12 was dying.

    iv) Woman with the flow of blood is Healed (Lk. 8:43 – 48)

    When Jesus was on route to Jairus house, great crowds followed him and pressed him on either side.

    Amongst them was a woman who had suffered from severe bleeding for 12 years.

    She consulted doctors and spent all her savings on physicians. But she was not cured.

    The society considered the woman unclean.

    It blamed her for her illness.

    She herself was embarrassed by her condition.

    This woman walked behind Jesus and she touched the hem of the garment of Jesus.

    Her bleeding stopped at once.

    Jesus asked, who touched me? Everyone denied it. Peter replied the multitude was around Jesus and it was difficult to know who had touched him. Jesus persisted someone touched him.

    The woman who had touched Jesus the woman came forward, and fell at his feet and confessed to all her sickness and explained why she touched Jesus and how she was healed at once. Jesus said to her “My daughter, your faith has made you well. Go in peace”.

    Jairus daughter is raised. Lk.8: 40 – 42, 49 – 56

    As Jesus was talking to her, Jairus was told that his little girl was dead.

    “Don’t bother the teacher anymore.

    Jesus told Jairus not to fear but to believe and she will be well.

    When he got to the house he went into the room with Peter, John and James and the parents of the girl.

    People around were weeping and wailing.

    But Jesus told them not to weep.

    She is not dead but asleep.

    They scorned and laughed at him for saying that she is asleep because they knew she was dead.

    Jesus took the girl by hand and called out “Get up, my child” – ‘little girl arise’. She immediately got up and Jesus ordered the parent to give her food.

    He commanded them not to tell what had happened.

    Teachings from these two miracles

    The miracle of raising Jairus daughter teaches Christians that Jesus is compassionate and the author of life.

    He has power over death, resurrection and life.

    In the miracle of healing the Woman with the flow of blood:

    a. Jesus made her healing public. This was probably because He wanted to acknowledge the woman’s faith in the public. Jesus made it clear that her faith made her whole.

    b. Jesus wanted to challenge the cultural practices that kept women in bandage and could not participate in public life.

    c. Jesus made her healing public so that the community can receive her back and shall not isolate her again.

    From this miracle of healing this woman, Christians learn that one; Jesus is the healer.

    He has power over all sicknesses even those without cure.

    Two, Christians should have faith in Jesus Christ.

    Lesson Revision Questions

    1. Narrate the healing of the Gerasene demoniac Lk 8: 26-39

    2. What lessons can Christians learn fro the healing of the demoniac man above?

    3. What do the miracles of Jesus teach us about him?

    4. Compare the raising of Jairus daughter and the healing of the woman with the flow of blood

    Answers.

    A comparison of the raising of Jairus daughter and the healing of the woman with flow of blood.

    (i) Jairus daughter was 12 years old and the woman sick with the flow of blood had suffered for 12 years.

    (ii) Jesus referred to both of them as daughter.

    (iii) Their situation – death and flow of blood did not have a cure (iv) The public witnessed the miracle of the woman with the flow of blood.

    (v) Jesus commanded Jairus to keep secret raising of his daughter.

    Lesson Twelve. Commissioning of the Twelve Disciples Lk 9:1 – 10

    Introduction.

    Commission means to officially ask someone to do something.

    Learning Outcomes: By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

    a Describe the commissioning of the twelve disciples.

    b Explain the story of the feeding of the 5000.

    c Describe the transfiguration of Jesus.

    d Explain the teachings of Jesus on faith and humility.

    a. The commissioning of the twelve disciples

    The twelve disciples or followers accompanied Jesus wherever he went.

    They were regarded as apostles.

    An apostle comes from a Greek word ‘Apostols’ which means ‘send out’ one who is sent or a ‘missionary’.

    The commissioning of the 12 disciples meant that they were given four main duties, power and authority to:

    a) Exorcise or cast out demons

    b) Cure diseases

    c) Heal the sick

    d) Preach the Kingdom of God and proclaim the arrival of God’s

    Instructions.

    They were told to:

    i) Take nothing for the journey

    ii) Initiate attack on the forces of evil

    iii) Depend entirely on God to take care of them

    iv) Take no stick, no beggars’ bag, no food, no money and not even an extra shirt for their journey

    v) Whatever house they entered they were to stay there until they leave the town.

    vi) If they were not welcomed, they were to leave that town and shake the dust off their feet as a warning to that city or town.

    With these instructions, the disciples left and travelled to all villages preaching the Good News and healing people everywhere. King Herod was perplexed by the work of the disciples and he desired to see Jesus.

    b. Feeding of the five thousand.

    Please open your Bible and read Luke chapter 9. Verses 11-17)

    After reading these verses, about feeding of the five thousand (5000) people we learn that

    1. Jesus is concerned about people’s physical needs

    2. Jesus demonstrated that he is the bread of life

    3. Jesus has divine power

    4. The Church has the duty of continuing to feed its followers both spiritually and physically.

    5. The feeding of the 5000 people points to the Messianic banquet

    6. Christians must learn to share whatever they have with one another

    7. From this miracle, Jesus expected his disciples to appreciate their responsibility. Their work was not only to preach and heal but also feed the hungry.

    Feeding was both physical and spiritual.

    The personality of Jesus and his identity Lk. 9:18 – 27

    When Jesus was alone with his disciples, he asked them who people say he is.

    The disciples told him that some say he is John the Baptist, others say he is Elijah and others say he is one of the old prophets who have risen again.

    Jesus asked them who they, disciples say he is.

    Peter replied that he is Christ of God.

    Jesus then told them not to tell people who he is for he Son of man has first to suffer many things be rejected by the elders chief, priests and scribes, be killed and be raised the third day.

    Jesus announced to the disciples of his passion (great sufferings) Jesus is the Christ (anointed) of God – Messiah as well as the son of man.

    A divine nature and a human nature.

    Jesus went on ahead to tell his disciples that they should deny themselves (self – denial) take up their cross daily and be ready to lose their lives for Jesus.

    However, great is the reward for the faithful.

    Lesson Thrteen: the Transfiguration (Lk.9: 28 – 36)

    Instructions. Read. Luke chapter 9, verse 28 to 36. Then answer revision questions that follow.

    A brief summary from the Bible

    Transfiguration is change or transformation of form or appearance.

    Jesus was transformed in appearance when he took Peter, John and James to the mountain to pray.

    During the transfiguration, Moses and Elijah came down from heaven to talk with Jesus about his coming death in Jerusalem.

    Moses, Elijah and Jesus were in heavenly glory and glorious splendor. Peter, John and James were asleep.

    When they woke up, they saw Jesus’ glory. They also saw Elijah and Moses with Jesus.

    Peter suggested to Jesus that they build three tents for Jesus, Elijah and Moses.

    As he spoke a cloud overshadowed them.

    A voice from the cloud said ‘this is my son, whom I have chosen——– listen to him”.

    The cloud left and the disciples found themselves with Jesus.

    They kept what they saw and heard to themselves.

    Significance and importance of transfiguration

    a. The voice from heaven confirmed that Jesus is the Christ of God, or the Messiah.

    b. Moses represented the Old Testament law. Jesus came to fulfil the Law of Moses. It showed that

    Jesus was not against the Law of Moses.

    c. Elijah represented the Old Testament Prophets. This meant that Jesus had fulfilled the Old Testament.

    prophecies. He is above the prophets.

    d. Jesus is above or greater than the law and the prophets.

    e. Transfiguration was a way of preparing the disciples for the death and resurrection of Jesus.

    Death is not the end of life (Moses and Elijah appeared to confirm this)

    f. The transfiguration prepared and gave strength to Jesus for what lay ahead of him

    g. Dazzling appearance showed the glory of Jesus

    h. The transfiguration also shows the importance of encouraging each other.

    5.0 Revision questions

    a. Explain the teachings of John the Baptist

    b. Describe the baptism and temptation of Jesus and its relevance to Christians today.

    c. Give reasons as to why Jesus was rejected at Nazareth

    d. Describe the first miracles of Jesus at Capernaum

    e. Narrate and dramatize the temptations of Jesus from the gospel according to St Luke,

    f. Identify five occasions when Jesus was tempted

    g. Explain ways in which Christians can be tempted today

    h. Outline ways in which Christians can overcome temptations in the contemporary world

    i. Identify lessons that Christians can learn from the temptations of Jesus?

    j. What is the role of the clergy in Kenya?

    k. How does the church participate in the upkeep of the clergy?

    l. Define and describe the transfiguration of Jesus

    Topic Four: the Journey to Jerusalem – Luke Ch. 9-18 Introduction

    As Jesus travelled to Jerusalem, He prepared His disciples for the life they were to lead after He leaves them.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the topic, you should be able to

    a Identify duties and privileges and cost of a disciple.

    b Describe the teachings of Jesus on prayer, hypocrisy, wealth and watchfulness’.

    c Describe parables Jesus used to teach about prayer, hypocrisy, wealth and watchfulness.

    Lesson One. Duties, Privileges and Cost of Discipleship

    Lesson Outcomes. When you read this lesson, you should:

    1. Explain discipleship

    2. List duties given to disciples by Jesus Christ

    3. Explain relevance of Christian discipleship to modern Church Jesus’ teaching on faith and humility

    A brief summary from the Bible. Read (Luke 9: 37 – 50) for details. After the transfiguration, Jesus used two incidents to teach his disciples about faith and humility. One incident was the healing of a boy possessed by an evil spirit (Luke 9: 37 –43). Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit out of the boy and the boy was healed.

    Jesus told His disciples that their lack of faith was the reason why they did not cure the boy.

    Jesus informed his disciples that faith in him was important when carrying out his work.

    Jesus’ teaching on His Work

    The next question was ….. who is to work for Jesus? All Christians can work for Jesus even believers who are gentiles. Read (Luke 9 vs. 49 – 50). Jesus told his disciples not to forbid others from carrying out his work for whoever is not against Him is for Him.

    This means that whoever had faith; even the Gentiles could carry out Jesus work.

    Jesus’ teaching on His followers

    Jesus was determined to go to Jerusalem.

    As He travelled, men volunteered to follow him wherever he was going. Jesus replied that foxes have holes, birds of the air have nests but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head.

    Jesus had no earthly home.

    His mission on earth was only for a time.

    A man requested to follow Jesus but asked permission to bury his father. Jesus told him to let the dead bury their dead. Disciples of Jesus have to leave their families in order to do His Work.

    Mission of the 72 men. Read Luke 10:1 – 24

    On the way to Jerusalem, Jesus sent out 72 disciples on a mission to promote the Gospel of the Kingdom of God through preaching and service.

    The 72 disciples were sent in 2s in order to encourage or help each other.

    The 72 were given instructions. Jesus told them that He has given them power over demons, serpents, scorpion.

    They have power over all the powers of Satan.

    When disciples returned, they reported that demons obeyed them.

    In Luke 10 verse 20, Jesus asked the 72 to rejoice not because demons flee but because their names are written in heaven.

    Out of the many followers, Jesus chose 12 apostles who learnt from Jesus and became His witnesses.

    Jesus’ teaching on the greatest disciple

    Read (Luke 9: 46- 48). The disciples asked themselves– who is the greatest amongst disciples amongst the 12 disciples? In response Jesus took a child by His side and said to the disciples.

    Whoever welcomes this child in my name, welcomes me, as well as the one who sent me.

    For the one who is least amongst you shall be the greatest in Heaven. Lessons from this example.

    Jesus explained that His disciples needed values of humility and simplicity.

    These virtues were needed to carry out the work of discipleship.

    Teaching about Discipleship

    1. True followers of Jesus Christ must

    a. Be ready to detach themselves from families and material possessions.

    b. Be ready to face rejections because not all people will accept them or their message.

    c. Be ready to serve.

    d. Be ready to cater for people’s physical needs.

    e. Be self – less.

    f. Not be hypocrites and should accept hospitality whenever it is given.

    g. Be able to exercise self-evaluation.

    2. Duties of a disciple were:

    a) To preach the good news of salvation to other people and be ready to suffer for the sake of Christ.

    b) Obey God’s commandments and follow teachings of Jesus.

    c) To help the needy spiritually and with material needs.

    d) To teach others about the Kingdom of God.

    e) To heal the sick.

    f) To cast out demons.

    g) Be prepared to suffer for the sake of the gospel.

    h) Being loyal to Jesus and faithful to the gospel.

    i) Commitment and loyalty

    3. Privileges of a disciple

    a) One becomes a member of the Kingdom of God.

    b) They get an assurance of eternal life.

    c) They receive joy of winning other people to follow Jesus.

    d) They receive peace, and blessings of God.

    How are these teachings relevant to modern church leaders and members?

    Modern church leaders have a duty to continue preaching God’s word to all people.

    They should serve God in several ministries such as visiting the sick, caring for orphans, the destitute, widows, widowers, and the aged.

    They should also be ready to suffer and even face rejection for the sake of the Christ.

    Exercise

    1. What are the characteristics of a true follower of Christ?

    2. State the privileges of being a disciple of Jesus Christ.

    3. Why did Jesus choose the 12 disciples?

    Lesson Two: a Committed Follower of Christ

    Read Luke 10: 25-37, and Luke 11: 1-13

    a. The parable of the Good Samaritan

    A teacher of law asked Jesus questions in order to tempt him. One was “ what must I do to receive eternal life? (Read Luke 10: 25 to 28). Jesus replied with a question.

    What do the scriptures say? He replied and Jesus told him to do as the scripture say. .

    He asked another question. Who is my neighbour? (Luke 10 v 29). Jesus answered with the parable of the Good Samaritan.

    In this parable, the righteous people among the Jews, Levites and priests, did not help the injured man.

    A Samaritan whom Jews considered unclean and sinners helped him.

    After narrating this parable Jesus asked the lawyer, who of the 3 travelers was a good neighbour? The lawyer said the Samaritan.

    Lessons learnt from the parable of the Good Samaritan

    In the above parable, Jesus stressed that a follower of Jesus should be:

    (1) Committed

    (2) Show love of God by loving people in need and their neighbours. A neighbour is anybody who requires assistance or help regardless of race, ethnicity, creed, colour or gender.

    Jesus wants his followers to show love and concern to all people regardless of their background.

    A neighbour uses his/her resources selflessly to help the needy. A neighbour is also compassionate, kind, and generous to the needy.

    Jesus Visit to Martha and Mary (Read Luke 10: 38 – 42)

    Martha welcomed Jesus in her home where she lived with her sister Mary.

    While Martha prepared food, Mary sat at Jesus’ feet listening to his teaching. Martha complained.

    She was doing all the work while Mary sat listening to Jesus teaching.

    Jesus told Martha that Mary had made the right choice to listen to

    His teaching. Lessons we can learn from Jesus Visit to Martha and Mary

    1. A committed follower of Jesus is one who creates time to study and listen to God’s word.

    2. A follower of Christ should ensure that their commitment to God is not overshadowed by daily duties,worries and responsibilities.

    3. Jesus visit to Mary and Martha was also to teach disciples on the characteristics of a true disciple.

    Revision exercise

    1. From the teachings of Jesus, on the parable of the good Samaritan; who do you think is a committed follower of Jesus?

    Lesson Three. Jesus’ Teaching on Prayer (Read Luke 11:1 – 13)

    Prayer is communication with God. It is talking with God. People pray to God all the time. For example,people pray to God when:

    1. They are in problems and in happiness;

    2. Seeking healing and wealth,

    3. Giving thanks to God,

    4. Identifying the needs to be met, and asking for favors from God

    5. Repenting and confessing their sins

    6. Thanking God

    There are many forms or types of prayers. These are:

    1. Intercessory prayer

    Praying for the needs of others.

    2. Prayer for repentance

    For forgiveness of sins.

    3. Thanksgiving prayer

    Giving thanks to God for what he has done.

    4. Worship prayer

    Prayers to worship God.

    5. Praise prayers

    to praise God, Honor God.

    6. Supplication and petition prayer

    whereby an individual makes their needs known to God and asks for divine intervention.

    Jesus prayed often during his life’s Ministry.

    The disciples asked him to show them how to pray. Jesus responded by teaching them the Lords Prayer.

    “Our Father who art in Heaven Hallowed be thy name Thy Kingdom come Thy will be done on earth asIt is in heaven Give us this day our daily bread Forgive us our trespasses As we forgive those who trespass against us Lead us not into temptation But deliver us from evil”

    a) Our Father who art in heaven

    The disciples were told to address God as ‘Our father’. God is to be seen and addressed as a Father.

    b) Hallowed be thy name

    The name of God should be respected and revered.

    c) Thy Kingdom come

    In Prayer, Christians/disciples are to pray that the rulership of God reign amongst them.

    d) Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven

    Christians to obey the will of God.

    e) Give us this day our daily bread

    Christians to pray for their needs.

    f. Forgive us our trespasses

    we ask for forgiveness of our sins and those of others.

    g. Jesus taught that one should be persistent in prayer

    If a man goes to his friend at midnight and asks for bread to give to his visitor, the friend will open the door and give his friend all that he needs.

    This is because his friend was persistent in knocking on the door.

    In conclusion, if prayers are to be effective, one must have faith and be persistent.

    Believe that God shall answer prayers.

    A committed follower of Jesus should pray at all times.

    In prayer, one should acknowledge that God is the Father and that all prayers should be addressed to him.

    Two, one should have faith that God answers prayers.

    Therefore we should be persistent in prayer.

    Reasons why Christians should pray

  • To honor God

  • To request for favors

  • To offer thanksgiving

  • To confess their sins and seek for forgiveness of sins

  • To seek God’s protection

  • To intercede on behalf of others

  • To strengthen their relationship with God

    Revision exercise

    1. What did Jesus teach about prayer?

    2. What is the importance of prayer?

    Lesson Four: Use of God’s Power to Overcome Evil. Read Luke 11:14 – 28

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

    1. Narrate Jesus teaching about demons

    2. Explain why the sign of Jonah was important

    3. Describe how God’s power overcomes evil

    a. Jesus and Beelzebub. (Read Luke 11: 14 to 28)

    Jesus drove out a mute demon. The possessed man began to talk. The crowd said that Jesus was casting out demons using the power of Beelzebub (the price of demons).

    Beelzebul was an evil spirit. However Jesus replied “Any country that divides itself into groups which fight each other will not last very long and a family divided against itself will fall.

    Jesus said it is by the power of God that drives out demons.

    Lessons learnt

    i. Satan cannot fight against himself therefore Jesus cannot be an agent of Beelzebub / Satan.

    ii. Gods Kingdom and that of Satan were two separate Kingdoms and could not co exist.

    iii. The destruction of Satan’s power meant that the Kingdom of God was in Israel and it was powerful.

    God’s power destroyed Satan’s kingdom. It is impossible to be neutral in the battle between Christ and Satan. One has to belong to either Christ or Satan.

    iv. Jesus has power to drive out demons.

    v. Demons occupy people. They bring disabilities and diseases.

    What makes people to be insane? Mentally sick

    b. The sign of Jonah. (Read Luke 11: 29 – 32)

    After Jesus drove out the dumb spirit, Jews demanded performance of greater miracles.

    They wanted Jesus to prove that he was their expected messiah. Jesus said that Jonah was a great miracle.

    But Jesus was greater miracle than that of Jonah, and King Solomon. King Solomon was full of wisdom. He was so great that Queen of Sheba came to listen to his wisdom. Jesus like Jonah had brought a message of judgment.

    Jesus is greater than Jonah or Solomon.

    If Jews refuse to receive and listen to Jesus, the Gentiles like Queen of Sheba, will bear testimony against the Jews and receive God’s salvation.

    c. The light of the body. Read Luke: 11: 33 – 36

    Jesus taught that no one lights a lamp and hides it under a bowl. A lamp is placed where all can see its light. He said that the human eye is the lamp or the light of the body.

    Jesus asked the listeners to make sure that “the light in you is not darkness” (vs. 35). What is the main message in this story?

    Lesson Five: Jesus Teaching on Hypocrisy, Wealth, Watchfulness and Readiness Introduction

    Hypocrisy

    is being dishonest and insincere or pretending to someone else or people. What did Jesus teach about hypocrisy?

    Learning outcomes. After reading these verses in Luke:

    1. State what Jesus taught on hypocrisy

    2. Explain value of wealth

    3. Discuss how modern Christians can be watchful and ready for the coming of Jesus Christ

    a. Hypocrisy. Read Luke 12: 1- 12

    A Pharisee invited Jesus to his house for a meal. When Jesus did not wash before eating the meal, the Pharisee was surprised. Jesus told him “.. you Pharisees clean the outside of your cup and plate, but inside you are full violence and evil”, greed and wickedness (vs. 39).

    Jesus condemned the Pharisees for their hypocrisy.

    They were concerned with outward appearances and traditions such as ceremonial washing of cups, hands, and dishes but not the souls of people.

    They loved the outward show and public recognition. Pharisees tithed, “but neglected justice and love of God” (vs. 42). They imposed rules and regulations for people to follow, yet they themselves did not practice what they preached. They refused to confess their sins but pointed out sins in others.

    They hinder others from entering the kingdom of God.

    They had failed to make people understand the true interpretation of the law.

    They were like unmarked graves – dead to people yet the people trusted them.

    After this teaching, the Pharisees and the teachers of the law began to oppose Jesus fiercely.

    What do we learn from Jesus teachings? Followers of Jesus should be

    1. Sincere and upright (honest);

    (2) obey God’s commands;

    (3), live to please God but not other people;

    (4) confess publicly their loyalty to God and

    (5) love God without fear and

    (6) be dependent on the Holy Spirit

    b. The Parable of the Rich Fool. (Read Luke 12:13 to 21).

    Someone wanted justice. His brother had refused to share with him his father’s wealth.

    He wanted Jesus to order his brother to divide their father’s inheritance between him.

    In response, Jesus answered him with the parable of the rich fool. A rich man expected a good harvest of his crops.

    He thought he did not have storage for the crop he expected to harvest.

    The man said to himself. i will demolish my granaries and stores, then build bigger ones to store all my corn, and other goods. He expected to have enough food to last him a lifetime.

    Then he can enjoy his wealth; eating, drinking and making merry.

    But God told him that his life would be demanded from him that same night. What will happen to his wealth, as he was not rich in God’s sight?

    Lessons to learn

    i Followers of Jesus should not put their trust in material wealth but in God

    ii Life consists of food, other material wealth and trust in God

    iii Whoever seeks God’s kingdom, will receive material blessings from God

    iv Jesus did not condemn material possessions but rather the attitude towards material possessions.

    v Jesus condemned attachment to material wealth instead of trust in God who controls our lives.

    c. Watchfulness, Readiness, and Instructions. (Read Luke 12: 35 – 59)

    Jesus told his disciples to be:

    i Watchful and ready for the return of the Son of Man i.e. Jesus.

    ii Faithful servants so that when Jesus returns, he will find them ready and acting responsibly

    iii Watchful of possible divisions in families

    iv Royal to Christ

    v Ready for the coming of the Son of Man. He will come at unexpected time; like a thief who comes when the owner of the house is not aware.

    vi Observing things of the kingdom of God, which were present in the person of Jesus.

    vii Like good servants, and watch over the affairs of the master.

    viii Be decision makers and follow the teachings of Jesus without being watched.

    Review questions

    1. In What Ways Were the Pharisees Hypocritical? Lesson Six: the Kingdom of God

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to

    1. Explain the teachings of Jesus about the kingdom of God

    4. Narrate the parables of

    a. The unfaithful fig tree

    b. The mustard seed

    c. Parable of the feast

    d. Parable of the great feast

    e. Parable of the lost sheep and the lost son

    The Kingdom of God

    Kingdom of God refers to rule of God, or God’s authority on people’s lives and the world He created.

    The kingdom of God was present in Jesus. It is now and in the future reality.

    The teachings, and miracles of Jesus were a manifestation of the Kingdom of God. For anyone to enter God’s kingdom, one has to repent and ask for forgiveness.

    The Kingdom of God continues to grow and spread through the work of the Church.

    Those who accept the teachings of Jesus Christ about God’s Kingdom are members of the Kingdom of God. Now to enter the Kingdom of God, one has to repent and not judge others.

    Read Luke 13:1-5. Luke has explained the kingdom of God and outlined who will enter it.

    The Kingdom of God has unfruitful fig tree (Read Luke, 13: 6 – 9).

    A farmer had a fig tree that was unproductive for 3 years. He ordered the gardener to cut it down.

    The gardener requested for the fig tree to be given another chance. He promised to dig around the fig tree and add fertilizer. If it bears fruits well, it can survive, if it doesn’t bear fruit, then it should be cut down.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    The unproductive fig tree represents followers of Jesus who are unproductive because they do not follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. God gives people chances to repent just like the fig tree was given a second chance to bear fruit. Jesus is the gardener who pleads for people before God.

    The followers of Jesus are expected to be fruitful.

    What are the figs used for?

    a. Parable of the mustard seed. Read Luke, 13:18 – 19

    Jesus likened the kingdom of God to a mustard seed, which is very small. When a mustard seed is planted, it grows fast to become a big tree. It is difficult to control its growth. When mature, the fig tree attracts many birds, which feed on its seeds.

    Lesson learnt from the parable.

    The Kingdom of God

  • Begins as a small seed and grows quietly and humbly

  • Then it grows and spreads to all corners of the earth

  • And It attracts many people

    b. Parable of the Yeast. Read Luke, 13: 20 – 21

    The Kingdom of God is like yeast. Yeast makes dough rise and the bread big.

    The Kingdom of God grows secretly and slowly just like the dough rises without being noticed. It is only God who knows how a kingdom grows.

    The Kingdom of God grows as a small unit that eventually grows, spreads and reaches out to many people in many nations.

    c. The narrow door. Read Luke, 13: 22 – 30

    As Jesus was teaching in towns and villages, a person asked him whether a few people would be saved.

    Jesus replied that his followers should make every effort to go through the narrow door as it leads to the Kingdom of God. The narrow door will not remain open forever.

    Lesson learnt from the parable

  • Those who wish to follow Jesus must repent immediately

  • Entrance to God’s Kingdom is through repentance

  • Everybody is invited to enter into the Kingdom of God.

    d. Jesus heals a crippled woman on the Sabbath. Luke, 13:10 – 12

    Jesus was teaching in the synagogue on Sabbath. Jesus healed a woman who had an evil spirit, which had bent her back (Hunch back) for 18 years. Jesus saw her and told her “woman, you are free from your illness!” She was made straight and immediately glorified God.

    The official of the synagogue was annoyed that Jesus was healing on a Sabbath.

    He and others were hostile to Jesus for healing/working on the Sabbath.

    Jesus told him, you hypocrite.

    You feed and look after your animals on the Sabbath day.

    Jesus emphasized that human life is more important than animal life or even observing the Sabbath.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    Jesus came to set people free from the bondage of sickness and Satan.

    Jesus work of liberation is continuous.

    It has to be performed even on a Sabbath day because human life is more important than animal life or even observing the Sabbath.

    e. Jesus’ Love for Jerusalem.

    (Read Luke13: 31 – 35)

    As Jesus continued with his teachings, he reached Jerusalem. Pharisees informed him that Herod wanted to kill him. His response was ‘go and tell that fox ” I will continue healing the sick and casting out demons.

    Jesus however, lamented over Jerusalem for rejecting God’s messengers.

    God would abandon Jerusalem for rejecting Jesus. Jerusalem was the site of Jesus death.

    It would eventually acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah who brings salvation to Israel and to the rest of the world.

    f. Man with dropsy (swollen legs and arms) healed (Read Luke 14:1 – 6).

    Jesus was invited to the house of the leading Pharisees for a meal on a Sabbath.

    A man with dropsy (swollen legs and arms) came to Jesus for healing. The Pharisees watched Jesus closely to see what he would do. Jesus asked the Pharisees “ does our Law allow healing on the Sabbath or not?” They kept quiet.

    Jesus healed the man who then left. Jesus asked the Pharisees, would they save their son or an ox if it fell in a well on a Sabbath.

    They kept quiet.

    g. Humility and Hospitality. (Read Luke 14: 7 – 14)

    Jesus was in the house of a leading Pharisees and observed that some of the invited guests were choosing the best places to sit at the table. He taught the disciples how to be humble.

    He said, when invited for a meal, let the owner give you a seat of honor that is reserved for important and honorable guests. Read verse 11. Jesus advised his host to invite the poor, cripples, and the blind who cannot invite you, as they have nothing to give back for generosity.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    Jesus is teaching about humility and hospitality. Those who are humble shall be elevated.

    Those who elevate themselves shall be humbled.

    Followers of Jesus should extend invitations to the poor and the underprivileged in the society.

    The Kingdom of God belongs to the humble people.

    c. The parable of the Great Feast. Read Luke, 14: 15 – 24.

    A man said to Jesus, “How happy are those who will sit down at the feast in the Kingdom of God” (verse 15).

    In response Jesus told him that a man made a great feast and invited many friends and colleagues to the feast.

    The invited guests failed to come and a servant was sent to inform them that the feast was ready.

    All the invited guests gave personal excuses explaining why they could not come.

    The master was angry and asked the servant to invite the poor, crippled, lame, the blind and anyone willing to come to the feast.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    God has invited all people to the great feast of the Kingdom of God.

    Those who honor his invitation will be blessed. Those who reject the invitation will be excluded from the feast.

    Jesus explained that the Kingdom of God is like a great feast open to all Jews and Gentiles.

    To enter the Kingdom of God, one has to make a personal decision because following Jesus means sacrificing activities that we consider important to us.

    d. The Cost of Being a Disciple Read Luke 14: 25 – 33

    True discipleship means loving Jesus more than ones family. This is a great sacrifice to detach oneself from the family.

    A disciple must be ready to suffer for the sake of following Jesus.

    Following Jesus requires skills of careful thinking, planning and detailed preparations. Jesus compared true discipleship to the planning required when building a tower or engaging in a military operation.

    Lessons / teachings learnt from the parable

    True discipleship means making great sacrifices, “none of you can be my disciple unless you give up everything you have” (verse 33). Jesus disciples are expected to do careful planning before deciding to follow him because they are required to love God more than anyone else even their relatives and friends.

    e. The parable of the Lost Sheep Read Luke, 15:1 – 7

    Pharisees and teachers of law complained to Jesus because Jesus was teaching ordinary people such as tax collectors, and outcasts considered sinners by them. Jesus told the Pharisees and teachers of law the parable of the lost sheep.

    He told them that if a shepherd with 100 sheep lost one of them, what action would he take? Wouldn’t he leave the 99 sheep and go out to look for the lost sheep? And on finding it, wouldn’t the shepherd celebrate with friends and neighbours? Jesus said that God celebrates if “over one sinner who repents than over 99 respectable people who do not need to repent.”

    Lessons / teachings learnt from the parable

    iii God is a shepherd and takes care of all his people.

    iv He does not want any of his people to be lost.

    v God searches for those lost in sin until he finds them.

    vi When one sinner repents, God is overjoyed and rejoices.

    vii God is the good shepherd who has come to seek and save the lost.

    f. Parable of the Lost Coin. Read Luke, 15: 8 – 10

    If a woman losses one of her ten silver coins, she searches until she finds it.

    And if it is found, she invites her friends and neighbours to celebrate.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    God and the angels in heaven search make every effort to seek the lost sinner until they find them.

    Jesus lights the world, looking for sinners who are lost because they are precious in God’s sight.

    g. Parable of the Lost Son (prodigal son) Read Luke 15:11 – 32

    Jesus then told the story of a father who had two sons. The younger was given his share of inheritance he had requested.

    He went to foreign lands and wasted his inheritance.

    He became poor and decided to return home and ask his father to forgive him and employ him as a servant.

    His father kissed him and celebrated his return. The father announced to his guests that the son who was lost is now found. – - The one who was dead is now live. The elder son was angry and unhappy because his father had never held a celebration for him, inspite of his hard work and obedience.

    His father told him “my son you are always here with me, and everything I have is yours”. We are just celebrating the return of the lost son.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    a. A person dies spiritually if they sin

    b. God loves all people including sinners

    c. God is ready to forgive every sinner who repents

    d. There is no sin that God cannot give

    e. Jesus taught that both the righteous and unrighteous require God’s forgiveness

    f. There is joy and happiness in heaven when one sinner repents.

    g. Christians should confess their sins and acknowledge that Jesus saves repentant sinners h. God accepts unconditionally any sinner who comes back to him in repentance.

    i. Confession of sins is a condition for entering the Kingdom of God.

    A Great Feast for All Who Are Prepared Luke 14: 1 – 35 Saq.

    What are the qualities of those who belong to the kingdom of God?

    Answer. Qualities of people who belong to the Kingdom of God Those who belong to the Kingdom of God:

    i. Obey God’s commandments

    ii. Accept God’s rule in their lives

    iii Show God’s love to others

    iv Are ready to make sacrifices so as to be followers of Jesus

    v Read God’s word and preach to others

    vi Confess their sins and seek forgiveness of their sins through repentance.

    Review questions

    1. Give an explanation of the term Kingdom of God

    2. What did Jesus teach about the kingdom of God?

    3. What lessons do Christians learn from the parables of the lost son?

    Answer

    1. The term Kingdom of God means the role of God or God’s authority in people’s lives and the world.

    Lesson Seven: Teachings on Wealth and Poverty. LK 16:1 – 32

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the topic, you should be able to:

    a) Explain the teachings of Jesus on wealth, and poverty

    b) Narrate the teachings of Jesus on repentance

    Introduction

    While wealth is possession of material things such as money or occupation of a high social economic status, poverty is the opposite.

    It is lack of basic needs such as water, education, food, shelter, clothing, and health.

    When teaching about wealth, Jesus taught using two parables.

    These were:

    (1) parable of the shrewd manager

    (2) parable of the rich man and Lazarus Parable of the shrewd manager Read Luke, 16: 1 – 18

    When the shrewd manager realized that his master was going to sack him due to his dishonesty, he asked the debtors to change the amounts they owed their master to smaller amounts.

    He did this to make friends with a few people who would give him a place to stay after he was sacked.

    The master praised the shrewd manager and did not sack him.

    The shrewd manager is praised not because of his dishonesty but because he acted promptly and with great presence of mind in a moment of crisis.

    Jesus is encouraging his disciples and followers to make prompt (quick, appropriate, timely) decisions.

    They should use wealth to serve God. It should not be allowed to take the place of God. Followers of Jesus should be honest in small and big things.

    The Rich Man and Lazarus. Read Luke, 16: 19 – 31.

    A rich man lived in luxury. At his gates was a poor man, called Lazarus whose body was covered by sores.

    The rich man did not feed Lazarus. He ate food remains together with the rich man’s dogs.

    When rich man died, he went to hell. When Lazarus died, he went to heaven and sat at Abraham/s bosom. When in hell, the rich man was tormented while Lazarus was at peace.

    Lessons to learn from this parable.

    The rich isn’t condemned for being rich but because of his altitude towards Lazarus. He used his wealth for self-gratification and not for service to the needy.

    The wealthy should realize that it is God who gives wealth and he should be given honor. Riches can hinder the wealthy from inheriting eternal life, especially if they put their trust in riches instead of God who is the source of all wealth and blessings.

    Revision exercise

    1. From the parable of the rich fool what can Christians learn about the use of wealth?

    2. Narrate the parable of the shrewd manager

    Lesson Eight. Jesus Teaching on Forgiveness Read Luke 17: 1 – 4

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you shall

    Explain the power of Christian faith. Sin. Read Luke 17: 1-4.

    Jesus taught his disciples to forgive offenders who repent. Those who sin should seek forgiveness.

    If they offend 7 times in a day, forgive them 7 times. Followers of Jesus need faith to forgive others.

    The power of faith. Read Luke, 17: 5 – 11.

    Faith is defined as complete trust or confidence in God. It is absolute truthfulness and trust in everything that comes from God.

    The apostles asked Jesus to increase their faith.

    Followers of Jesus should have faith.

    Faith has no measure. Faith as big as a mustard seed can empower Christians to perform miracles that serve God.

    Faith is necessary.

    With faith, Christians can forgive others and be servants of God.

    Disciples should have faith.

    Christians understand that they owe everything to God.

    Jesus heals ten lepers. Read Luke, 17:11- 19

    Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem when he met ten lepers.

    They requested Jesus to heal them.

    Jesus told them to go and show themselves to the priests. On the way, they were healed. One of them, a Samaritan, returned to thank Jesus for healing him. The Samaritans and the Jews did not associate.

    Jesus told the Samaritan that his faith has made him whole.

    Faith is necessary for healing any disease.

    Leprosy is a disease that leads to loss of fingers, toes and other parts of the body.

    It was a dreadful skin disease, which Jews feared. Lepers were isolated from other people.

    They lived dejected lives.

    The coming of the kingdom. Read Luke 17: 20 – 37

    The Pharisee demanded to know when the kingdom of God would come. Jesus replied that the kingdom of God was within those who had accepted Jesus and his teachings.

    Those who wanted had received the kingdom.

    Faith is necessary to discover the power of God’s kingdom.

    The coming of the son of man, i.e. Jesus will bring the kingdom to reality.

    The coming of the son of man is also referred to as the day of the Lord

    Day of Judgment. Read Luke, 21: 27- 28.

    Those who obey Jesus will be saved but those who reject him will be punished.

    Lessons to learn. God expects Christians to have faith in him. Christians should have faith in Jesus so that they can inherit eternal life. Faith is needed to strengthen Christians.

    Faith is important in the life of a Christian until Jesus returns, i.e. the second coming.

    Revision exercise

    1. What did Jesus teach on forgiveness

    Lesson Nine. Persistence in Prayer, Read Luke, 18:1 – 14

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson

    Discuss the values of persistence in prayer.

    To teach about persistence in prayer, Jesus used two parables.

    These were the parables of: the widow and a corrupt judge and examples of prayer by a Pharisee and a tax collector.

    a. The widow and the unjust judge. Read Luke, 18: 1 – 9

    Jesus had already taught the disciples how to pray. He now tells them that they ought to pray and not faint.

    He gives a parable to explain his point.

    A widow went to a corrupt judge to have her adversaries judged.

    The judge was corrupt and ignored her.

    He however gave in to her demands since she was persistent and wearing him down.

    The judge helped her because of her persistence and courage.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    Followers of Jesus should pray with courage and be persistent in prayer. God hears and answers prayers.

    Christians should pray without ceasing and with faith and trust that their prayers will be answered.

    b. Parable of the Pharisee, and tax collector, Read Luke, 18:9 – 14

    A Pharisee and tax collector went to the temple to pray. The Pharisee offered a long prayer focusing on his achievements.

    The tax collector (publican) did not have much to say except asking for mercy, as he was a sinner.

    Followers of Jesus should acknowledge they are sinners and seek forgiveness.

    They should approach God in humility and avoid spiritual pride, and selfrighteousness.

    Revision exercise

    1. State the parable of the widow and the unjust judge Lesson Ten. The Way to Salvation, Read Luke, 18: 15 – 19: 1 – 27. Introduction:

    The word ‘salvation’ refers to the act of saving or being saved from sin.

    Those who have received salvation area assured of eternal life.

    To receive salvation a person must acknowledge that he is a sinner and repent their sins.

    In this way, they receive forgiveness and are reconciled to God.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should

    a. State the meaning of salvation

    b. Discuss characteristics of salvation

    c. Give examples of those who will enter the Kingdom of God.

    d. Explain how Jesus predicted his death

    Introduction

    Salvation means being saved from a life-threatening situation. In Christianity, salvation refers to the process of being delivered from sin and its consequences.

    Those who are saved are assured of eternal life. Jesus taught about salvation using children to illustrate his message.

    This is what happened.

    Some people brought their children to Jesus so that he could bless them.

    The disciples scolded them.

    Jesus asked the children to come to him and he blessed them.

    Jesus taught his disciples that they must be humble like children in order to enter the kingdom of God.

    The road to salvation is by being simple, humble, and trusting like little children.

    The kingdom of God belongs to those who humble themselves like the little children.

    The rich man. Read Luke, 18:18 – 30

    The entry into the kingdom of God was further explained through the story of the rich man.

    The rich man came to Jesus wanting to know how he could inherit eternal life and be saved.

    Jesus reminded him of the importance of keeping the commandments.

    The young man responded that he had observed the commandments since he was young.

    Jesus told him there is one thing remaining to do; sell everything he has, and give it to the poor, and then follow Jesus.

    The rich man was very sorrowful for he was very wealthy.

    Wealth can hinder the rich from receiving salvation.

    Jesus acknowledged the sacrifice made by his disciples.

    He emphasized that disciples shall receive salvation in the present and in life to come.

    Salvation is a gift from God.

    Salvation is received; by those who accept to follow Jesus.

    Trusting in wealth can be a hindrance to salvation.

    The rich may find it difficult to inherit eternal life.

    Jesus predicts his death, a 3rd time. Read Luke, 18: 31 – 34.

    Jesus predicted his death a three times. First was after asking his disciples who they say he was.

    The second time was after transfiguration when his face was set towards Jerusalem.

    The third prediction shall be in Jerusalem (Luke 18:31-34).

    Jesus told the disciples that previous prophecies would be fulfilled in Jerusalem.

    His death was going to take place in Jerusalem according to the writings of the prophets.

    It was going to be a painful death.

    He shall be beaten, mocked, spit upon and put to death.

    But on the third day, he shall rise again.

    The disciples did not understand what Jesus was telling them.

    Jesus had to die so that those who believed in him may receive eternal life. The death and resurrection of Jesus gives Christians hope of eternal life.

    Jesus heals a blood beggar. Read Luke, 18: 35 – 43

    As Jesus neared Jericho, a blind man sat by the roadside begging. When he heard the multitude pass by, he inquired what was going on and he was told that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by.

    He then cried out “Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me” The crowds rebuked him but he cried out louder to Jesus to have mercy on him. Jesus asked him what he wanted. He said he wanted to see.

    Jesus told him to receive his sight for his faith had made him whole.

    The beggar was joyful and he followed Jesus rejoicing. Lessons learnt.

    Christians should have faith in Jesus. They should also be persistent and make specific requests.

    Lesson Thirteen: Jesus and Zacchaeus Lk 19:1 – 9 Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson,

    a. Narrate events leading to salvation of Zacchaeus

    b. Explain meanings of the story of the man who gave gold coins to his servants

    Zacchaeus was short. His profession was a tax collector. He was rich. He wanted to be saved.

    When Jesus was passing by Jericho, he wanted to see Jesus. He couldn’t because he was short.

    He ran and climbed a sycamore tree to see Jesus. When Jesus came to the place where Zacchaeus was, he looked up and said “Hurry down, Zacchaeus, because I must stay in your house today” (verse 5).

    Jesus then went with Zacchaeus to his house. When people saw this they grumbled, and murmured.

    They said that Jesus was going to a house of a sinner.

    Jesus told them that salvation has come to the house of Zacchaeus, a son of Abraham … the Son of man came to seek and save the lost.

    There is no sin that God cannot forgive, even that of a tax collector.

    Zacchaeus told Jesus that he was going to give to the poor half of his wealth and whatever he took from any man and woman wrongfully, he will restore four times.

    From this salvation, we learn that the rich should share their wealth with the needy.

    The Parable of the Gold Coins: Luke, 19: 11 – 27.

    A certain nobleman went to a far country. Before he left he called his ten servants and gave each a gold coin (ten pounds in total). He told them to trade with the coins until he returns.

    When he returned, he called the servants to report profits they had made.

    The first servant said that one-pound coin had made profit of 10 pounds (gold coins). He made the manager of ten cities.

    The second servant had traded and gained 5 pounds.

    He was made the manager of 5 cities.

    The third one had hidden the pound. He did not trade.

    He accused the master of being mean, and cruel.

    He returned the pound, which was given to the servant with 10 pounds.

    Lessons to learn.

    This parable was about the kingdom of God. God expects us to use opportunities he has given to us for his work.

    Each one of us shall account for the use of the abilities and skills that God gave to us – students, workers, and other professionals.

    To receive eternal life, Christians should repent and be obedient to God’s instructions.

    Revision questions

    1. What did Jesus teach by using the example of little children?

    5. Give an account of how Jesus healed the blind beggar

    6. Explain the relevance of Jesus’ teachings on salvation to Christians

    Topic Five: the Jerusalem Ministry. Luke, 19: 28 – 21: 38 Lesson Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should:

    a. Describe the triumphant entry of Jesus into Jerusalem

    b. Narrate events in the cleansing of the temple

    c. Discuss Jesus’ teachings about eschatology

    Lesson One: the Triumphant Entry of Jesus to Jerusalem Lk 19:28 – 40

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should

    a. Explain why Jesus rode on a young colt into Jerusalem

    b. Discuss why Jesus wept over Jerusalem

    b. Describe what Jesus did when he went to the temple

    a. The triumphant approach to Jerusalem. Luke 19: 28- 40.

    Jesus death had to happen in Jerusalem. Hence Jesus went to Jerusalem. He sent two disciples to a place where there was a colt (young donkey) that no person had ever ridden.

    They took it to Jesus. They threw their garments on the colt, and Jesus sat on it.

    As Jesus rode, people spread their clothes on the road. As Jesus neared Jerusalem, a “large crowd of his disciples began to” praise God (vs37).

    The crowd said ‘blessed be the king who comes in the name of the lord’.

    The Pharisees told Jesus to rebuke the disciples.

    Jesus told them if the disciples kept quiet the stones would start shouting.

    Jesus made his entry into Jerusalem in a royal (kingly) procession.

    He was Israel’s humble king who came with peace and not a political leader.

    He rode on a donkey – a symbol of peace.

    This was unlike the political kings who rode on the horses during that time.

    b. Jesus weeps over Jerusalem. Read, Luke 41- 44.

    When Jesus was near Jerusalem he wept.

    He then foretold the coming destruction of Jerusalem due to its rejection of the messiah.

    The rejoicing of his triumphant entry to Jerusalem turned to mourning as he foretold the destruction of Jerusalem by Romans in 70 A.D.

    c. Jesus goes to the temple. Read Luke 19:45 – 48.

    Jesus went to Jerusalem temple and evicted traders. He told them that the house of God is a house of prayer not a den of thieves.

    Jeremiah spoke these same words during his temple sermon.

    The chief priests and scribes began planning how to kill Jesus.

    Lesson Two. Pharisees, Scribes Question Jesus. Luke 20 1-47

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Describe the question about the authority of Jesus

    2. Describe the parable of the tenants in the vineyard

    3. Describe the question about paying taxes

    4. Describe the question about resurrection

    5. Describe Jesus’ teachings against the teachers of law

    6. Describe the parable of the widow’s offering

    a. The question about Jesus’ authority. Read Luke, 20:1 – 8.

    The Jewish leaders wanted to know from Jesus by whose authority he was doing all the things he was doing. In response Jesus asked them “did John’s right to baptize come from God or from human beings?” (Vs4).

    They discussed among themselves and decided not answer.

    Jesus told them “neither will I tell you”. In response to his authority being questioned he told a parable.

    b. The parable of the Tenants in the Vineyard.

    Read the parable in Luke, 20: 9 – 18. The tenants refused to pay the owner of the vineyard his share of the harvest.

    They threw out the servants he sent to collect his share of the harvest.

    When he sent his son, they killed him so that they can own the vineyard. Jesus asked the people… “What will the owner of the vineyard do to the tenants?”

    c. The Question about paying taxes. Read Luke 20:19-28

    Pharisees, and scribes (teachers of the law) and chief priests planned to arrest Jesus but they were afraid of the people.

    They sent spies to trick Jesus by asking this question -” …is it against our law for us to pay taxes to the Roman Empire, or not? Jesus used the currency and told them “pay the Emperor Caesar what belongs to him and pay God what belongs to God.” (Verse 25) This was a tricky question.

    Jesus here teachers people to obey the rules of the land and to obey God’s rules.

    d. The Question about Resurrection

    The Sadducees who did not believe in resurrection tempted Jesus with another question.

    They wanted to know this. When resurrection comes, who shall be the husband to a woman who was married to the first brother and inherited as a widow by the other six brothers? Jesus told them the men and women who shall be worthy of resurrection shall not marry.

    They shall be like angels and cannot die (verse 34 to 38).

    e. Jesus warns against the Teachers of the law

    Jesus warned his disciples. Be careful and guard yourselves against teachers of the law, the scribes. They were hypocritical.

    They wore long robes, said long prayers, looked for positions of honor and exploited the widows.

    f. The Widow’s Offering. Luke, 21: 1- 4

    When people were giving offerings in the temple, a widow gave “two little copper coins”. Jesus said the poor widow had given all she had.

    Likewise Christians should give to God not to be seen but from their hearts.

    It is not the quantity of the gift that matters but the attitude of the giver.

    Lesson Three: the Teachings of Jesus About Eschatology LK. 21: 5 – 38

    Eschatology is from two Greek words, ‘eschatus’ and ‘logos’. Eschatus means end, Logos means study.

    Eschatology means the study of the end times or in CRE the last days of Jesus.

    For biblical information, read Luke 21:5-38 and Mathew 24: 1 – 36 and Mark 13:1-31.

    Learning outcomes. After this lesson, you should:

    a. Identify signs of end times

    b. State uses of the temple during the time of Jesus

    c. Discuss ways in which Christians can apply the parable of the fig tree

    d. State relevance of Jesus’ teachings on eschatology

    a. Signs of the end times. Jesus gave many signs that will inform

    Christians that end of the time has come.

    These were to happen at different times.

    The signs were:

    a) Destruction of the temple of Jerusalem by invading armies which shall surrounded it

    b) Hatred of disciples and Christians because they were followers of Christ

    c) Rejection of disciples by families because they were followers of Christ

    d) Betrayal of the followers of Christ

    e) Prosecution and imprisonment of Christians.

    f) Many false messiahs. People would come claiming to be the Messiah, the Son God

    g) Wars as nation rise against nations

    h) Eruption of natural calamities such as plagues, earthquakes, famines, great fear among people.

    i) Disruption in the sky and seas. Fall of strange heavenly beings from the sky and rise of seas.

    j) Natural calamities such as earthquakes, plagues, famines bringing despair and distress in all nations.

    k) The times shall be announced by signs in the stars, moon, sun and sea l) Appear of the ‘Son of man ‘ in power and glory at the end of times.

    b. Uses of the temple during the time of Jesus

    During the time of Jesus, the temple was used for

    (a) Child dedication

    (b) Circumcision

    (c) Purification

    (d) Trading and business centre

    (e) Worshiping and prayer

    (f) a place for celebrating festivals such as the Passover and other major feasts

    (g) a learning centre or school for religious purposes.

    For example disciples of the scribes learnt law in the temple.

    The destruction of the temple symbolized the birth of Christianity.

    From that time Christians became the new temple of God.

    c. The parable of the fig tree Lk.21: 29 – 33

    Jesus used the parable of the fig tree to explain more about the end times.

    Appearance of leaves in the fig tree and other trees inform us that summer will soon come. When Christians see signs of the end times, they should know that the kingdom of God is about to come. Jesus told disciples to be watchful, alert, and praying for strength to endure the coming tribulations. See the previous teachings on watchfulness and readiness. Christians are to watch out and be ready for the end times.

    d. Relevance of Jesus’ teachings on eschatology

    These teachings assure and continue to tell Christians these messages from Jesus:

    a) There is life after death

    b) Christ will return to receive the faithful

    c) Christians are to be watchful, prayerful, and hopeful despite trials and tribulations

    d) Christians are assured of God’s protection from evil.

    e) Christians should prepare for the coming of Christ by leading a righteous life

    f) Do not lose hope

    g) Do not be pre occupied with the cares of this would for they never end

    h) Preach and spread the word of God

    i) Obey God’s commandment

    j) Help the needy

    Revision questions

    a. Describe Jesus triumphant entry into Jerusalem according to Luke chapter 19:29- 30

    b. What does the manner of Jesus entry into Jerusalem reveal about the nature of his kingdom?

    c. What lessons can Christians learn from Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem

    d. State and explain why Jesus wept over Jerusalem

    e. Explain the cleansing of the temple

    f. Give reasons why Jesus cleansed the temple of Jerusalem

    g. What lessons can Christians learn from the cleansing of the temple?

    h. Explain Jesus’ conflict with the Jewish leaders

    i. Describe the parable of the tenants in the vineyard

    j. Explain the relevance of the parable of the of tenants in the vineyard

    k. Explain the question about paying taxes

    l. Explain the question about the resurrection

    m. What is eschatology?

    n. What will happen at the end of the world (eschatology) according to Jesus’ teaching in Luke’s gospel 21; 5-38

    o. How do Christians prepare for the second coming of Christ?

    Topic Six: the Passion, Death and Resurrection of Jesus Lk. 22 – 24

    Passion is a strong feeling of love, hate or anger. Passion of Jesus is the great sufferings of Jesus, which was a deep emotional anguish.

    Learning outcomes By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

    (a) Discuss the events of the Lord’s supper

    (b) State relevance of the Lord’s supper to Christians today

    (c) Describe the events that took place at mount Olives

    (d) Describe the events that took place between the arrest and burial of Jesus

    (e) Relate the relevance of the sufferings and death of Jesus to Christians today

    (f) Explain the importance of resurrection of Jesus to Christians

    (g) Describe the resurrection of Jesus – the evidence of his resurrection

    (h) Narrate the ascension of Jesus

    The plot against Jesus

    The Jewish religious leaders were determined to ensure that Jesus was either arrested or killed (Lk.22: 1 – 6)

    They were helped by Satan who entered into Judas Iscariot one of the twelve disciples of Jesus.

    Judas decided to betray Jesus. He communed with the Jewish leaders who agreed to pay him money to betray Jesus.

    He searched for a way to betray Jesus without knowledge of Jesus.

    He forgot who was Jesus.

    Judas agreed to betray Jesus probably because:

    a. He belonged to the party of Zealots who wanted political changes

    b. He was probably frustrated by Jesus’ approach to the Kingdom of God which was establishing a peaceful spiritual kingdom

    c. He expected Jesus to establish a political kingdom

    d. He was greedy for money

    e. Satan entered him

    Lesson One: the Lords Suppers/ the Last Supper. LK 22: 7 – 13

    The last supper was the lost Passover meal that Jesus took before his arrest. Passover is celebrated in obedience to God’s command to Moses.

    It is a remembrance of Israel’s deliverance by God from slavery in Egypt.

    a. The Passover meal

    Preparations for the Passover, Read Luke 22: 7 – 23.

    Peter and John were sent by Jesus to go and prepare the Passover meal. They were to do so in a house in the city. They were taken to the house by, a man who was carrying a vessel of water.

    They were given a big furnished upper room upstairs.

    They prepared the Passover meal as instructed by Jesus.

    Passover meal

    During the meal with the 12 disciples / apostles Jesus told them that this was going to be his last meal with them before his death.

    He took a cup of wine gave thanks to God and said “Take this and share it among yourselves.

    I tell you that from now on I will not drink this wine until the Kingdom of God comes.” The cup of wine was his blood that he was going to shed for them.

    Wine therefore symbolized the blood of Jesus, shed for the purification of humankind and forgiveness of sins.

    This blood is the New Testament and covenant with Christians.

    After drinking of wine, He “took a piece of bread, gave thanks to God “ and shared it and told them that the piece of bread represented his body which is “given for them”.

    He presented his death as a sacrifice whose blood sealed the new covenant.

    His death replaced the sacrifices of the Old law, those of animals, which sealed the Sinai covenant.

    The new covenant will be for all people including Gentiles.

    This is to fulfil God’s promise of salvation for all people.

    Jesus and disciples ate Passover together so that henceforth Christians would eat the meal together in remembrance of Jesus. Passover was initially taken to remind them of the deliverance from Egypt.

    But during the last supper, Jesus gave the Passover a new meaning.

    As they ate, Jesus foretold of his betrayal by one of his disciple. SAQ.

    i. Which items were used to celebrate the Passover in the Old Testament?

    ii. What items do modern Christians use to celebrate the Lord’s Supper?

    Comparisons of the Lord’s Supper and the Passover

    (a) The Passover commemorates the divine act of redemption of the Jews from their bondage in Egypt while the Last Supper commemorates the deliverance of human kind from sin.

    (b) The Passover feast reminded the Israelites that they were free, redeemed people while the Lords Suppers is to remind Christians of their forgiveness of sins.

    The death of Jesus set Christians free from sins.

    (c) Passover was followed by the Old covenant of Mount Sinai.

    The Lords suppers is a new covenant based on the death of Jesus for sins of humankind

    (d) Passover (Old testament) was sealed by the blood of Lambs while

    New Covenant (Lords suppers) is sealed by the blood of Jesus on the cross.

    (e) Items for celebrating in Passover (old testament) are different from the cup of wine and pieces of bread used by Jesus to celebrate his last supper with the disciples.

    Relevance of the Lord’s Supper today

    Christians celebrate the Lords supper. This celebration is called the Eucharist, the Lords suppers, or Lords meal.

    Christians celebrate it as an act of repentance; through which they receive assurance of forgiveness of their sins.

    The presence of Jesus becomes a reality when Christians share bread and wine.

    Bread and wine are symbols of heavenly feast, which Christians will partake in God’s kingdom. The Lords supper is also a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving to God.

    It is a time for rededication to Christ and self-renewal.

    Through the celebration of the Lords supper, Christians anticipate the second coming of Jesus and the establishment of Gods Kingdom.

    It is also a time to remember the death and resurrection of Jesus and reflect on God’s love for humankind.

    b. The Argument about Greatness. Read Luke, 22: 24 – 30

    A question arose among the disciples. They wanted to know who among them was the greatest? Jesus told them that they do not belong to the world system of authority given on the basis of wealth and fame.

    The authority among the disciples will be determined on the basis of their service to others.

    The greatest is the servant. Jesus likened himself to a servant hence disciples are called to serve.

    By sharing in trials and sufferings of Jesus, the disciples will share in his ruling power over the new Israel.

    Leadership in church should be understood in terms of service – being a servant of people. In the community of Christians, all people who are followers of Jesus are all equal.

    SAQ. In your opinion, which are the signs of greatness in the world?

    c. Jesus Predicts Peters’ Denial. Read Luke, 22: 31 – 38

    Jesus told peter that Satan had received permission to test or tempt all the disciples but Jesus had prayed for Peter’s faith not to fail. Jesus told Peter that he shall deny Jesus three times before the cock crows.

    Jesus was telling his disciples that they will encounter hostility in their evangelism hence they should be prepared for suffering and opposition because of Him as Isaiah 53:12 says ‘he shared the fate of evil men.’

    Jesus death was imminent inevitable. The disciples were expected to be strong.

    Lesson Two: Prayer, Arrest of Jesus and Denial by Peter Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you shall:

    a. Narrate the events that took place at Mount of Olives

    b. Describe the arrest of Jesus

    c. Discuss Peter’s denial of Jesus

    d. Describe the arrest of Jesus

    a. Prayer on the Mount of Olives. Read Luke. 22: 39 – 46

    After celebrating the last supper, Jesus went to the Mount of Olives with his disciples to pray to resist temptation.

    Jesus went ahead of his disciples, knelt down and prayed.

    Jesus left them to pray by himself. He said” Father if you will, take this cup of suffering away from me.

    Not my will, however, but your will to be done” (42). An angel came to strengthen him. He prayed earnestly, in agony and turmoil great than the physical pain.

    He sweated great drops of blood. After praying, Jesus found his disciples asleep “worn out by their grief” vs. 45). Jesus asked them to wake up and pray to avoid temptation.

    Significance

    The disciples fell asleep. This was a sign of moral and physical exhaustion. Jesus expressed inner struggle about the fulfillment of his messianic mission. He prayed for God’s help.

    Christians should always pray to avoid temptation and seek God’s help.

    b. Betrayal and arrest of Jesus. Read Luke, 22: 47 – 53

    Jesus was arrested by: the chief priest, elders, officers of the temple guard, and a crowd of people as he talked to his disciples.

    He was taken to the house of the high priest.

    Judas had identified Jesus with a kiss.

    Jesus asked Judas” him “Judas, is it with a kiss that you betray the Son of man?” Jewish religious leaders had come to arrest Jesus as they arrested other criminals.

    Jesus told his disciples not to resist his arrest.

    He rejected armed resistance refusing the role of a political messiah. Peter followed him from a distance.

    c. Peters Denies Jesus. Read Luke, 22: 54 – 65

    After Jesus was arrested he was taken to the house of the High Priest.

    As Peter sat warming himself with others, a maid identified Peter. She said, “This man too was with Jesus.

    Peter denied knowing Jesus three times. After the third denial, the cock crowed just as Jesus predicted.

    Jesus turned and looked at Peter who remembered the words of Jesus.

    “Peter went out and wept bitterly” (Vs. 62). Weeping was a sign of repentance

    Lesson Three: the Trials and Crucifixion of Jesus Lesson Outcomes. By the end of this lesson. You should

    a. Describe trials of Jesus by the various authorities

    b. Explain the importance of the judgement by Pilate

    c. Narrate events leading to crucifixion of Jesus

    a. Trials of Jesus by the various authorities

    i. Trial by the Sanhedrin Lk.22: 66 – 71

    After being taken to the house of the High Priest, the next morning Jesus was taken to the Jewish religious council or court; called the Sanhedrin.

    They all asked him if he was the messiah. Jesus told they wouldn’t believe whatever he says. But “ the Son of Man will be seated on the right hand of Almighty God.” (Vs. 69).

    Jesus told them he was the Son of God. The Sanhedrin accused Jesus of blasphemy, a sin punishable by death.

    ii. Trial before Pilate. Read Luke 23: 1 – 5

    The second court was the Roman court. The judge was Pilate, the Roman Governor.

    In this court the Sanhedrin accused Jesus of:

  • Inciting people to revolt, and rebelling against Roman authority

  • Forbidding people to pay taxes to the Emperor

  • Claiming to be the king, a Messiah,

    They could not accuse him of blasphemy before Pilate since this offence was not acceptable under the Roman law.

    Pilate asked Jesus if he was the king, Jesus replied, “ So you say”. (vs.3). Pilate found no fault with Jesus so he sent him to Herod.

    iii. Trial by Herod. Read Luke, 23: 6 – 12

    Herod was in Jerusalem. When Jesus was brought before him, he expected Jesus to perform miracles to impress him.

    He asked Jesus many questions and Jesus kept quiet. Herod and his soldiers mocked Jesus, and ridiculed him.

    They put on him royal clothes; then sent Jesus back to Pilate.

    iv. Jesus is sentenced to Death. Read Luke 23: 13 – 25

    Jesus was brought back to Pilate a second time. Pilate repeated that Jesus was not guilty (innocent) of any crime.

    Pilate offered to have Jesus beaten and then released.

    The crowds, leaders and chief priests gave their judgement. “Kill him!” and release Barabbas, who was a rioter and a murderer.

    Pilate did not find Jesus guilty.

    But he did what they wanted.

    He released Barabbas and “ handed Jesus over for them to do as they wished” (vs. 25).

    v. The crucifixion of Jesus. Read Luke 22: 26-43

    Jesus was led away to be crucified.

    Solders forced Simon of Cyrene to carry the cross for Jesus. Women followed Jesus and weeping. Jesus told them not to weep for Him but for themselves and their children.

    Jesus was then crucified at a place called Golgotha (place of skull) or Calvary together with two male criminal; one on His right and the other on His Left.

    Jesus asked God to forgive them (persecutors) for they did not know what they were doing.

    The Jewish leaders, said “He saved others; let him save himself if he is the Messiah whom God has chosen” (vs. 35); Solders mocked Jesus and said “Save yourself if you are the king of Jews” and one criminal hanged with Jesus mocked Jesus and told Him “Aren’t you the Messiah? Save yourself and me”.

    The other thief rebuked him saying they deserved the punishment for their deeds but Jesus had done nothing.

    This thief repented and told Jesus, “Remember me, Jesus, when you come as King”. Jesus told him that he would be in paradise with Jesus on that day (vs. 42 – 43).

    On top of the cross, Jews wrote, “This is the King of the Jews” (vs. 38).

    Lesson Four: Death of Jesus. Read Luke. 23: 44 – 50 Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson,

    a. Describe the death of Jesus

    b. Narrate the burial of Jesus

    c. State relevance of the suffering and death of Jesus to Christian life today

    a. The death of Jesus.

    There was darkness from 12 o’clock until thee o’clock. The veil/curtain of the temple tore into two.

    Jesus cried out with a loud voice “ Father, into they hands I commit my spirit”. At this shout Jesus died.

    The Roman centurion saw and praised God. He declared, “Certainly this was an innocent man”. The multitude that watched the crucifixion and death went home beating their breasts, a sign of repentance.

    The women, who knew Jesus from Galilee, stood at a distance watching all these things.

    b. The burial of Jesus. Read Luke 23: 50 – 56.

    Joseph from Arimathea, a town in Judea sought permission from Pilate to bury the body of Jesus.

    He was waiting for the coming of the Kingdom of God, a likely secret disciple of Jesus.

    He was a good and honorable man.

    The body of Jesus was laid in a sepulchre (Tomb) where nobody had ever been laid.

    Jesus’ burial in Joseph’s tomb fulfilled Isaiah’s prophecy that the suffering servant of Yahweh was buried in a rich man’s tomb (Isaiah 53:9)

    The Galilean women and Joseph saw where the body of Jesus was laid.

    They went home, and prepared spices to use to wash Jesus’ body. They rested on the Sabbath.

    c. Relevance of the suffering and death of Jesus Christ to Christian life today

    Christians today should practice or do the following activities.

    i. Pray in times of sorrow, pain, trials and temptations.

    iii They should not give up when rejected.

    iv They should be aware of hypocrites and traitors amongst them.

    v They should be willing to suffer for the sake of the Kingdom of God.

    vi They should be ready to fight for a just cause.

    vii They should never condemn the innocent.

    viii They should go through their suffering bravely.

    ix They should know and accept suffering as a part of the Christian calling.

    x They should not be afraid of rejection by people

    xi They should be encouraged that Jesus suffered for them.

    d. In which ways can Christians prepare for their death?

    Death is inevitable. Hence, Christians should at all times: live a holy life, repent sins, forgive those who have wronged them, make a will, accept death as inevitable, and read the word of God.

    Lesson Five: the Resurrection of Jesus. Read Luke 24: 1 – 53

    a. The Resurrection. Resurrection refers to the event of Jesus rising from the dead

    After the Sabbath day, on Sunday morning; Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, Salome (Joanna) and other women, went to the tomb with the spices they has prepared.

    They found the entrance open. The stone covering the tomb was rolled away. The tomb was empty.

    The body of Jesus was not in the tomb.

    Suddenly, two men, who were angels, appeared dresses in dazzling and shining clothes.

    They said “ Why are you looking among the dead for one who is alive? He is not here; he has been raised. ”

    The women went and told the 11 disciples, who did not believe them.

    Peter ran to the tomb and found it empty.

    Women were the first to witness the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

    This is significant as they (women) were empowered to become witnesses of Christ as evangelists beyond the Jewish culture.

    b. Witnesses of the resurrection of Jesus

    The disciples en route to Emmaus Two disciples were traveling to Emmaus, which was 11 km from Jerusalem discussing Jesus suffering, death and the empty tomb. Jesus met them but their eyes were blinded and they did not recognize him.

    The disciples explained to Jesus the events that had taken place and how they had hoped that Jesus would liberate Israel from the Roman rule.

    Jesus explained to them the scriptures concerning the messiah.

    When they got to Emmaus, they invited him to dine with them for it was evening.

    When Jesus, “took the bread and said the blessings; then he broke the bread and gave it to them”, the disciples recognized Jesus but he vanished out of their sight (vs. 30-31). They returned to Jerusalem and told the 11 disciples that jesus has risen.

    c. Jesus appears to his Disciples. Read Luke 24: 36 – 49.

    As the two disciples explained the event that happened on the journey to Emmaus, Jesus came and said to them ‘Peace be with you’ (vs. 36).

    Disciples were terrified and frightened. He asked them to look and touch his hands, and feet.

    He was not a ghost. He has flesh and bones unlike ghosts, which do not have.

    He explained to the apostles his mission, which was prophesied by prophets, and written in the Law of Moses, and Psalms (v.44).

    He commissioned the disciples to preach repentance and remission of sins and be his witnesses.

    He also promised to send them the promise of the father (Holy Spirit)

    SAQ. What was the nature of the resurrected body of Jesus?

    d. The ascension of Jesus, Luke, 24: 50 – 53

    From Jerusalem, Jesus took his disciples to Bethany, a town outside Jerusalem. He lifted his hands and blessed them.

    As he blessed them, he was lifted up and carried to heaven The disciples worshipped him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy.

    They continued to go to the temple to praise and give thanks to God.

    The disciples were now confident about their mission and who Jesus was.

    e. The importance of the resurrection of Jesus to Christian

    Resurrection is the foundation of Christian faith. Christianity is based on the fact that Jesus resurrected and was taken up to heaven. Further to this:

    1. Resurrection proved that Jesus is the Son of God.

    2. Through resurrection, Christians have hope of eternal life

    3. Through resurrections, Christians are assured of a new life in Christ

    4. Sin and death were conquered by resurrection, giving hope of victory to Christians over death and sin.

    5. Resurrection is a fulfillment of the writings of the prophets. It fulfilled Old Testament prophesies by Moses, Elijah, Elisha and others.

    6. It is a proof that there is life after death.

    7. Through resurrection, man was reconciled to God.

    8. Jesus has power over death, over Satan and his Kingdom of darkness.

    9. It led to the coming of the Holy Spirit.

    Revision questions

    a. Give the different names used in reference to the lord’s supper by Christians in different churches.

    b. Describe the institution of the lord’s supper.

    c, State the Christian teaching about the lord’s supper

    d. What is the meaning of the lord’s supper to Christians?

    e. Compare the Passover feast with the practice of the lord’s supper

    f. Describe the prayer on mount olives

    g. Describe the betrayal and arrest of Jesus

    h. State the reasons that made Judas Iscariot to betray Jesus

    i. Describe the trial of Jesus under the following headings:-

    the council of Sanhedrin, the trial before Pilate, the trial before Herod and Pilate’s judgement.

    j. Why do you think Pilate agreed to have Jesus crucified?

    k. Identify and explain the lessons that Christians learn from the actions of Pilate during the trial of Jesus

    l. Actions taken by the Jewish leaders to ensure that Jesus was put to death

    m. Explain the crucifixion of Jesus

    n. Describe the death of Jesus

    o. The burial of Jesus

    p. Define the term resurrection

    q. Describe the four witnesses of the risen Christ

    r. Describe Jesus’ appearance to the disciples

    s. Describe the ascension of Jesus

    t. Give five evidences from the bible to show that Jesus rose from the dead

    u. Explain the significance of passion, death and the resurrection of Christ

    v. What is the significance of Jesus resurrection to Christians today

    w. Explain five importance of eulogy of death of the society.

    Revision question and answers

    Old Testament Prophesies About the Coming of the Messiah

    Lesson one:

    1. The prophecy of Jeremiah about the Messiah

    a) He shall be a descendant of David

    b) He shall be a king

    c) He shall prosper

    d) He shall execute judgment and justice

    e) He shall ensure Judah/Israel is safe and lives in peace

    f) He shall be called the lord our righteousness

    2. Meaning of Messiah mean?

    Messiah is a Hebrew word ‘Meshiach’ which means ‘the anointed one’. It is equivalent to ‘Christ’, a Greek word, which also means the ‘Anointed one’.

    A Messiah is therefore someone called, anointed and appointed by God to serve Him in a special way.

    In the Old Testament, the Priests and Kings were the only people who were anointed.

    When a person is anointed oil is poured on them.

    The anointed person was set aside from the rest of the people in order to serve God and His people. Examples of anointed people are Aaron (Priest) and King David. In addition, God himself anointed Prophets: for example, Samuel, Elijah, Jeremiah, and Nathan among others.

    3. Jewish expectations of the Messiah in the Old Testament

    The messiah shall be a political leader, a victorious ruler, a king to lead people to a time of great power and prosperity, a king in whose reign there shall be no sorrow or injustice nor fear, a king to rule forever

    4. How Jesus Christ fulfilled the Old Testament prophetic of the messiah

    a) He was born from the lineage of David

    b) He was born of Mary, a virgin as foretold by Isaiah

    c) The messiah was called Immanuel (Jesus) Isaiah prophecy

    d) He was born in Bethlehem – Micah’s prophecy

    e) He was referred to as “son of David” – Nathan/Jeremiah/s prophesies

    f) He suffered – suffering servant prophecy by Isaiah

    5. Prophets in the Old Testament who prophesied about the expected Messiah Isaiah, Nathan, Jeremiah, Micah and psalmist prophecy.

    Answers.

    Qn 1. The qualities of john as described by angel Gabriel

    a. He would be a prophet of god

    b. He would prepare the way for the messiah

    c. He would bring joy to Zachariah and others

    d. He would be a nazarite

    e. He would call people to repentance

    Qn 2. Why john was referred to as the second Elijah

    • Like Elijah john had also lived in the wilderness

    • John was also filled with the holy spirit and proclaimed god’s message to the people

    • He also met opposition from the king just like Elijah

    • He was beheaded and Elijah was threatened with death by jezebel

    • He stood firmly for the covenant way of life

    • He was a great prophet of his time

    • He led a simple life and faced many problems like hunger just like Elijah

    Qn 3. What lessons do Christians learn from annunciation of the birth of john the Baptist?

    • God answers prayers however long it may take

    • Christians should not doubt God’s messages

    • We should be persistent, faithful and patient in prayers

    • Christians should be devoted to God in prayer

    • Children are a gift from God and a source of joy to their parents

    • God has a purpose for every child’s life

    Qn 4. Describe the birth of john the Baptist

    • Elizabeth was very happy and so was Zachariah

    • John was circumcised after eight days in accordance with the Jewish customs

    • Elizabeth named the child john

    • Zachariah affirmed the name of their son in writing

    • They were surprised at the name because it was not in Zechariah’s lineage

    • Zechariah was now able to talk

    • He broke into a hymn called the Benedictus

    • Zechariah expressed his feelings of joy, gratitude and praise

    • Zechariah told of the mission of his son.

    Topic Two: Infancy and Early Life of Jesus

    Qn 1. What lessons can Christians learn from the annunciation of the birth of Jesus Christ?

    • God exalts the humble and rejects the proud

    • Christians should humbly accept god’s plan for their lives

    • God has a purpose for the life of every one

    • Nothing is impossible with god

    • God wanted Jesus Christ to be part of the human family for him to identify with the human race

    Qn2. describe Mary’s visit to Elizabeth

    • Mary went to visit Elizabeth after angel Gabriel told her that Elizabeth was expecting a baby

    • Mary greeted Elizabeth and the baby in the Elizabeth’s womb leapt with joy

    • The spirit also revealed that Mary was the most blessed of all women

    • Mary sang a song known as the magnificent

    Qn3. identify the main ideas in the magnificent

    • Mary thanks god for

    • Being good to her

    • His goodness and love for all human beings

    • Fulfilling his promises to the people

    • Delivering the oppressed from the oppressors

    Qn 4. Describe the dedication ceremony during the infancy of Jesus

    • The parents of Jesus offered the purification sacrifices according to the law of Moses

    • Simon was moved by the holy spirit and took Jesus into his arm and praised God

    • Simon prophesied about the mission of Jesus

    • Prophetess Ann thanked God for sending Jesus who would bring redemption

    • The things Simon and Anne said about their child amazed the parents of Jesus.

    Topic Two: the Galilean Ministry

    Qn a. What is the relevance of John the Baptist teachings to Christians today?

    • Christians should not fear to condemn the evils in the society

    • Christians should commit their lives wholly to the work of God

    • Christians should accept their role with humility and preach the gospel

    • Christians should be ready to proclaim the gospel even harsh environment for the people to know God

    • Christians should share their resources with the less fortunate

    • Christians should be contended with their pay and thus not accept bribes

    • Christians should learn to be truthful in their work environment

    • Christians should pronounce the consequences of judgement to those willing to repent

    Qn b. Give reasons why Jesus accepted to be baptized

    • To be identified as the messiah

    • To identify himself with the sinful human kind

    • To receive the Holy Spirit

    • For God to manifest the trinity

    • It was a cleansing ritual

    • To acknowledge the work of John the Baptist

    • He saw it as a way of fulfilling the old testament prophesies about the Messiah

    • It was his final acceptance of the work of salvation

    Qn c. describe the baptism of Jesus

    • When all the people were baptized Jesus was also baptized

    • He was baptized by John the Baptist in river Jordan at a place called Bethbora

    • Jesus was praying when the heavens opened

    • The holy spirit descended from heaven upon him inform of a dove

    • A voice came from heaven saying “ thou art my beloved son with thee I am well pleased

    Qn d. what is the significance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians today?

    • Christians get new names that symbolizes new life in Christ

    • Christians receive the Holy Spirit who gives them guidance in their lives

    • Christians identify themselves with Jesus and the church

    • Water is symbolically used as a cleanser as it wipes away one’s sins and gives a new life

    • Christians are brought together as members of the church of Christ

    • During baptism Christians receive the Holy Spirit who guides them in their lives

    • The old self dies and becomes a new person as a Christian

    • It is the first step of being accepted into the Christian brotherhood

    Lesson Three: Temptations

    Qn a. describe the temptations of Jesus

    • Satan told Jesus to turn stones into bread

    • Jesus answered that man does not live on bread alone

    • Satan then took Jesus to a high place and showed him all the kingdoms of the world.

    Satan promised to give Jesus everything if Jesus worshipped him • Jesus answered that one should worship God and serve him alone

    • Hastily, satin took Jesus to the pinnacle of the temple. He asked Jesus to throw himself down since God would send his angles to ensure that he did not get hurt.

    Jesus answered that no one should tempt God.

    Qn b. from the gospel of St. Luke, identify five occasions when Jesus was tempted

    • In the wilderness

    • When he healed a dumb man the commanded a sign

    • Jesus was tempted to arbitrate between two brothers

    • When the rich young ruler called Jesus a good teacher

    • When he was asked whether it was right to pay taxes to Caesar

    • In the garden of Gethsemane, he was tempted to escape the cup of suffering

    • During his trial he was asked whether he was the Messiah

    • During crucifixion he was spat on but did not fight back

    • On the cross one of the thieves wanted him to deliver them

    • He was questioned by the Sadducees about resurrection

    Qn c. Outline ways in which Christians can overcome temptations in the contemporary world

    • They should depend on Jesus

    • They should be well versed with the scripture so that they can refer to the bible

    • They should seek guidance and counseling

    • They should attend bible classes for the right interpretation of the bible

    • They should have faith or believe in God to help them during trials

    • They should avoid bad company

    • The should take part in active leisure

    • They should avoid circumstances that can lead them to sin

    • They should resist Satan

    Qn d. Explain ways in which Christians can be tempted

    • To give a bribe in order to get a job

    • To engage in irresponsible sexual behaviour due to peer pressure

    • To steal money entrusted to them

    • To cheat in examinations

    • To take drugs/alcohol

    • To exploit those who serve under them in their places of work

    • To keep excess change from a shopkeeper or tout

    • To show off

    Qn e. What lessons can Christians learn fro the temptations of Jesus?

    • Since Jesus was tempted, he fully understands our difficulties

    • God does not tempt us beyond our strength

    • Through temptations we will also be tempted

    • Through temptations and trials our faith is strengthened

    • When we are tempted we should turn to the bible for guidance

    • We should seek the holy spirit who enabled Jesus to conquer evil

    Lesson Eight: Thesermon on the Plain:

    1. Give the main teachings of Jesus on the sermon on the plain The sermon on the plain consisted of five main parts namely:

    Blessings (Lk 6: 20 – 26) and woes

    These are also referred to as the beatitudes. Here, Jesus had a message for the poor, the rich, those who hunger and those who are full, those who weep and those who laugh.

    His concern is to show the social differences and mystery of Christian suffering.

    Persecution seems to be a common phenomenon for followers of Christ.

    The poor are those who cannot meet their basic needs and Luke depicts them as hungry and weeping.

    The disciples are included in the poor because they have given up everything. But Jesus gives hope.

    Jesus warns the rich against using their economic points to oppress the poor.

    They have an opportunity, however to belong to the Kingdom by using their riches to help the needy.

    Love of Enemies: (6:27-37)

    Followers of Jesus are supposed to “Love your enemies, do good to those who hate, bless those who curse you, and pray for those who abuse you”.

    Judging Others (6:37-43)

    Disciples are expected to acknowledge their own shortcomings before they can condemn the faults in others.

    Failure to recognize one’s fault is a hindrance to becoming a member of the Kingdom of God.

    Evidence to Good Discipleship

    The proof of a person’s goodness is seen in his deeds. The true nature of a person cannot be hidden because what they do and say will reveal their nature.

    Hearing and Doing (6: 47-49)

    It is not enough for His followers to proclaim Christ as Lord. They must also do what He tells them.

    Q2. What is the relevance of the (beatitudes) sermon on the plain to Christians today?

    The teachings on blessings and woes tell us that the goal of a person should be to inherit the Kingdom of God.

    Christians should love their enemies as Jesus loved them sinful as they were.

    Human beings are self-centered. It is easier to see other people’s mistakes than our own Christian should examine them before passing judgement on others.

    By so doing we appreciate that we are all sinners who should seek forgiveness from God and we should always appreciate others however sinful they may be.

    Be steadfast in faith and do good all the time.

    Lession 9: Jesus’ Works of Compassion

    Q2 Narrate the story of the forgiveness of the sinful woman (Lk 7:36-8:3)

  • On one occasion, Jesus was invited by Simon the Pharisee to his house to eat with him.

  • While this is a sinful woman walked into the house weeping.

  • She began to wet Jesus’ feet with her tears and wiped them with her hair.

  • She kissed his feet and anointed them with an ointment.

  • When Simon saw this, he questioned Jesus’ power. If he were a prophet, He would have noticed that the woman was a sinner.

  • And Jesus answered him the telling him about a certain creditor who has two debtors, one owed him hundred denarii and the other fifty.

  • When asked Simon which of the two debtors would love the creditors more.

  • Simon said the one who was forgiven more.

  • Jesus said you have judged rightly.

  • Then he had not given Him even water to wash His feet.

  • But the woman used her tears to wet Jesus’ feet and wiped them using her hair and oiled them.

  • Therefore her sins, which are many, are forgiven for she loved much, one with little love receives little more.

  • Jesus told Simon he gave him no kiss but the woman had not stopped kissing Him.

  • Those at table began to ask who Jesus was who ever forgiven sins?

  • And He said to the woman, “Your faith has saved you, go in peace.”

    Q3. What lessons do Christians learn from the above story?

  • Christians should accept their sins and seek for forgiveness as the sinful woman did.

  • Faith is important for one to be forgiven. Jesus told the woman “Your faith has save you.”

  • A repentant sinner is greater than a righteous man (the Jewish religious leaders).

  • It is not the magnitude of sin that matters but the attitude of a person towards his sins.

  • Shows the importance of women in the ministry of Jesus.

    Q4. Describe the story of the raising of the widow’s son at Nain (Lk 7:11- 17)

  • After His preaching in Capernaum, Jesus went to the city of Nain.

  • He found a man being carried out near the gate.

  • He was the only son of a widow.

  • When the Lord saw her, He had compassionate on her and said to her, “Do not weep.’

  • Then He came and touched the open coffin.

  • And those who carried him stood still.

  • Jesus said, “Young man, arise.”

  • And he who was dead sat up and began to speak.

  • Jesus presented him to his mother.

  • Then fear came among all and they glorified God.

  • They said a great prophet has come among us. God has visited His people.

    Lesson 10: Jesus’ Teaching – What Is the Importance of Parables?

    1. Give reasons why Jesus used parables

    • To attract the attention of his listeners

    • To help his listeners understand better

    • To separate the serious people from the on lookers

    • To enrich his teachings

    • To avoid direct confrontation with his enemies

    • It was a common way of teaching those days

    • To teach about God’s mercy to sinners

    • To make people think critically out issues concerning God’s kingdom

    • To relate patent issues with those of the future kingdom positively

    Qn 2. Identify various methods used by Christians in spreading the gospel today

    • Preaching

    • Teaching

    • Being role models

    • Holding crusades

    • Organizing seminars and conferences

    • Electronic mechanisms e.g. sms and emails

    • Print media e.g. posters and magazines

    • Door to door evangelism

    • Through demonstration and role play

    • Through the mass media e.g. radios and TVs

    • Through Christian music e.g. cassettes and C.Ds

    Qn 3. Discuss the reasons why Jesus faced opposition from the Jewish leaders

    • His popularity

    • His interpretation of the Sabbath

    • His failure to observe the law of fasting

    • He associated with tax collectors

    • He claimed to be the messiah

    • He out rightly condemned them

    • Teaching with authority

    • His claims to forgive sins.

    . Lesson 11: Mighty Works of Jesus

    Q1 Narrate the healing of the Gerasene demoniac – Lk 8:26-39.

  • After crossing the Sea of Galilee, Jesus came across a demon – possessed man in a gentile town called Gerasa.

  • The man had been living in the caves used for burial of the dead.

  • He wore no clothes.

  • When the man saw Jesus, he asked Him not to torment him.

  • When Jesus asked him what his name was, he responded that he was called “Legion” – which stands for 2000 – 6000 soldiers.

  • This meant that this man possessed by many demons.

  • Jesus had sympathy and ordered the unclean spirits to leave him.

  • Jesus let the evil spirits to go to the pigs, which were grazing nearby.

  • They then fell into the lake and drowned.

    Q2. What lesson can Christian learn from the healing of the demoniac man above?

  • Jesus valued human life. That is why He led the evil/spirits into the pigs, which drowned into the lake and saved the man.

  • It shows Jesus came for all regardless of tribe. This man was a gentile.
  • Jesus heals the whole person – physically and spiritually.

  • That Jesus has power over evil spirits.

  • Shows that Jesus came to destroy the power of evil.

  • It teaches that Christians have to fight the power of evil constantly.

    But with Jesus’ help they will overcome it.

  • God will never allow them to be defeated. He will come to their aid, however, much.

  • They should give out their material possession to save those in need. This man needed help.

  • They should tell their people about God as this man went to in his village etc.

    Q3. What do the miracle of Jesus teach us about Him?

  • They show that Jesus is the Son of God.

  • That Jesus gets power from God.

  • That Jesus shares his power with His disciples.

  • The miracles show Jesus compassion to suffering people e.g. the raising of the widow’s son.

  • They also show that Jesus is Lord. He is the life and the resurrection.

  • That affirms that Jesus came to save man from sin.

  • They show that Jesus is a universal savior e.g. the Gesarone demoniac who was a gentile.

  • They were part of His teaching – they helped Him teach.

  • Through them He showed the concern for human life, physically, spiritually and mentally.

    Lesson 12: Commissioning of the Twelve Disciples (Lk 1:1-10)

    Q1. What is the role of the clergy in Kenya?

  • To preach the word of God.

  • To advise the leaders.

  • To warn evildoers against their sins.

  • To condemn evil.

  • Pray for the needy.

  • Help the needy e.g. give them food, shelter etc.

  • Hold seminars/workshops where they lead people into forgiveness.

  • Being a good example for emulation.

    Q2. How does the church participate in the upkeep of the clergy?

  • By giving sadaka.

  • By giving 1/10 of their income.

  • They pay for their training.

  • Fundraisings for building theological institutions.

  • Building their residential houses in the church compound.

  • Giving ‘matega’ – foodstuffs as part of sadaka during service.

    Lesson 13: the Transfiguration

    Q2. Describe the transfiguration of Jesus (Luke 9:28-37)

  • Jesus needed encouragement and reassurance that what He was about to do was the will of His Father.

  • Therefore He took with Him Peter, James and John and went to Mount Hermon to pray.

  • As He prayed, His appearance was changed and His face became dazzling white.

  • Two men, Elijah & Moses appeared and talked of His departure (death), which He was to accomplish in Jerusalem.

  • The disciples were asleep as this happened.

  • When they woke up, they saw glory and the two men who stood with Him.

  • And as the men were parting form Him, Peter said to Jesus, ‘Master, it is well that we are here, Let us make booths, one for you, one for Elijah and one for Moses.
  • As he said this, a cloud cursed the whole area and they were afraid.

  • A voice came out of the cloud saying, ‘this is my only son, my chosen, Listen to Him.’

    Q3. What is the significance of the transfiguration of Jesus (Lk 9:28-37)?

  • A voice from heaven confirmed that Jesus was the Son of God.

  • It strengthened the faith of the disciples so that they would continue with His work after death.

  • It showed that Jesus had fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies and God. This is seen with the appearance of Elijah and Moses.

  • The cloud was a symbol of God’s presence.

  • It was a sign that Jesus’ mission was no longer a secret. It marked the onset of His passion, which would lead to His death.

  • It confirmed to Jesus that He was doing the right thing and God was in support of His suffering.

  • It shows that faith in prayer can lead us to God’s presence.

    Topic Four: the Journey to Jerusalem

    Lesson 1: Duties, Privileges and Cost of Discipleship

    Q1. What are the characteristics of a true follower of Jesus?

  • Following Jesus means accepting homelessness and enduring hardship because Jesus did not have a permanent home.

  • Being a disciple of Jesus means self-denial and suffering.
  • Being ready to give e.g. to the needy.

  • To spread Christianity and make Jesus known.

  • Following Jesus means being loyal to Him.

    Q2. State the privileges of being a disciple of Jesus

  • One becomes a member of the Kingdom of God.

  • One is assured of eternal life.

  • He has the joy of winning others to the Kingdom of God through preaching.

    Q3 Why did Jesus choose the 12 disciples?

  • In order to help Him in the work of spreading the good news.

  • So as to belong to the Kingdom of God and get eternal life.

  • To witness to his work.

  • To share with them the power of God e.g. in performing miracles.

  • For company as He worked.

    A Commited Follower of Jesus Lk 10:25 11:1-13

    (Note: Not the parable of the Samaritans)

    Q1. From the teaching of Jesus on the parable of the Good Samaritan, who do you think is a committed follower of Jesus?

  • One who understands the law and obeys it.

  • One who understands that a neighbor is anybody who requires help regardless of their social status

  • One who uses his resources selflessly to help the needy

  • One who is not restricted by cultural and religious practices in responding to a needy situation

  • One who is compassionate, kind and generous

  • One who shows solidarity with the suffering. This includes identifying with the needy and being ready

    to experience their suffering.

    Lesson 3: Jesus’ Teaching on Prayer

    Q1. What did Jesus teach about prayer?

  • Jesus taught that prayer must be persistent, use the parable of Friend at Midnight.

  • Prayer should be done in a private place.

  • It should be genuine.

  • One should not be proud when praying e.g. the parable of the tax collector and the Pharisee.

  • One should have faith during prayer.

  • One should pray always/continuously.

  • There is no formula in prayer. One should address God as a father.

  • Honestly confess sin as they pray.

    Qs 1 & 2 are out of topic.

    Lesson 5: Jesus’ Teachings on Hypocrisy, Wealth, Watchfulness and Readiness

    Q1. Hypocrisy – In what areas were the Pharisees hypocritical?

  • In the washing of hands, cups and dishes which were done ceremoniously.

    The Pharisees were too strict on this, which was not important. He told them to pay attention to issues of charity than external appearance.

  • Tithing habits – They paid this well for the support of priests but neglected justice and love for God.

  • He criticized them for recognition in the synagogues by taking reserved seats and their desire to be noticed at market places by wearing long white robes.

  • He accused them of being like their ancestors who persecuted the prophets of God.

    Lesson 5: Jesus’ Teachings on Hypocrisy, Wealth,Watchfulness and Readiness Read Lk: 11:13-34 : Parable of the rich fool

    Q1. From the parable of the rich fool, what can Christians learn about the use of wealth?

  • Material wealth should come second after God.

  • We should try to help the poor.

  • It teaches that wealth comes from God.

  • Wealth should not be misused e.g. in drinking, etc.

  • We should thank God for wealth received.

  • It can make Christians to forget God.

    Q2. Narrate the parable of the shrewd manager

  • Jesus taught the following parable about a rich man and his servant.

  • A rich man wanted to sack his manager.

    He called the manager and asked him for a full account of how the property was being managed.

  • The manager knew he was going to be sacked. He made friends with some of his master’s debtors so that they would take care of him if he got sacked.

  • One debtor who owed 100 barrels of olive oil was asked to pay 50 barrels and one who owed 1000 was asked to pay 800 barrels.

  • The master praised him for being wise and acting property in his moment of crisis.

    Lession 8: Teaching on Forgiveness

    What were the teachings of Jesus on forgiveness?

  • Jesus taught that one should forgive and forget

  • All sins are equal before the eyes of God.

  • One ought to ask for forgiveness after he has wronged.

  • One should forgive as many times as he is offended.

  • One should have faith when asking for forgiveness.

    Persistent in Prayer

    Q1. State the parable of the widow and the unjust judge 18: 1-8

  • Jesus told the Pharisees a parable to the effect that they ought always to pray and not lose heart.

  • In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor regarded man.

  • And there was a widow in that city which kept coming to him and wanted her right given.

  • For a while he refused, but afterwards he said to himself, though I neither fear God nor regard man, yet because this widow bothers me, I will allow her set her right or she will wear me out by her continual coming.

  • And the Lord said, “Hear what the unrighteous judge says, and will he not vindicate His elect who cry to Him day and night?

  • Will he delay long over them, I, you, He will vindicate them speedily.

    Lesson 10: the Way to Salvation Lk 18: 15 – 19

    Q1: What did Jesus teach by using the example of little children?

  • Jesus said, ‘Let little children come to me because the kingdom of God belongs to such as them.

  • He went on to tell them that for one to enter God’s kingdom, he must humble himself like children.

  • This is because children are powerless, innocent and open.

  • Jesus taught that the kingdom of God is for those who are simple, humble, innocent and trusting like children.

    Q2. Give an account of how Jesus healed the blind beggar (18:35-43)

  • A blind man recognized Jesus as the messiah.

  • The blind man asked Jesus to heal him.

  • He received his sight because of his faith.

  • He followed Jesus, giving thanks to God.

  • To receive salvation one needs to be bold and determined.

  • We should seek Christ to heal our physical and spiritual blindness.

    Q3. Explain the relevance of Jesus’ teaching on salvation to Christians

  • Christians learn that they need to repent their sins and seek forgiveness in order to receive salvation and eternal life.

  • They need to humble themselves like children in order to earn salvation.

  • They learn to obey the commandments of God so as to receive salvation.

  • Use their abilities to glorify God e.g. the rich man’s parable.

  • They too learn that wealth can be a hindrance to salvation.

  • They learn that salvation is given to all by God.

    Topic Five: the Jerusalem Ministry

    Qn a. describe Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem according to Luke chapter 19: 29-30

    • After his journey from Galilee ended, Jesus approached Jerusalem passing through Bethaphage, Bethany and the mount olives

    • He sent two of his disciples to a village to get him a donkey on which nobody had ridden

    • He gave the disciples instructions that if the owner of the donkey demanded to know why they were untying it, they were to respond, “ The lord has need for it”

    • When they got the donkey, they threw their garments on it and helped Jesus to sit on it

    • As Jesus rode along, they spread their garments on the road

    • The crowds following him rejoiced and praised God for all the wonderful work Jesus had done this included: teaching, healing and feeding the hungry

    • The crowds sang, “ Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the lord. Peace in heaven and glory in the highest”. By singing, the crowds acclaimed Jesus as king.

    • The Pharisees objected to the crowds singing and asked Jesus to silence them

    • Jesus responded that if his followers were silent, “ the very stones would cry out”. Insensitive than stones not to know what was happening, that is, the Messiah has come

    Qn b. what does the manner of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem reveal about the nature of the kingdom of God?

    • Jesus was a descendant of David, prophesied Messiah and son of God

    • Jesus is a triumphant, victorious yet a humble king. A donkey is a symbol of humility and peace. So he came to establish a peaceful kingdom

    • Jesus wanted to proclaim the coming of his kingdom but not as an earthly/ military leader, thus leading them to lay their garments for him to step on. In doing this, they were acknowledging Jesus as Jerusalem’s promised king

    • Jesus was greeted as a king the same way the kings of Israel were greeted with acclamation and joy

    • By riding on a donkey, Jesus fulfilled the prophesy of Zechariah which says, the king is coming riding on a donkey triumphant, humble and victorious

    • Christianity is not propagated through violent means but peace

    Qn c. what lessons can Christians learn fro Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem?

    • Christians learn that they should be prepared to receive Jesus into their lives like the crowd which escorted him to Jerusalem

    • Christians also learn that they should emulate Jesus and be channels of peace in their communities

    • They also learn that they should expect opposition and resistance as they witness to Christ.

    They should not give up hope

    • Christians learn that they should be humble like Jesus in their service to others

    • Christians should thank and praise God for his intervention in their lives by sending Jesus

    • They should be bold in their witnessing to Christ like the crowds that followed Jesus to Jerusalem and declared him king

    Qn d. state and explain why Jesus wept over Jerusalem.

    • When Jesus came close to the city of Jerusalem he wept over it saying, “ If you only knew what is needed for peace! But now you cannot see it! The time will come when your enemies will surround you with barricades block you and close in on you from every side.

    They will completely destroy you and the people within your walls, not a single stone will they leave in its place because you did not recognize the time when God came to save you”.

    • According to Luke, all song and rejoicing stopped suddenly when Jesus was deeply distressed at the sight of Jerusalem

    • Jesus knew that Jerusalem (the city of peace) would reject his final appeal and by so doing would bring judgement down on itself. The destruction of the city is viewed as the consequence of its rejection of Jesus.

    They cannot see when the true peace comes in the person of Jesus.

    The coming destruction is a symbol of God’s judgement on lack of trust. The tears of Jerusalem are the tears of tragedy.

    • The heart of the tragedy is that Jerusalem did not recognize the time when God came to save them.

    • Now Jesus says that Jerusalem was not ready to receive him as their savior and this would lead to her ruin.

    • Just like the Babylonians were God’s instrument of destruction of Jerusalem during the time of Jeremiah, so will the Romans be instruments of destruction of Jerusalem.

    • Jerusalem was completely destroyed by the Roman armies in the year A.D 70

    Qn e. Explain the cleansing of the temple.

    • While in Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple where he found people buying and selling

    • He drove them out and overturned their tables saying that they had turned his father’s house into a den of robbers

    • Here Luke uses this incidence to show how Jerusalem was still unprepared for the day of God’s visit

    • Jesus carried out a symbolic act by driving out those who were buying and selling in the temple

    • Jesus used the words of Jeremiah who too attacked the in his time for turning the temple into a hideout for thieves

    • According to Jesus the temple will no longer give them the sense of security because it will be destroyed

    • Although the temple will be destroyed, a new one will be built.

    This is the Christian community, which will be a house o prayer for all nations.

    The new temple will not be limited to Jesus alone but to all people

    • In short Jesus is the Messiah. He exposed the unrighteousness of public life in Jerusalem by attacking the merchants in the temple

    Qn f. Give reasons why Jesus cleansed the temple of Jerusalem

    • The temple authorities had allowed a market in the court of the gentiles where the everyday money issued by the Roman government could be exchanged for the special temple coins which had to be used for paying the temple tax

    • In the same place they could also buy the animals needed for sacrifice. This animals had to be certified as acceptable

    • But both the changing of money and the certifying of animals gave ample opportunity for making exorbitant profits

    • Jesus made his protest because all this trading was hiding for the real purpose of the temple and prevented Israel from being a light to the gentiles. For this reason, the temple would be destroyed because it was no longer serving as “ a house of prayer”.

    Qn g. what lessons can Christians learn from the cleansing of the temple?

    • Christians learn that they should respect the house of God and use it appropriately

    • Christian leaders should avoid exploiting members through asking for excessive contributions

    • Christians should pay more attention to inward righteousness than external observance of rituals

    • Christians should have more courage like Jesus to condemn evil practices by leaders in the church and society

    • Christians should be exemplary with their life styles so as to win others to the kingdom

    • Finally the cleansing of the temple by Jesus provides valuable lesson to Christians who are called upon to be Christ’s ambassadors.

    There are many incidents where churches have been subjected to disrespect and dishonor and this discourages many people from knowing God.

    Christians should also avoid leadership wrangles, corruption, sexual abuse, gossip and many others that have caused churches to split

    Qn h. explain Jesus’ conflict with the Jewish leaders

    • In a series of conflicts in and around the temple between Jesus and the official leaders of the Jewish nation, the public ministry of Jesus came to its close

    • After the cleansing the temple, he daily dominated the temple area teaching large crowds.

    His popularity grew steadily and the leaders felt the threat against their own position.

    They could not allow this to go on but they were afraid to arrest Jesus.

    In the end they tried to trap him into making statements which would either get him into trouble with the Roman authorities or discredit him before the people.

    • First Jesus was challenged about his authority.

    The Jewish religious leaders wondered whose authority Jesus used.

    They wanted to know which Rabii taught him or to which Jewish religious groups he belonged to i.e. the Pharisees or the Sadducees

    • If Jesus proclaimed himself as the Messiah he could be accused before the Roman authorities for rebellion.

    • If he refused to make his claim the crowds would soon leave him alone.

    • But Jesus skillfully defeated his adversaries.

    He invited them to answer their own question. “ Tell me, did John’s right to baptize come from God or human beings?”

    • Whatever answer they gave to Jesus’ question about John the Baptist would apply in even stronger measures to their own question about Jesus

    • But they had never supported John and they could no now admit that his right to baptize came from God.

    • If they did they would also have to accept Jesus whom John had announced.

    Neither could they say John was a prophet for that would bring trouble from the people who held John in high self-esteem

    Qn i. Describe the parable of the tenants in the vineyard

    • After the question of Jesus’ authority, Jesus challenged the Jewish leaders by telling them the parable of the wicked tenants.

    He said that there was once a man who planted a vineyard, let it to the tenants and then left home for a long time

    • When the time came to gather the grapes, he sent a slave to the tenants to receive from them his share of the harvest but the tenants beat the slaves and sent him back without a thing.

    The same treatment was given to the second and the third slave

    • The owner decided to send his own son whom they killed.

    He therefore decided to come by himself, killed the tenants and handed over the vineyard to other men

    • When the people heard this they said, “surely not” but Jesus explained to them “the stone which the builders rejected as worthless turned out to be the most important of all.

    And every one who falls on the stone will be cut to pieces and if that stone falls on someone, it will crush him to dust

    • In this parable, the vineyard represents God’s kingdom, Israel.

    The servants are the prophets sent to Israel and they are rejected.

    The son here represents Jesus and the owner is God who will bring judgement on Israel

    • The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone this shows that Jesus saw himself as the rejected but most important.

    He makes a new foundation of Israel for both Jews and Gentiles.

    On hearing this, the Pharisees wanted to seize Jesus but were afraid of the people

    Qn j. what is the relevance of the parable of the tenants?

    • Over the centuries the situation has not changed. Jesus is still rejected by nations and by men.

    • What happened to Jesus happened as he foretold those who follow him.

    • Church history reveals many examples of men rejected by political and religious leaders and by the people their time and who have later been seen as the key man in the revelation of God’s purpose

    • As Christians we should also pray for strength and guidance from God to be able to deal with rejection

    • As Christians we should not fear rejection but stand firm for the truth

    • Christians should also seek pastoral counseling fro the church leaders and other Christians. When we endure persecution we may be finally proved right

    Qn k. the question about paying taxes

    • The teachers of law and the chief priest, after falling to arrest Jesus bribed some spies to ask whether it was right for them to pay taxes to Caesar or not

    • The Israelites were compelled to pay taxes to the Romans who controlled them

    • Many resented this because according to them payment of taxes using coins which had some emperors image was a violation of the Jewish law which forbade the use of images

    • If Jesus would tell them to pay, the people would be against him for supporting Roman rule over them

    • Many resented this because according to them people would be against him for supporting Roman rule over them

    • If he told them not to pay, they would accuse him to the Roman authorities

    • Jesus knew their trick and wanted his questioners to make their own decision about the issue

    • According to him it was right for the Roman government to exert the tax payments without demeaning God’s authority

    • In other words, by having the silver coin in their possession, the Jews accepted Roman authority

    • They had a duty to pay tax to the emperor because they enjoyed the benefit of the Roman rule

    • At the same time they had a duty to be loyal to God. A person’s loyalty should not be owed to the state or Caesar

    Qn l. explain the question about resurrection

    • The Sadducees raised the question concerning marriage an resurrection or life after death

    • They asked Jesus whose wife a woman would be in the resurrection when she married seven brothers who had died without bearing children.

    • The question was meant or designed to make Jesus look foolish thus to shame him. This would undermine the popular support that we had prevented action against Jesus

    • In his response, Jesus made the following observations

    • He does not accept the assumption that marriage continues after resurrection

    • Quoting from exodus a book that the Sadducees accepted, Jesus confirms that there is life after death

    • The resurrection life is different from earthly life

    • It is a new existence where those who resurrect, live with God as his children in eternity

    Qn m. what is eschatology?

    • The term eschatology is derived from two Greek words ’Eschatus’ and ‘Lagos’, which means end and study respectively

    • Eschatology therefore is the study of the last things such as death, judgement, life after death and the end of the world

    • Jesus talked about the end of the world to his disciples just before he was arrested

    Qn n. what will happen at the end of the world (eschatology) according to Jesus’ teaching in Luke’s gospel 21: 5-38?

    • Jesus taught hi disciples about the end times in the temple of Jerusalem

    • In his speech, he talked about what will happen to the city of Jerusalem and the world at the end of time

    • Jerusalem was going to be destroyed because of her refusal to recognize and accept the Messiah

    • Jesus told the disciples of the signs that would accompany the end of the world

    • People come claiming to be Jesus the Messiah, the son of God

    • There will be wars between nations

    • Natural calamities like earthquakes, famines and plagues will occur

    • Strange heavenly beings will come from the sky

    • There will be disruption in the sky and in the sea

    • All nations will be in despair

    • People will faint from fear as they witness these signs

    • At the end of all these, the son of man will appear in power and glory

    • Jesus’ teaching of the end times was meant to provide encouragement to the disciples in difficult times

    • They were expected to have hope

    Qn o. how do Christians prepare for the second coming of Christ?

    • Christians should prepare for the second coming of Christ by not losing hope in the face of trials and tribulations because the kingdom of God with its promises of a new life will definitely come

    • They prepare for his second coming by leading a righteous life. They are to avoid too much feasting and drinking

    • They should prepare by being watchful through prayers so that God will give them courage and strength to stand firm in their faith

    • They should prepare by preaching the word of God to those who have not heard it

    • They should prepare by being obedient to God’s commandments

    • They should prepare by helping the needy

    • They should prepare by preaching and evangelizing and converting others

    Topic Six: the Passion, Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ The Lord’s Supper

    Qn a. give the different names used in reference to the Lord’s Supper by Christians in different churches

    • The holy Eucharist

    • The mass

    • The lord’s table or the table of the lord

    • The Holy Communion

    • The Last Supper

    • The breaking of bread

    • The sacrament

    Qn b. describe the institution of the Lord’s Supper

    • Jesus was at the last supper with his disciples the night he was betrayed

    • In the room which had been arranged by Jesus. He told his disciples how much he had longed to eat the Passover meal with them before he suffered death

    • He took a piece of bread and gave thanks to God and broke it. He gave it to them saying, “ this is my body which is given for you. So do this in memory of me”

    • He took a cup of wine and gave thanks to God and said “ take this and share it among yourselves”

    • He also gave them a cup of wine after supper saying “ this cup is God’s new covenant sealed with my blood which is poured out for you

    Qn c. state the Christian teachings about the Lord’s Supper

    • The Last Supper was inaugurated by Jesus

    • It’s celebration of the crucified and rise Christ

    • The Lord’s Supper is a gift from God

    • It is a sacrifice of praise and thanks giving

    • It is the church’s effective proclamation of God’s mighty works acts and promises

    • It is a sign of the unity of the church or the believers

    • It is a new paschal meal of the church. The meal, which by visible signs communicates God’s love in Jesus Christ. It is the sacrament of Christ’s real presence

    • The bread is a symbol of the body of Christ which was crucified

    • The wine or cup is a symbol of his blood, which was shed. It is the blood of the new covenant

    • It is a fore state of Christ’s passion and of the final kingdom. It is symbolic of the heavenly banquet

    • It is central to Christian worship. (Eucharist)

    Qn d. what is the meaning of the Lord’s Supper to Christians?

    • The sacramental meal communicates God’s love in Christ

    • The washing of the disciples feet by Jesus signifies humble service to and love for one another

    • They proclaim the lord’s death until his second coming

    • They share in the body of Christ

    • The unity of Christians is evidenced

    • The bread symbolizes the body of Jesus which was crucified on the cross for the sins of human kind and for the healing of their diseases

    • The wine symbolizes the blood of Jesus which was shed for forgiveness of sins

    • The wine also symbolizes the sealing of a new covenant

    • The partaking of the Lord’s Supper strengthens the faith of believers in that, Christ’s presence is felt and in this way they constantly keep in touch with him

    • The lord’s supper enhances a personal relationship between the individual believer ad Christ

    • It is thanksgiving to God for everything accomplished in creation, redemption and sanctification

    • Through the Holy Communion, Christians offer themselves as a holy and living sacrifice. They rededicate and renew themselves. Those who share in the sacred meal declare their loyalty to Christ

    • The Lord’s Supper is an act of repentance. The partakers receive reassurance of the forgiveness of sins and are assured of salvation

    • The bread and the wine which represents the body and blood of Jesus become the final sacrifice replacing all O.T sacrifices that were offered for the salvation of the human race

    Qn f. Prayer on mount olives

    • After celebrating the last supper, Jesus and his disciples went to mount olives

    • He knelt down and prayed and asked his disciples to join him

    • In response, God sent an angel from heaven to encourage him

    • Jesus prayed in agony until his sweat was like drops of blood

    • This sweat which was like blood was an indication of the struggle and agony he went through to accept the will of his father

    • Though Jesus suffered agony and turmoil, he approached it with great courage and composure

    • His suffering was even greater for it involved more than physical pain. It meant bearing the sin of the world

    • So he prayed to God, his father to give him strength for his coming mission

    • When he went back to his disciples, he found them asleep a sign of moral and physical exhaustion or maybe it was an indication that they were in sorrow because Jesus had told them he was about to be crucified

    • In conclusion, we can say that Jesus expressed an inner struggle about the fulfillment of his Messianic mission. So he prayed to God to help him bear the suffering. Prayer was very important in Jesus’ ministry

    Qn g. describe the betrayal and arrest of Jesus

    • When Jesus came down from Mt. Olives he met a multitude of people

    • Judas Iscariot appeared accompanied by a large crowd, the chief priest, elders and the temple guards who had ordered to arrest Jesus

    • Judas Iscariot came forth and kissed Jesus. This was a sign identifying Jesus as the man they were looking for. That kiss was the betrayal

    • When the disciples noticed what was happening one of them used his sword to cut off the ear of a high priest’s slave

    • In other words Jesus stopped his disciples from resisting his arrest

    • By rejecting armed assistance, Jesus was refusing the role of a political Messiah

    • Jesus was arrested and taken to the house of the chief priest Annas

    Qn h. state the reasons that made Judas Iscariot to betray Jesus

    • He lacked moral courage to stand by Jesus during his moment

    • He could have been an informer of the Jewish religious leaders

    • He was overcome by the power of evil

    • He was disappointed by Jesus’ teaching on spiritual kingdom rather than fulfilling the Jewish expectation of a political Messiah who could liberate them from the Roman rule

    • He was a mercenary motivated by greed for money

    • He had little faith in Jesus or lost his trust in Jesus Christ

    • He was not loyal to the master

    • He was a northerner who felt foreign and thus was jealous against other disciples

    • He was a zealot who believed in war rather than peace

    The council of Sanhedrin

    • Jesus was brought to the Sanhedrin council early in the morning following his arrest

    • The council of elders asked him if he was the Messiah

    • Jesus responded by speaking of the son of the man coming in triumph

    • The Sanhedrin accused him of the sin of blasphemy for allegedly claiming to be the son of God

    • He was condemned to die for alleged blasphemy

    • In the Jewish law, blasphemy was punishable by death The trial before Pilate

    • Since the Sanhedrin could not carry out the death sentence, they took Jesus to the Roman governor Pilate

    • They accused Jesus of inciting the people to revolt, forbidding payment of taxes and claiming to be a king in rebellion to Roman authority

    • They could not accuse Jesus of blasphemy. This charge would not be accepted under Roman law

    • However, by taking Jesus to Pilate, the Jewish religious leaders wanted the Roman authority to take responsibility for Jesus’ death

    The trial before Herod

    • Jesus’ ministry works had mesmerized Herod. So when Pilate learned that Jesus was from Galilee, he handed him over to Herod who was the district officer of Galilee and happened to be in Jerusalem at that time

    • The trial of Jesus before Herod (only mentioned in St. Luke’s gospel) is not really a trial because king Herod only wanted to satisfy his curiosity about Jesus

    • He joined the soldiers in mocking Jesus

    • Jesus refused to answer Herod’s questions and he consequently sent Jesus back to Pilate

    • Interestingly the mockery by Herod and his soldiers as another step in the public ridicule of Jesus. It will continue as he hangs on the cross

    Pilate’s judgement

    • Jesus was brought to Pilate a second time

    • Pilate reiterated that he found Jesus not guilty of any crime

    • The chief priests prevailed upon Pilate who passed a sentence of death on Jesus to die by crucifixion.

    This was the punishment of high treason according to the Roman law

    • The Jewish leaders asked that Barnabas a criminal be released instead of Jesus

    • It was customary for a convicted person to be released during the Passover

    • So the Jewish leaders and not the Jewish people or Pilate were responsible for Jesus’ death

    • Jesus was killed because of the blind hatred of the Jewish leaders

    Qn j. why do you think Pilate agreed to have Jesus crucified?

    • He was afraid of a Jew revolt. It was his duty to maintain peace in his territory in accordance with the expectations of the Roman emperor. If he had released Jesus, the Jew would have caused a disturbance

    • He did not want to be disloyal to the Roman emperor after learning that Jesus had been accused of treason. Disloyalty could have resulted in losing favor with the emperor and consequently his job

    • He washed his hands. This means that he was absolving himself of the guilt of having Jesus crucified.

    This is because he had learnt from the Jewish leaders that Jesus was the Son of God.

    His wife had also cautioned him about Jesus’ innocence. Pilate himself had found no evidence to convict Jesus

    Qn k. identify and explain the lessons that Christians learn from the actions of Pilate during the trial of Jesus

    • Jesus is the king of the Jews

    • Jesus is without sin. Pilate found no guilt in Jesus and he sent him to Herod

    • Pilate gave in to their demands on the grounds of treason- Christians should refrain from giving false witness

    • Pilate was afraid of a revolt. It was his duty to maintain peace as a Roman officer. Christians learn that they should not be compromised by worldly standards

    • Christians should stand firm for the truth because the truth will always prevail

    • Christians should strive not to loose favour with God. They should desire to please God rather than man

    • Pilate washed his hands he learnt that Jesus is truly the son of God (innocent)

    • Great evil can happen when the truth is at the mercy of political pressure

    • Christians should take time before making decisions

    • Resisting the truth leaves a person without purpose or direction

    Qn l. actions taken by the Jewish leaders to ensure that Jesus was put to death

    • They paid Judas Iscariot to betray him

    • They bought false witnesses to accuse him of blasphemy before Sanhedrin/ blasphemy was punishable by stoning to death

    • They hurriedly tried Jesus at night before people knew what was happening

    • They framed treason charge against Jesus when he appeared before Pilate/ treason carried a death sentence

    • They employed armed temple guards and armored soldiers to deal with those who would fight for Jesus

    • They blackmailed Pilate to have Jesus crucified

    • They organized a mob to shout for the death of Jesus and release of Barnabas

    • They crucified him dead when they got permission from Pilate

    Qn m. explain the crucifixion of Jesus

    • Jesus was given the cross beam to carry to his crucifixion site

    • Simon of Cyrene helped him carry it

    • A group of women followed Jesus and wept over his plight

    • Jesus asked them to weep over themselves and their children

    • He talked about the impending destruction coming over Jerusalem

    • Jesus eventually arrived at Golgotha and was nailed on the cross

    • Two criminals were crucified on either of his sides

    • After his crucifixion, the soldiers cast lots to divide his garments. This action fulfilled psalms 22: 18,

    Jesus is the righteous Messiah who suffers unjustly and is mocked by people as he cries to God

    • The soldiers, Jewish leaders and one of the thieves mocked Jesus for claiming to be the royal Messiah

    • Jesus is mocked with the challenge to save himself

    • One of the criminals crucified with Jesus usually referred to as the repentant thief acknowledged Jesus as the Messiah and admitted the justness of his own condemnation

    • Above Jesus it was written, “ this is the king of Jews”

    • Jesus forgave his killers and all those who had accused him falsely. He promised one of the thieves hanging on the cross a place in paradise

    Qn n. describe the death of Jesus

    • The death of Jesus was preceded by extra ordinary happenings

    • Darkness covered the land for three hours

    • The curtain in the temple tore into two

    • Jesus died after crying “ father into thy hands I commit my spirit”

    • On seeing Jesus die, the Roman centurion who was present testified to Jesus’ innocence. As he recognized Jesus’ lordship

    • In his death, Jesus showed total commitment to God’s will

    Qn o. the burial of Jesus

    • Joseph of Arimathea, a rich and righteous member of the Sanhedrin asked Pilate to allow him bury Jesus

    • Joseph could have been a secret disciple of Jesus

    • Jesus’ burial in Joseph’s grave fulfilled Isaiah’s prophesy concerning the suffering servant of Yahweh who was buried in a rich man’s tomb

    • A group of women followed Joseph and saw where he buried Jesus

    • They went back home to prepare spices with which to wash Jesus’ body after the Sabbath

    • Jesus was indeed a king judged by the way he was buried

    The Resurrection:

    Qn p. define the term resurrection

    The term resurrection refers to the event of Jesus rising from the dead.

    This event took place on the third day i.e. the Sunday morning after Jesus was crucified on Friday afternoon

    Qn q. the witnesses of the risen Christ

    The testimony of the repentant thief

    • He rebuked his unrepentant companion

    • He recognized his own sinful condition

    • He declared Jesus to be sinless

    • He professed in Jesus’ true Messiah-ship and Lordship

    • He recognized that Jesus would live and exercise his saving power after he died

    The testimony of Joseph of Arimathea

    • Joseph of Arimathea was a secret disciple of Christ

    • He witnessed to the lordship of Jesus Christ after his death by his actions

    • He did this by seeking permission from Pilate to bury the body of Jesus

    • By giving Jesus this royal burial he was witnessing to the truth that Jesus

    was king

    Testimony of the holy woman

    • On the day after the Sabbath, Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Jesus went to the tomb planning to prepare Jesus’ body for a proper burial

    • On arrival, they found the stone covering the tomb had been rolled away

    • The tomb was also empty

    • Two men in dazzling clothes confirmed that Jesus had risen as he had prophesied. The two men were angles

    • When the women learnt of Jesus’ resurrection, they broke the news to the apostils and all the others.

    The apostles rejected the women’s testimony

    The testimony of disciples on their way to Emmaus

    • Jesus appeared to the disciples who were on their way to Emmaus

    • They were discussing Jesus’ suffering, death and the empty tomb

    • They regarded Jesus’ death as a tragedy, for they had hoped he would liberate the Jews from the Roman rule

    • Jesus explained to the scriptures, which say the messiah would suffer to reach his glory.

    • They invited Jesus to dine with them

    • Jesus shared the Holy Eucharist with them before they recognized whom he was at the breaking of the bread

    • The disciples at Emmaus thus became the second witnesses to the risen Christ.

    The effect of this testimony is that the disciples went and told the eleven apostles about their encounter with the risen Christ

    Qn r. the appearance of Jesus to the disciples

    • As the disciples narrated their encounter with Jesus to the eleven apostles, Jesus appeared to them

    • Jesus asked them to confirm that he had risen by touching his body

    • He explained to the apostles his mission through telling them the prophesies about him in the law of Moses, prophets and psalms

    • Jesus brought his disciples to be witnesses by proclaiming repentance and forgiveness of sins

    • He tested some cooked fish

    • He promised that he was going to be with them through the power of the Holy Spirit

    The Ascension of Jesus Qn s. Describe the ascension of Jesus

    • From Jerusalem Jesus led his disciples to Bethany

    • He raised his hands blessed the disciples and lifted to heaven

    • The disciples returned and witnessed Jesus’ ascension with joy

    • They continued to go to the temple to pray to God waiting for the holy spirit that Jesus had promised them

    • From this incidence where Jesus blessed the disciples, we learn that the disciples became confident about their mission. This earlier disbelief and blindness to who Jesus was now overcome

    Qn t. Give five evidences from the bible that show that Jesus Christ rose from the dead

    • The tomb was empty

    • Assurance of the angle to the women that Jesus had risen

    • Thomas witnessed the resurrection by feeling the scars on Jesus’ hands

    • The women who had gone to the tomb had found it empty

    • The disciples witnessed his resurrection when he appeared to the two disciples at Emmaus

    • Jesus shared a meal with his disciples after his resurrection in Jerusalem

    • Jesus walked with the disciples up to Bethany prior to his ascension

    Qn t. explain the significance of passion, death and the resurrection of Jesus to Christian life

    • The passion deed and resurrection refers to seven incidences namely, Jesus’ last supper, suffering in the garden, suffering before Sanhedrin, Pilate and Herod; mocking by the soldiers, death on the cross, resurrection and ascension

    • Those events are of great significance to the modern Christians. First they proof that Jesus was indeed the son of God and the Messiah

    • The passion, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ was a fulfillment of the old testament prophesies and Psalms

    • The resurrection resulted in the rapid spread of the church. The spread of the church is as a result of the risen Christ and the influence of the Holy Spirit

    • The resurrection is thus the basis/ the central idea or foundation in the Christian faith and missionary activity;

    if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is useless and you believing it is useless

    • The passion, death and resurrection reveal the power of God to those who believe in him.

    They also prove that Jesus who was God’s triumphant envoy is alive and Christians are assured living again after the physical death

    • The raising of Jesus from the dead proved that Jesus was not only man but lord over human life so that Christians share in his life on earth by believing in him and living according to the fruits of the holy spirit

    • The resurrection of Jesus is a source of inspiration and confidence in Christians. It also points to the fact that Jesus was a man of his word i.e. he fore told the resurrection and it came to pass.

    His resurrection was a real fact because he showed his disciples the crucifixion marks

    • All that happened during the passion, death and resurrection of Christ was just a completion of God’s revelation through Christ

    • They also point to the power and glory of God in which those who believe share in the hope of their own resurrection in the second coming of Jesus

    Qn v. the significance of Jesus’ resurrection to Christians today

    • It is the foundation of the Christian faith and hope which their belief would be useless

    • Christian faith would be in vain (futile) if Jesus had not resurrected

    • Through resurrection Christians have confidence and hope in God because the one they believe in has been exalted and sits at the right hand of God almighty

    • Through the resurrection, Christians are given hope of eternal life

    • The resurrection of Jesus led to the coming of the holy spirit which helps Christians to live according to the teachings of Christ, preach the gospel and speak boldly against the evils in the society

    • The resurrection give meaning to baptism in that one dies in sin and is raised with Christ to new life

    • The resurrection confirms the divinity of Jesus as the true son of God

    • The resurrection gives Christians courage to face death because they have hope of resurrecting at his second return

    • It is remembered by Christians during the Eucharist

    Qn w. explain five importance of Eulogy of death in the society today

    • It enables mourners to know the cause or nature of death

    • It enables the mourners to forgive the dead person incase of any grudge between them and the dead person

    • It enables the mourners to ask for forgiveness from the dead person

    • It enables the mourners know the wish or last words of the deceased before he/ she died

    • Mourners have an opportunity to declare what they owe or are owed by the dead

    • It enables mourners to know the contribution of work of the dead to the society

    • It provides the mourners with an opportunity to know the nature or character of the dead and his/her social life

    • It enables mourners to know the background or life history of the deceased e.g. education.

    Form Three

    Selected Teachings From the New and the Old Testaments

    Topic One: Gifts of the Holy Spirit

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to: -

    a) Discuss what Jesus taught about the role and gifts of the Holy Spirit.

    b) Describe the manifestations of the Holy Spirit in Christianity today.

    c) Identify the fruits of the Holy Spirit.

    d) Interpret the message of Peter on the day of Pentecost.

    Lesson One: Teachings of Jesus on the Role of the

    Holy Spirit. Read John 14:15-26, 16: 5-15, and Acts 1: 7- 8

    Introduction

    The Holy Spirit is the third person in the trinity.

    There is the power of Christ, the power of God, and the Holy Spirit who gives gifts such as prophecy and healing.

    The Holy Spirit is mentioned several times in the Bible;

    (1) during creation in Genesis,

    (2) at the annunciation of the birth of Jesus,

    (3) at the beginning of the ministry of Jesus,

    (4) during baptism,

    (5) revelation of Jesus in the temple

    (6) Jesus spoke of the Holy Spirit during his mission or ministry, after resurrection and before ascension.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson: a. State the role of Holy Spirit in the church and in Christian lives today.

    b. Enumerate the gifts of the Holy Spirit.

    c. Analyse the Manifestation of the Holy Spirit in the church and Christians today.

    d. Give the role of love in church and in Christian lives today

    a. The role of Holy Spirit in Church and in Christian lives today.

    Read John 14:15-26 and John 16: 5-15, Acts 1: 7- 8 The Holy Spirit has many roles in the church and in Christian lives today.

    These roles are to:

  • Teach Christians on a daily basis messages of Jesus

  • Live in the hearts of believers of Christ

  • Be an advocate, a counselor, helper and a comforter to those who love Jesus Christ and obey God’s commandments.

  • He would remind the disciples the words said by Jesus Christ and introduce them to their deeper meanings.

  • Interpret the deeper meaning of the messages of Jesus Christ.

  • Reveal the truth and mysteries of and about God.

  • Affirm the right of Jesus as the Son of God.

  • Reveal the glory of Jesus death.

  • Reveal what is right and wrong.

  • Give the disciples of Jesus power to become witnesses of Christ.

  • Give courage to the disciples of Jesus and modern Christians to face prosecution on the account of following Jesus.

  • Enable the disciples to expose the secret lives and heart of sinful people.

  • Guide Christians; help believers to cast away evils spirits, to heal, to preach the word of God, to encourage, and to condemn evil in the society.

    b. Paul teaching about the Gifts of the Holy Spirit.

    Read 1 Corinthians chapters 12, 13, and 14.

    Spiritual gifts are extra-ordinary favors, talents, abilities, and dispositions given to Christians by God for the benefit of all believers.

    The gifts are used for the service of others and not for self-glorification and gratification.

    The message of Peter on the day of the Pentecost

    Peter told the disciple that what was happening was the fulfillment of Jesus’ prophecy.

    - He said that Jesus of Nazareth was the Son of God.

    - He said that the suffering and death of Jesus was according to God’s plans.

    Death was the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecy.

    Gifts of the Holy Spirit

    1. Gift of wisdom:

    – having deep understanding of issues- ‘seeing far’, being perceptive

    2. Gift of knowledge:

    – ability to understand the basic facts about Jesus, His mission and knowledge about spiritual issues.

    3. The gift of faith:

    – refers to the confidence in God’s help. It is deep trust in God.

    4. The Gift of healing:

    – ability, and power to heal all forms of sickness by calling upon the name of Jesus Christ.

    5. The gift of performing miracles:

    – gift of healing miracles, creative miracles for example, dead legs becoming alive.

    6. The gift of preaching

    7. The gift of prophecy:

    – the ability to interpret God’s word. The ability to foresee what will happen in the future as revealed by God.

    8. The gift of distinguishing spirits or discernment:

    – the ability to know whether a spiritual gift is from God, the Holy Spirit or from the evil spirit.

    9. The gift of speaking in tongues.

    The ability to utter, speak in a tongue, language unknown to the believer.

    Tongues are used when addressing God for self-edifications. It is personal growth.

    10. The gift of interpretation of tongues:

    – the ability to understand and interpret the messages of those speaking in tongues.

    11. The gift of love. (Read 1 Corinthians 13)

    Paul stressed that all the gifts of the Holy Spirit are to be demonstrated with love.

    He stressed that love, a fruit of the Holy Spirit is supreme over other spiritual gifts possessed by Christians.

    It’s the greatest of all. Speaking in tongues, preaching, and martyrdom without love is useless.

    Components of Love Love is patient, kind, not jealous or boastful, not arrogant or rude, is not ill mannered or selfish, and does not insist on its own way.

    It is not disrespectful. It is not irritable or resentful. It does not rejoice at wrong but rejoices in truth. It bears all things.

    Love believes all things, hopes all things, and endures all things. Love is eternal. Love never fails.

    The other gifts are temporary but love, faith and hope are eternal.

    c. Manifestation of the Holy Spirit in the church and Christians today

    Gifts of the Holy Spirit have been manifested in churches today.

    We see this manifestation through people possessing the gifts of the Holy Spirit.

    For example, leaders in church have displayed the gift of wisdom.

    Preachers, and Christian’s ministers have been casting out demons and performing healing.

    There are reported cases of interpretation of tongues and gift of prophecy in churches today.

    When Christians display the gifts of the Holy Spirit such as speaking in tongues the Holy Spirit is manifested.

    Other manifestations of the Holy Spirit are:

  • Through healing, prophecy, gifts of discernment, boldness in preaching, and casting out demons among others.

  • Christians helping the poor by giving generosity and in kindness.

  • Through singing, dancing, shouting (fruit of joy)

  • Through unity of believes and fellowships.

  • Through praying.

  • Christian’s persecutions/temptations.

    d. Criteria for Discerning the Gifts of the Holy Spirit.

    Christians who have the Holy Spirit and are guided by Jesus have certain characteristics.

    These are:

  • They will confess that Jesus is Lord

  • They cannot say a curse.

  • They speak the truth. They worship God and behave in accordance with Jesus teaching.

  • They led by the Holy Spirit and are known by the fruits of the Holy Spirit. These fruits are love, joy, peace, and patience.

  • Such persons serve all Christians without discrimination and strife.

  • They do not do sinful acts such as sexual immorality.

    They do not practice idolatry, and sorcery.

    They do not have in their hearts and minds hatred, and jealously or any other negative feelings and actions.

    e. The fruits of the Holy Spirit (Galatians 5:16-26)

    Paul taught that the fruit of the spirit are: Love, Joy, Patience, Long suffering, Goodness or Generosity, Faith and faithfulness, Peace, Meekness and kindness, gentleness, selfcontrol and temperance.

    Answer these questions after reading – John 14:15-26 and John 16: 5- 15, ACTS 1: 7- 8 and 1 Corinthians chapters 12, 13, and 14.

    1. What is the role of the Holy Spirit among Christians? (Read a)

    2. Discuss the gifts of the Holy Spirit

    3. Write a talk about the Holy Spirit

    4. Define love?

    5. Describe the different types of love

    6. Why do Christians need the Holy Spirit today?

    7. State the role of love in church and in Christian lives today.

    8. How has the gift of the Holy Spirit been manifested in Christian lives?

    9. Which activities show that the Holy Spirit is working among Christian in Kenya.

    10. How have the gifts of the Holy Spirit been misused in the church today?

    Answers are also in the text. Read sections with answers

    1. The role of the holy spirit

    An advocate, a counsellor and a comforter.

    He would remind and introduce the disciples to the deeper meaning of the word of Jesus Christ.

    To reveal the myth and mysteries of God.

    He would affirm the right of Jesus as the Son of God.

    He would reveal the glory of Jesus’ death.

    He would enable the disciples to discern and expose the secret heart of sinful men.

    2. The gift of the Holy Spirit has been misused today by pride and public manifestation of the gift as a way of show off.

    Some Christians have misused the gift of Holy Sprit of prophecy by prophesying for money.

    Lesson Two. Peter’s Message on the Day of Pentecost.

    Read Acts 2: 14-41

    Introduction

    Jews commemorate Pentecost day. This is the day that God gave Moses his laws on mount Sinai.

    It is also referred to as the festival of weeks.

    Pentecost day was celebrated 50 days after the Passover.

    It was compulsory for all Jews.

    On this day, Jews brought offering, the first fruits of harvest, to the temple in Jerusalem.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson You should be able: -

    1. Describe Pentecost day.

    2. Narrate Peters’ Message.

    3. Explain the relevance of the Pentecostal Experience

    a. Pentecost a day

    On the Pentecostal day, the disciples were gathered in Jerusalem awaiting the promise of the Holy Spirit.

    And as promised, the Holy Spirit came in the form of a strong wind, and tongues of fire.

    The Holy Spirit rested on the head of each disciple.

    The disciples received the gift of the Holy Spirit.

    They spoke in new tongues.

    Some of the observers mistook this experience.

    They thought that the disciples were drunk with wine.

    Peter stood up to explain what was happening and defend the disciples.

    He told those who saw the experience that the disciples were not drunk. It was in the morning.

    b. Peter’s Message. Read Joel 2: 28 – 32

    Peter told the onlookers that; what was happening is fulfillment of Joel’s prophesies about the outpouring of Gods spirit.

    He said that Jesus of Nazareth was the Son of God.

    This was proved by the miracles that Jesus performed.

    He emphasized that the suffering and death of Jesus was according to God’s plans.

    Jesus is a descendant of David.

    Death and the resurrection of Jesus fulfilled prophesies in the Old Testament.

    God raised Jesus from the dead.

    He taught that Jesus had both the nature of God and Man.

    The apostles are the living witnesses of the resurrection of Jesus. Jesus has been exalted and sits on the right hand of God where He is Lord and Judge.

    They holy Spirit is a gift from Jesus Peter then invited the listeners to repentance so that they could be forgiven and receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

    Three thousand souls accepted salvation message and were added to the fellowship of the disciples.

    c. After the Holy Spirit infilling.

    The disciples sold their possessions and goods and assisted the needy. They did many wonders and signs.

    They continued to live in unity, worshiping God, fellowshipping together, and breaking the bread.

    d. Lessons Christians learn from Leadership of Peter. Christians should be:

    1. Courageous and stand up for Jesus Christ all the times.

    2. Ready to spread the Gospel of Christ.

    3. Win new converts to Jesus by inviting them to repentance.

    4. Have faith in the risen Christ.

    5. Pray to be filled with the Holy Spirit like Peter and those in church leadership should take their roles seriously.

    e. Relevance of the Pentecostal Experience

    Speaking in diverse tongues signified that Christianity is a universal religion.

    It pointed out the importance of all languages when communicating to God. There were no specific languages for speaking with God, as it was when Latin was the language of literacy and Christianity.

    Christians should be bold in their preaching.

    They should not be afraid as they have the counsel and helper, the Holy Spirit.

    Christians should understand that God chooses anyone as a leader, preacher, and witness of Christ.

    Pentecostal experience signifies that Christians need to receive and be filled with the Holy Spirit.

    Revision questions

    a) Explain the meaning of the Pentecost

    b) Describe the manifestations of the holy spirit on the day of the Pentecost (Acts 2: 1-40)(or narrate the events that took place on the day of the Pentecost)

    c) Write down five teachings about Jesus from Peter’s speech on the day of the Pentecost.

    d) What were the qualities of peter that made him a successful leader of the apostolic church?

    e) What lessons can Christians learn from the events of the day of the Pentecost?

    f) State the teachings of Jesus on the holy spirit (John 14:14-26) (acts 1:7- 8)

    g) What is the role of the holy spirit according to Jesus?

    h) What is the role of the holy spirit in the believers or the church or Christians?

    i) Outline the fruits of the holy spirit

    j) State the criteria for discerning the spiritual gifts

    k) List down the gifts of the holy spirit

    l) Explain why Paul taught that love is the greatest of all spiritual gifts

    m) Explain how the Holy spirit is manifested in the church today

    n) State ways in which the gifts of the holy spirit are being abused in the church today.

    Topic Two: the Unity of Believers Learning outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

    a) Explain teaching in selected New Testament texts of the unity of believers.

    b) Identify the metaphors used to describe unity of believers.

    c) Identify the causes of disunity in the early and modern church.

    Lesson One: Teachings of the Unity of Believers in Selected New Testament Texts

    Unity of believers refers to oneness of those who have faith in Jesus Christ.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson you should be able to: -

    i. Describe activities of early Christians.

    ii. Describe characteristics of the people of God.

    iii. Explain the meanings of these symbolic expressions.

    - The body of Christ

    - The Vine and the Branches

    - The Church / Assembly of God

    - The Bride

    a. Early Christians

    The early Christians in Jerusalem demonstrated their unity by.

  • Holding joint prayer sessions

  • Sharing the Lords supper, that is Eucharist.

  • Sharing their possessions with the poor.

    The showed oneness and unity as believers.

    They expressed their oneness using various terms, images, metaphors and symbols.

    They regarded themselves as the people of God, the church and an Assembly of God.

    When they celebrated the last supper, eating of bread was a symbol of the body of Christ.

    They saw themselves as belonging to one tree with the vine and branches.

    As followers of Christ, the early Church saw itself as the Bride of Christ.

    b. Discussion of Symbolic Expressions

    i. The people of God

    Read 1 Peter 2: 9-10. Peter has outlined the characteristics of the people of God.

    He says that the people of God are Believers in God: through faith in Jesus Christ.

    The ‘Chosen race’, ‘a royal priesthood’, a holy nation’ ‘a chosen people’ Those who stand out from the rest because they live a holy and righteous life.

    Form a Holy nation chosen to proclaim the works of God.

    Not just the descendants of Abraham but people who follow Jesus Christ and His teachings.

    ii. The body of Christ

    Read 1 Corinthians 12:12-27, and Ephesians’ 4:1-12.

    The Holy Spirit is the one who brings Christians together as one body of Christ to serve the church.

    Christians are given gifts for the purpose of sharing the body of Christ.

    Jesus Christ is the head of the church.

    And just as the body has many parts, playing different roles, so has the Church.

    Every member of the church plays a vital role because different members have different spiritual gifts and callings.

    Some are Apostles, Teachers, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors and Miracle performers, Administrators and those who show mercy to others and encourage (exhort) others.

    All church activities should be directed to the welfare of the church, just as the function of each part of the body is necessary for the well being of the whole body.

    To have a united body, members should be meek, and patient in order to bear the fruit of the Holy Spirit.

    For a church to be united, or to be considered as one body, Christians should have faith in God the father, one Lord Jesus Christ, one Holy Spirit and have faith in God through Jesus Christ.

    iii. The Vine and the Branches Read John 15:1-10

    The vine represents Jesus. Vine tree was a tree that bore grapes.

    The vine tree was a symbol of prosperity and peace.

    Jesus is the vine and the Father is the vine dresser.

    Christians/ believers are the branches.

    They are expected to produce good fruits by remaining faithful and united in Christ.

    Faithful branches bear fruit like good Christians while unfruitful branches are like unfruitful Christians.

    Christians should remain united to Christ who is the vine so as to bear fruits.

    The teachings of Jesus purify the Christians.

    The dead branches of the Vine trees are cut off and the livings ones are trimmed or pruned.

    This is done so that the vines may produce high yields. Likewise unfaithful Christians, believers are rebuked and corrected so as to bear high yields.

    iv. The Church or Assembly of God. Read Ephesians 5: 21 – 32

    Church is a Greek word “““ekklesia””, which means people. People who belong to the Lord.

    Assembly of God is the coming together of people of diverse social and cultural backgrounds who recognize lordship of Jesus.

    The church is likened to the relationship between a husband and a wife.

    Christians (the church) are expected to be united with Christ just as a husband and wife are united in marriage.

    Just as husbands and wives are expected to love one another, so too, are Christians called upon to express love to one another and to love God.

    A husband is the head of a family; Jesus is also the head of the church.

    v. The Bride. Read 2 Corinthian 11: 2, and Revelations 21: 1 – 12

    In the Old Testament, God calls Israel a bride.

    In the New Testament, Christians are referred to as “a bride’ in the New Jerusalem’.

    God or Jesus Christ is the bridegroom. Christians are reminded that the life on earth is a temporary home.

    Their real home is in heaven, the Holy city of God.

    Just as a bride is expected to be faithful to her husband, so are Christians expected to be faithful to God by observing the covenant way of life.

    Deviation from the covenant was portrayed as adultery.

    John, who wrote the book of revelations, sees a vision of a new heaven and a new earth in which faithful Christians will be rewarded.

    Christ will come to take His bride to eternity to live there forever.

    The relationship between Christians and Jesus/ God is like a marriage.

    It is a covenant.

    It is a relationship where the church (bride) is expected to submit to God.

    Jesus died for the church, a show of His or God’s love.

    Likewise Christians should be committed in their relationship to God.

    SAQ. 1. Discuss in twos who is a bride and what takes place in a wedding.

    2. Discuss the significance of the symbols used to express the unity of the believers.

    These are “The people of God”, “The body of Christ”, “The vine and the branches” “The church or assembly of God” and “The bride”.

    Lesson Two: Causes of Disunity in the Early Church

    The early church experienced some challenges, which led to divisions among the early disciples and Christians.

    Learning Outcomes. After reading this lesson,

    i Identify causes of disunity in the early church

    ii State causes of disunity in the modern church

    iii Compare the causes of disunity in the early and modern church

    iv Suggest possible solutions to disunity in modern church

    a. Causes of Disunity in the Early Church

    After Jesus ascended to his Father and left the Holy Spirit to look after his followers, the disciples established congregations or communities to spread the Word of God.

    As believers of Christ met and prayed together, there were disagreements and divisions brought about by several factors and issues.

    These were:

    Disputes, among early Christians; concerning leadership of the Church.

    Christians wanted different leaders:

    Paul, Apollos, Cephas or Christ.

    Paul told them that Christ couldn’t be divided (1 Corinthians 1:10 -21).

    Sexual immorality was another cause of disunity in the early church.

    Some Christians were doing or having irresponsible sexual behaviours.

    These were incest, fornication, and prostitution.

    Paul condemned such behaviours and told Christians to stop sinning and honor God with their bodies.

    The body of a Christian is the temple of the Holy Ghost (1 Corinthian 5: 1-13, 6:12 – 20).

    Christians settling disputes in civil courts.

    Paul advised they ought to talk over issues among themselves and agree to solve problems on their own (1 Corinthians 6).

    Dispute over marriage and divorce. Some Christians were opposed to marriage. Others were encouraging divorce.

    Paul addressed these issues in 1 Corinthian, chapter 71-16. Paul advised Christians that it was okay to marry or not to marry.

    But marriage was needed to stop immorality.

    Eating of meat offered to idols.

    Some Christians were eating meat offered to idols while others were against it.

    Paul advised Christians not to eat anything that will cause their faith to weaken or fail. (1 Corinthians 8 and10: 14 – 20.

    There were disputes about dressing during worship. Should women cover their head during worship?

    Should women shave hair? Should men wear long hair? (1 Corinthian 11:1-16).

    Some Christians were overeating and over drinking during the Holy Communion – misuse of the Lord’s Supper, (1 Corinthians 11:17 – 33).

    Misuses of spiritual gift especially the gift of speaking in tongues.

    Paul taught that all gifts are equal (1 Corinthians 12).

    There was a misunderstanding about the resurrection of the body and the dead.

    Some were saying there is no resurrection.

    Paul preached that if there is no resurrection then their preaching was in vain as they were witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 15).

    b. Causes of disunity among believers and church in Kenya today

    Leadership differences. Some Christians are struggling for power.

    This has led to formation of splinter groups, divisions and enmity between these groups.

    Cultural differences. Christians are divided by their African cultural beliefs from their backgrounds.

    This culture is merged with Christianity and Western cultural practices forming a unique mixture of beliefs.

    Some Christians are permissive, while others are conservative. This has led to disunity, for example in the areas of dressing.

    Discrimination. There is inequality within the church between the rich and the poor, the whites and blacks.

    Some Christians are viewed as more spiritual than others, on basis of the tribe, gender, wealth and social status among others. Misuse of freedom of worship.

    Christians are starting sprinter churches, probably because they want to control church finances without supervision by the wider church.

    To justify their departure, they spread propaganda against the ‘mother’ church, and other churches in order to attract followers.

    The more followers a church has the more tithe it collects.

    Misuse of church funds.

    Some church leaders and followers misuse church funds.

    Differences in the practice of baptism

    Arrogance and pride by some Christians.

    Sins: sexual immorality in the church, divorce and marriage issues.

    Some Christian denominations reject the human nature of the person of Jesus Christ; that Christ had both a human and divine nature e.g. Nomiya church.

    SAQ. Can you think of factors that led to disunity among Christians in the early church that you have noted in the Kenyan church?

    c. Reasons why Christians should work in Unity.

    Christians face many problems and they therefore need to work together in unity to:

    Promote oneness of Christians in Jesus Christ.

    Promote the teachings of Jesus Christ.

    Achieve effective evangelism or ministry.

    Adopt a common attitude to the integration of African culture in worship.

    Prevent the formation of sprinter groups and cults.

    Reduce the internal wrangling.

    Have a common stand in dealing with issues affecting the society.

    d. Possible Solutions to disunity The church should settle issues that divide its members by Christians:

    Learning to appreciate and respect the practices and belief of other Christian’s denominations.

    Having or forming a common goal Striving to be guided by the principle of love in solving problems facing them.

    Observing the teachings of disciples, prophets, apostles, God, laws of Moses, Jesus and the Bible.

    Avoiding doing anything to their fellow Christians that would cause suffering and disharmony.

    Activities that the early church did in order to remain united were that they:

    Ate bread together.

    Held fellowships together.

    Shared with the needy.

    Prayed together for each other In the current worldwide Church, there is disunity amongst believers or Christians.

    The most common ones are due.

    Leadership differences and wrangles for power.

    Cultural differences amongst Christians.

    Some Christians are permissive while others are conservative.

    Differences in the interpretation of the Bible.

    Misuse of church funds.

    Pride and arrogance.

    Revision questions

    a. Write down terms used in the new testament to refer to believers in Christ.

    b. Identify five causes of disunity in the church today.

    c. Identify factors which cause disunity among the Christians today.

    d. Discuss reasons why members of Christian families in Kenya find it difficult to harmoniously live together.

    e. Explain how the church strengthens family relationships today

    Topic Three. Teachings From Selected Old Testament Prophets Introduction

    This chapter introduces one to the work of prophets in the Old Testament. In Form One, some prophets were taught e.g. Moses, Elijah, Nathan and Samuel.

    Traditional African prophets were also taught.

    In Form Three, we compare true and false prophets and the Traditional African prophets.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the topic, you should be able to:

    a. Define a prophet, and prophecy

    b. Identify categories of prophets

    c. Explain the importance of prophets in Israel.

    d. Describe the characteristics of prophets.

    e. Explain how prophetic messages were written.

    f. Compare the relationship between prophesies in the Old Testament and the New Testament.

    Lesson One: Prophets

    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should be able to: -

    1. Give a correct definition of a prophet, and prophecy

    2. List prophets in categories

    a. Definitions of a prophet, and prophecy

    The word prophet comes from a Hebrew word “Rabii’ meaning ‘one who is called or one who announces God’s message.

    A prophet is also referred to as a seer.

    A prophet is a person sent by God to teach and give people messages about things to come in future from God.

    Prophets received divine messages from God and communicated them to the people.

    A prophet

    Is therefore a person who foretells events as revealed to him or her by God. Examples of prophets include Samuel, Elijah, Jeremiah and prophetesses (female prophet) Deborah, and Huidah.

    Prophecy

    Is a statement, a message of something that is going to happen in the future.

    The action of giving future messages is called prophecy.

    b. Categories of prophets

    There were many categories of prophets. These were:

    a) Major Prophets.

    These were Prophet’s whose messages covered a long period of time.

    Their messages were long and detailed. For example Prophet Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel.

    b) Minor prophets.

    There are 12 books of the Minor Prophets examples They are called minor because their messages are short, brief and do not contain detailed information.

    The Minor Prophets are Amos, and Hosea, Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.

    c) Canonical prophets the term canon means law.

    Canonical prophets are law prophets.

    The individual utterances of these prophets are laws. Both minor and major prophets are canonical prophets.

    d) The early prophets

    Are Moses, Nathan Elijah, and Elisha. These prophets belonged to guilds schools.

    Their prophecies are not recorded under their names.

    Their prophecies are written in books, which do not bear their names.

    e) Cultic prophets

    like Hannah (N.T.) served in the places of worship. They assisted the priest officiating worship.

    f) Professional / court prophets like Samuel, Micah, and Gad lived together in the temple and in groups.

    They earned their living through their work. They did not work elsewhere.

    g) False prophets

    Are pretenders to speak in the name of Yahweh but God did not call them.

    They spoke lies in accordance with the messages people wanted to hear.

    c. Characteristics of true prophets

    There were two (2) major categories of prophets in the Old Testament,

    (1) true prophets and

    (2) false prophets.

    True prophets

    are those whose prophecies occurred and were fulfilled.

    Prophesies of false prophets did not occur.

    True prophets distinguished themselves from false prophets and ordinary people.

    They experienced God dramatically when He called them and in their ministry.

    They were God’s spokesmen and women.

    They responded in faith to their call.

    God gave them specific tasks in their commission and God’s assurance and support in their ministry.

    They urged people to repent and turn back to God.

    In their messages, they taught that God demands sincere worship and not elaborate rituals.

    They understood God and taught about God righteousness, goodness, mercifulness, and loving care.

    They condemned evil in the society and proclaimed God’s judgment and punishment to those who failed to keep the covenant.

    They spoke with authority and acted with courage. They upheld God as a universal God for all nations.

    They talked of a remnant that shall remain after punishment or those that have continued to worship God sincerely.

    Their utterances were true because they were fulfilled.

    They spent a lot of their time in prayers.

    They prayed regularly. At such times they withdrew from people in order to have a quiet time to seek God.

    All the true prophets received opposition from their audiences and they were ready to suffer for telling God’s word.

    d. The Characteristics of false prophets.

    Some of the prophecy of false prophets contradicted prophesies of the true prophets.

    False prophets followed their own imaginations, and gave false hopes. They told people what they wanted to hear.

    They had no personal knowledge of God.

    Hence, their prophecies were not in line with the divine revelations.

    They used evil forces such as magic, and divinations to call upon the spirits of the dead.

    They were paid for prophesy and benefits materially from their clients.

    They served Baal and were mainly immoral.

    They committed crime.

    Review questions

    How can we know true and false prophets today?

    Lesson Two: Importance of Prophets in Israel Introduction Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should:

    Lesson Two: Importance of Prophets in Israel

    Introduction

    1. Describe the work of prophets in Israel

    2. Explain how God communicated with prophets and Israelites

    3. Analyse the content of the Prophetic messages

    1. Work of prophets in Israel

    Prophets kept Israelites in communication with God. They communicated God’s will to the people of Israel.

    They foretold God’s judgments and punishment for sinners. They condemned the behaviour of the rich towards the poor.

    Through their messages, people reformed their lives since they condemned all forms of social evils and ritual sins.

    They contributed to the writing of their messages leading to the compilation of the Bible.

    Prophets guided and gave people hope.

    They taught people the laws of God.

    They warned people of dangers to come.

    They condemned idolatry and stressed the worship of one true God, Yahweh.

    They anointed the Kings in Israel.

    Kings consulted the prophets before any major undertaking such as war among others.

    They acted as conscience of kings.

    They advised them and challenged Kings when they went wrong.

    2. God’s communication with prophets and Israelites

    God communicated to Prophets through visions, voices that were audible and clear, events, prayers, dreams, signs, ordinary things, and words which came to their minds with great power.

    Writing messages of the prophets

    The canonical prophets as mentioned earlier had their works and prophecies recorded under their names.

    Canonical prophets are referred to as writing prophets. It’s possible that some prophets wrote down their own prophecies.

    They wrote what God spoke to them as He dictated.

    An example is Jeremiah who wrote what he was told …’Get a scroll and write on it everything that I have told you about Israel, Judah and all nations. (Jeremiah 36:2, Isaiah 30:8).

    Two, the prophet’s message were probably written by other people.

    These were their assistant, secretary, scribe, and disciples or followers as the prophet prophesied.

    Thirdly some of the prophetic messages could have been preserved as oral traditions and later written as books.

    A good example is 2 Kings.

    e. Content of the Prophetic messages

    Prophetic messages contained lessons from God to Israel. For example, the:

    i. Prophetic sayings were and still are oracles or poetic passages spoken by God himself through prophets.

    The prophecies were addressed to different nations. They carried specific teachings to the people, for example predicting future occurrences.

    ii. Narratives in the first person give an account of the prophet’s testimony.

    They spoke of their experiences with God, and responses to the call of God. They tell us about prophet’s impelling compulsion to speak God’s word.

    The narratives are written in the first person.

    They have a format ‘ The Lord said to me… The year that King Uzziah died, I was the Lord…”

    iii. Narratives in the third 3rd person have messages written by a third party, i.e. not the prophet but another person.

    For example, “Isaiah said to them, “Thus you shall say to your master, thus says the Lord: “Do not be afraid of the words.” (Isaiah 37:6).

    The message recounts the prophets’ personal life, and political background.

    Lesson Three: Prophesies in the Old Testament, New

    Testament and African Traditional Society

    Introduction

    The Israelites and the African traditional societies as well as other world communities had prophets who foretold the future.

    Among the Israelites, there were prophets chosen by God and false prophets who told messages which communities wanted to hear.

    Among the African traditional communities, there were wise men and women who prophesied about the future.

    In this lesson, we shall compare these prophecies and learn what was similar and different about these them.

    The Old Testament prophecies are compared with those from the African traditional society and the New Testament Learning outcomes.

    After studying this lesson, you should be able to:

    a. State relationships between Prophesies in the Old Testament New Testament and the African Traditional Society

    b. Discuss the similarities between prophets in the African traditional society and the Old Testament.

    c. Identify differences between prophets in the African traditional society and the Old Testament.

    a. Relationships between Prophesies

    Several Old Testament (O.T.) prophecies were and are fulfilled in both the old and New Testament (N.T) in the life and ministry of Jesus Christ.

    The Law of Moses is used in both the Old Testament and the New Testament.

    However Jesus gave the law a deeper meaning.

    The teachings and prophecies of the prophets provided the foundation for the message in the New Testament.

    The prophecies of Prophet Nathan to King David that God would raise up an offspring from the lineage of David was fulfilled in Jesus Christ, the expected messiah.

    Jesus disciples in the New Testament referred a lot to messages in the Old Testament.

    The teachings of Jesus in the New Testament are based in the Old Testament prophecies. They are therefore similar to each other because New Testament is a continuation of the Old Testament.

    The New Testament is the new covenant spoken of by Prophet Jeremiah and other Prophets like Isaiah, Micah, and Nathan.

    Their prophecies about Messiah are fulfilled in the New Testament.

    b. Similarities between prophets in the African traditional society and the Old Testament.

    In both traditions, prophets:

  • Were endowed with divine powers and they dealt with religious matters.

  • Acted as intermediaries between God and people

  • Warned people of impending dangers and disasters due to disobedience

  • Had supernatural experiences

  • Encouraged morality and discouraged evil ways

  • In some cases, could heal

  • Withstood oppression and opposition by the political rulers

  • Encouraged people to fight injustices in society

  • Foretold future disasters such as drought and wars.

    They explained why they were going to occur.

  • Were consulted when things were not well in the society.

  • Received revelations through dreams, visions and thoughts.

  • Were gender sensitive male prophets and female prophetesses.

    c. Differences (O.T.) between prophets in the African traditional society and the Old Testament.

    The Old Testament prophets had a personal relationship with God. They communicated God’s messages to Israelites.

    The prophets in the African traditional society communicated and received messages from the ancestor spirits.

    Old Testament prophets were God’s mouthpieces.

    They began their prophesy with ‘thus saith the lord’…. While the prophets in the African traditional society predicted what would happen to individuals, and communities.

    The authority of prophets in the Old Testament came from God while the authority of prophets in the African traditional society came from their ancestors’ spirits.

    In the Old Testament prophets were called directly by God while in some African traditional communities the prophetic office was hereditary.

    The African traditional prophets dealt with family and local community issues while Old Testament prophets dealt with national issues, and crises.

    African traditional prophets were diviners while Old Testament prophets consulted God.

    d. Relevance of Old Testament prophets to Christians today

    Christian should be ready to be messengers of God. The call to be a Christian has a prophetic role.

    Some Christians are called to the office of a prophet and should prophecy for the glory of God and for the common good of the people.

    As God’s spokes person one should always stand for the truth.

    Christian should proclaim God’s will even if the message is not pleasant to the people.

    Once appointed as a prophet, one should pass the messages to who ever they are sent to without fear or favour.

    God’s messengers should always condemn the social political economic evils in the society.

    As God’s messengers Christians should live exemplary lives.

    They should stand for what they preach and should expect persecutions because of their works as God’s messengers.

    They should be ready to suffer for the sake of the gospel.

    Christians should pray to God to give them guidance, wisdom, and inspiration to be able to handle hardships in their lives.

    They should provide hope for the people in times of suffering.

    Christians should realize that God calls both men and women to His service. They should be ready to obey Gods’ prophetic call and not run away e.g. Jonah.

    They should be concerned and take care of the welfare of the poor community members.

    Revision questions

    1. Define the terms prophet and prophecy

    2. List five categories of true prophets

    3. State the difference between true and false prophets

    4. In what ways were God’s prophets called?

    5. Outline the similarities and differences between the old testament prophets and the traditional African ones.

    6. What is the relevance of prophets to Christians today?

    Topic Four: Prophet Amos Introduction

    Amos is one of the prophets God sent to Israel to warn the people because of their evil life.

    Politically, the Nation of Israel had become rich. There grew classer, the rich and the poor.

    The rich started oppressing the poor.

    Socially, there was still the rich – poor gap.

    The rich exploited the poor.

    Merchants sold bad food, expensive and used false measurer.

    Religiously, the Israelites had turned away from God and were worshiping false gods.

    Syncretism was practiced.

    Priests were paid and God’s prophets were rejected. It is in this situation that Amos was called.

    He is called through visions.

    Amos is one of the canonical or writing prophets.

    The book of Amos is a temptation of oracles spoken by the prophet on different occasions.

    Note that after the death of King Solomon, the kingdom of Israel was split into two and rules by Rehoboam and Jeroboam.

    The northern Kingdom; called Judah was ruled by Rehoboam and was inhabited by two tribes.

    The southern kingdom called Israel was ruled by Jeroboam and was inhabited by 10 tribes.

    Amos came from Judah and prophesied in Israel.

    Topic Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

    a) Analyse Prophet Amos work in Israel

    b) Describe the call of Amos

    c) Explain the teaching of Amos

    d) Relate relevance of Amos teaching to Christianity today

    Lesson One: Prophet Amos work in Israel Read Amos 1:1 Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should:

    1. Describe the call of Amos

    2. Describe the socio, political and economic situation in Israel during the time of Prophet Amos

    3. Explain religious situation in Israel

    1. The call of Amos (Amos 1:1,3:8,7:10 – 15)

    Prophet Amos was born in a village called Tekoa in Judah, the southern kingdom. Before his call, Amos was a shepherd and a dresser of sycamore trees.

    He was not a professional prophet.

    But God called him to be a prophet. He received his call in form of a vision around 758 BC.

    Amos responded to God’s call with obedience.

    He felt a deep compulsion to prophesy (Amos 3:8). God directed him to give his message to the people of Israel, the northern kingdom (Amos 7:15).

    He was asked to speak the will of Yahweh.

    He was also to fore tell punishment if Israelites did not repent their sins.

    His message was opposed, and challenged by Amaziah the priest of Bethel.

    2. Religion.

    Israelites worshipped Yahweh and other gods. Idolatry was also present.

    This form of worship is called Syncretism .

    There was religious hypocrisy. Like today, there was an emphasis on external observances of religious practices and less concern for internal observances.

    The priests were paid for religious work.

    Those who couldn’t pay did not have religious ceremonies.

    They were offered at the expense of the poor.

    The prophets of God were rejected.

    3. Social – economic – political situation.

    When Amos prophesied, King Jeroboam ruled Israel, the northern kingdom while King Uzziah ruled Judah.

    Amos was sent to prophesy to the people of Israel in the northern kingdom.

    He concentrated his work mainly in Bethel and Samaria – the capital city of Israel and the main centres of worship.

    When Amos started his prophesy, there was peace and prosper in Israel and Judah. Both kingdoms were wealthy. However, the wealth did not reach the poor.

    This was because the wealth and power were in the hands of the king, his family, his officials, and wealthy merchants.

    As a result, Israel citizens were divided into two classes; the rich and the poor.

    Unfortunately, the rich people owned big luxurious houses.

    They drunk wine, and used the most expensive perfumes.

    They acquired their wealth at the expense of the poor.

    They oppressed and exploited the poor.

    The merchants of trade for example, were dishonest in their trade businesses.

    They sold bad wheat to unsuspecting customers and overcharged customers by measuring with false scales.

    Because of the inflated prices, the poor borrowed money from the rich at high interest rates to buy basic things like food.

    Hence, there was massive bribery and corruption in society and law courts.

    As a result the poor lacked basic necessities or needs like food, shelter, and clothing.

    It was at this time when God sent Amos to give prophesy to Israel.

    SAQ. How did the rich oppress the poor in Israel?

    Lesson Two: Visions of Amos Read Amos 7: 1 – 9, 8:1 – 3. 9:1 – 4)

    Vision is a picture we have in our mind. It is a future to come. Amos was shown many visions by God.

    Lesson outcomes. After reading these verses in Amos you should be able to: -

    1. Analyse all the visions and

    2. State the message of each vision

    3. Summaries things that God condemned through Amos

    1. The vision of the locusts (Amos 7:1 – 3 )

    Amos saw a swarm of locusts being sent by God to destroy all plants and food crops in the land.

    The locusts were, a sign of disaster, which God was going to send to Israel as a punishment for their disobedience.

    Amos cried to God to forgive the people. God heard and changed his mind.

    2. The vision of a great fire (Amos 7:4 – 6)

    Amos saw a vision of a supernatural fire that burnt up the land.

    He asked God to forgive the people and God listened. The punishment was stopped.

    3. The vision of a crooked wall/ the plumb line (Amos 7:7 – 9)

    Amos saw the Lord standing beside the wall checked it with a plumb line.

    The wall represented the Israelites.

    They stopped observing the laws of their covenant with God. God found Israelites disobeying the covenant.

    God promised to destroy holy places of Israel..

    4. The vision of a basket of ripe fruits (Amos 8:1 – 3)

    In this vision, Amos saw a basket of ripe fruits. Fruits are harvested at the end of the summer.

    This meant that Israel was ripe for punishment for her refusal to turn to God.

    Amos did not pray for forgiveness.

    God would no longer withhold His judgment. Time for repentance was over.

    5. The vision of the destruction of the altar. Read Amos 9:1 – 4.

    Amos saw the Lord standing by the altar.

    The Lord ordered the destruction of the temple.

    The shrines of Dan and Bethel were destroyed because they were the centres of idolatry. No one would escape punishment no matter where they hide.

    Summary of issues that God pointed out to Israel through Prophet Amos

    a. Lack of social justice There was lack of social justice and responsibility by the king of Israel. Social justice means dealing with other people fairly.

    It implies showing concern for the needs of others.

    b. Lack of responsibility.

    This refers to the rulers and people of Israel being accountable for their actions.

    In modern life, it is doing ones duty and fulfilling ones obligation to God and others.

    c. Practice of hypocritical religion in Israel.

    The Israelites were insincere in their worship.

    They made empty sacrifices.

    They worshipped idols as well as God. They profaned the name of God (Yahweh).

    They made idols of Baal and offered sacrifices to them.

    They worshipped other gods. This is syncretism and God does not allow worship of any other God but himself.

    d. God’s judgment against Israel and other nations.

    God promised to destroy Israel and leave a remnant of them for restoration.

    e. Oppressions of the poor by the rich

    God condemned King Jeroboam rule of Israel because of the oppression of the poor, government corruption and bribery of king’s officials.

    These officials sold the righteous for silver and the needy for a pair of sandals (shoes) i.e. its like practising slavery.

    The rich trampled on the poor, despised them and placed no value on the poor.

    The poor gave their garments as security for loan.

    This was contrary to God’s commandments.

    The garment was supposed to be returned back to the owner before sunset.

    The Samaritan women were ‘fat like the well fed cows of Bashan’ led luxurious lives and were very unkind to the poor.

    The rich took an excessive share of the harvest from the farmers. Rulers loved luxury and were arrogant.

    They loved material things and showed pride in material possessions.

    They used expensive perfumes.

    f. Corruption and bribery.

    The judges were corrupt. They accepted bribes. There was a conspiracy between the rich and the judges against the poor.

    g. Pride in materials possessions

    The capital city of Israel was Samaria. It was built on a mountain called Bethel, which was also a place of worship.

    There was prosperity in the land.

    The Israelites prided themselves in their riches and materials possessions. Amos told them God would destroy their wealth.

    h. Dishonesty.

    This is telling lies, cheating or using unjust means to get certain things.

    The wealthy merchants waited impatiently for the end of the holy days so that they could engage in lucrative businesses.

    They cheated the poor by using false scales. They sold bad wheat to the poor.

    They mixed good and bad grains and sold them to unsuspecting people.

    i. Sexual immorality

    Sexual immorality was prevalent or common in Israel. For example a father and son would have sex with the same girl.

    There was temple (cultic) prostitution. There was dishonesty; sexual immorality.

    This sexual behaviour made the temple unholy.

    j. Drunkenness

    They Israelites spent time drinking when the poor lacked the basic needs.

    They engaged in excessive drinking of wine.

    They even forced the Nazarites to drink wine. They accepted drunkenness.

    k. Profaning the name of the God

    Israelites did not respect the name of God.

    They committed sin. They forced Nazirites to drink wine; forcing it down their throats yet they knew that Nazirites were people set aside and chosen by God to serve God.

    This act showed contempt of God’s commands. Nazirites were not supposed to drink wine or cut their hair.

    Israelites did this to show their contempt of the Lord.

    l. Hypocritical Religion and Idolatry in Israel

    Hypocrisy is pretending to be something different from the person one is.

    It is also saying one thing, and doing another thing.

    For example, Israelites did a lot of religious rites according to the laws of Moses and yet majority of them were unjust, corrupt and oppressed the poor.

    They observed the external religious activities while their hearts were corrupt and insincere.

    Amos condemned Israelites for this hypocrisy, characterized by insincere worship, and mixture of religious beliefs leading to diverse practices of religion i.e. syncretism.

    This is a combination or mixture of Israelites’ monotheism (Yahwehism) and worship of idols and other gods especially Baal, the gods of their neighbours.

    m. Empty sacrifices

    The Israelites made elaborative offerings and sacrifices.

    Yet God was interested only in sincere worship and free will offerings and not mere sacrifices, and tithes.

    ‘Take away from me the noise of your songs’ (Amos 5:21 – 23).

    Lesson Three. God’s Judgment Against Israel and Other Nations Read Amos chapter 1 and 2

    Learning outcomes. After studying this lesson, you should be able to:

    a. State the sins committed by Israel and other nations

    b. Identify how God punished Israel and other nations

    i) Israel.

    She committed several crimes, which were condemned by Prophet Amos. Read lesson two again before you go on and list down crimes that were pointed out by Amos.

    Okay, you have seen that Israel committed crimes of injustice, disobedience to God, breaking their covenant with God, idolatry, hypocrisy among other sins mentioned above.

    Israel was punished for these crimes.

    Punishments were severe. Israelites would be exiled forcibly and painfully.

    Earthquakes, famines, fires, oppression from foreign kings, epidemics and divine silence, would destroy their kingdom and holy places.

    ii) Syria.

    Its capital was Damascus. Syria committed war crimes. The soldiers were excessively cruel in times of war.

    They murdered their prisoners brutally. For this cruelty, their punishment was to be severe.

    Their palaces would be destroyed by fire and the people would be exiled in Kir.

    iii) Gaza and philistines.

    Their crime was capturing other people and selling them into slavery. For this sin, God’s punishment was destruction of their city by divine fire.

    It would burn down the wall of Gaza city and destroy it.

    God would have no more association with them.

    iv) Tyre.

    Their Crime was violation of a treaty of friendship they had made.

    They broke it by capturing a “whole nation into exile in the land of Edom”.

    The punishment was …God would send fire to destroy city of Tyre and its fortress (Amos 1:9-10).

    v. Edom.

    Her people were descendants of Esau. Yet Edom was ruthless to the Israelite to whom they were closely related.

    For this crime of ruthlessness, the punishment was … God would destroy them by fire.

    vi) Ammon

    committed crime of brutal killings. The people of Ammon attacked and killed their neighbours.

    They “ripped open pregnant woman in Gilead” (vs. 13).

    God’s punishment was destruction of the fortress and wall of the city of Rabbah by fire. “Their king and his officers will go into exile: (vs. 15).

    vii) Moab.

    The people of Moab; their crime was mishandling the body of the king of Edom.

    They burned his bones to ashes. God’s punishment was destruction of the city of Kerioth by divine fire.

    The people, their rulers and leaders would be killed in battle.

    viii) Judah.

    Their crimes were

    (1) failure to obey God’s commands and

    (2) despising god’s teaching.

    ix) Samaria, Egypt and Ashdod.

    Their crime was dishonesty and “filling their mansions with things taken by crime and violence” (Amos 3:10). Women of Samaria committed the crime of drunkenness, oppressing the weak and poor.

    The punishment for all these countries is destruction of their land, mansions and army.

    But a remnant will not go to captivity, and shall not be destroyed.

    Amos said the remnants are like … 2 legs, or a piece of an ear of a sheep rescued from the mouth of a lion (Amos 3:12).

    x) Amaziah the priest of Bethel.

    He strongly opposed Amos and told him to go back and prophesy in Judah.

    Amos told Amaziah God sent him to Israel. His punishment for opposing God’s messenger was..

    Amaziah’s wife would be a harlot, his children will die in the war, his land will be given to others, and Amaziah will die in a foreign land (Amos 7: 14-17).

    Lessons to learn from God’s judgment of Israel and other nations

    The Assyrians attacked Israel, occupied their land and exiled others.

    God is

    (a) universal,

    (b) God hates sin

    (c) God is concerned about the welfare of his people

    (d) God is merciful and spares a remnant.

    xi. Israel’s election (Amos 2:9 – 11, 3:1 – 2, 9:7

    Election: is an act of choosing a person or group of people for a purpose or action.

    Israel’s election refers to God’s choice of the Israelites out of the entire human kind to be his people.

    God chose them to serve him, be a Holy nation and to be the light of the world.

    God made a covenant with the Israelites.

    In the covenant they agreed to live a holy life. In return, God looked after them.

    He led them out of Egypt to the wilderness and finally to Canaan.

    God chose His prophets from the Israelites and raised Nazirites.

    Despite God’s favour, the Israelites rebelled and sinned against God.

    And although Israelites were reminded that God cared for other nations equally and are to be punished if they disobeyed God; and that they were neither superior, nor better than other nations, they disobeyed God several times.

    xii. The day of the lord

    Amos taught that the day of the lord would be a day of severe judgment for sins.

    . It is not a time of happiness, joy or victory. It is a day of darkness, terror, disaster, gloom, wailing, flooding, mourning, defeat, punishment, famine for food and God’s word.

    xiii. The Remnant and Restoration.

    Remnant means a small number of survivors.

    These are the Israelites who will remain after the entire nation is punished.

    They are also those who returned to Jerusalem after the exile.

    Restoration is an act of reinstating things / persons to their former state or position.

    Amos informed the Israelites that God was still looking after them, and waiting for their repentance.

    The nation of Israel would not be destroyed completely.

    God would preserve the few righteous ones.

    He would raise the fallen dynasty of David.

    People would be restored back to their land to rebuild their cities.

    There was to be a great harvest and grapes shall overflow.

    xiv. Duty of Christians.

    Christians are the selected people of God.

    As the chosen ones, they should one, live holy lives and two, use their position to serve God and others.

    Three, Christians have a moral responsibility to spread God’s word, four, care for the needy and five, be the light of the world.

    xv. The Day of the lord. Read Amos 5:18-20, 6:3-5, 8:7-13.

    in the Old Testament, the day of the Lord is the day that Yahweh would make Israel victorious against other nations.

    On this day the Israelite believed that God would establish his rule over and with Israel.

    The day of the Lord was also believed to be the day when Israel would be prosperous, would have favour with God, and the just would triumph over the wicked.

    In the New Testament, the day of the lord is also the Day of Judgment (Parousia).

    It is the day of the second coming of Christ.

    On that day, everyone will be judged. Christians believe that it is the day that Christ will come for His bride (the church).

    Those who had obeyed the laws of God shall be received by Christ and given the reward of the eternal life. On that day, God’s kingdom shall be established and Christ will reign forever.

    xvi. Relevance of Amos teachings to Christians today.

    The messages of the prophecy of Amos are relevant to Christians today. This is because God is universal.

    He chose Israel but still punished her for her disobedience, and sins just as He punished other nations like Syria and Gaza.

    The message that God hates hypocrisy is very clear.

    Thus Christians should truthful and practice what they preach.

    They must worship God in sincerity. Other messages are:

    Justice.

    Christians should be just / fair in dealing with others.

    Self – Indulgence.

    Christians should not pursue luxury and selfindulgence when others lack the basic needs.

    Bribery.

    Christians should condemn bribery and corruption, and uphold justice.

    Punishment.

    Christians should bear in mind that God will punish every evil.

    Wealth.

    When Israel became wealthy, they departed from the covenant with God.

    Christians should share their wealth with the needy and acquire their wealth justly

    Hypocritical religion.

    Amos taught about hypocrisy in religion. This was for example offering empty sacrifices.

    Christians have to learn to be sincere, to be concerned about their internal well being and soul more than outward observances of religion.

    Drunkenness. Christians should not engage in activities that can divert their faith from God.

    If that happens, they should learn to be Repentant.

    Revision exercise

    1. List the visions that Amos saw

    2. Explain the evils that Amos condemned in his teachings

    3. Give reasons why prophet Amos condemned idol worship in Israel

    4. List evils in the society today that Amos would condemn

    Topic Five. Prophet Jeremiah

    Introduction.

    Israel had not taken heed to Amos’ prophecies. This was especially on idolatry. So, God sent another prophet to continue with the same work. Jeremiah was therefore appointed as a prophet.

    Jeremiah is one of the Old Testament Major Prophets. He was called to a prophet at around 627 B.C.

    He was called as a young man, probably 20 years old. He prophesied in the southern kingdom- Judah, for a period of 40 years.

    His prophetic ministry took place before and during the exile of Judah.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to: -

    a Describe the political, Social, and religious background of prophet Jeremiah.

    b Describe the personal life and call of Jeremiah.

    c Explain the evils condemned by Jeremiah.

    d Explain the contents of the temple sermon.

    e Highlight the relevance of Jeremiah’s teaching on evils, false prophets and Christians today.

    Lesson One: the Call Jeremiah

    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should be able to: -

    i. Describe the situation of the people of Judah

    ii. Identify religious, political and socio classes of Judah

    iii. Describe the call of Jeremiah

    iv. Explain lessons that modern Christians can learn from the call of Jeremiah.

    a. The Kingdom of Judah

    Social background The people of Judah were divided into three social classes. At the top were the (i) Aristocrats.

    These were the ruling class, which consisted of the king, his family, royal officials, princesses, priests, and professional prophets.

    This class of the rich oppressed the poor.

    Below them was the class (ii) of technical professional such as stonecutters, carpenters, builders, masons, blacksmiths, masons, and others craftsmen (2 Kings 12:12). Below them was class (iii) made up of poor people such as slaves, widows, orphans, and foreigners. All these poor people were mistreated.

    In terms of ethics, there was moral degradation.

    They committed adultery, prostitution, murder, false witness, and corruption.

    Religions background.

    The Kings and people of Judah worshipped idols.

    They practiced human sacrifice, divination and magic, and listened to false prophecies.

    They abandoned their covenant with God and their way of life and practiced syncretism, which is worshipping God and other false gods like Baal.

    King Josiah tried to restore true worship by carrying out several reforms.

    Prophetess Huldah prophesied that Judah would be punished after Josiah’s death since he humbled before Yahweh.

    Political Background.

    Prophet Jeremiah lived in the 7th century BC and prophesied when Judah was ruled by King Josiah, and later his sons Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah; and king Jehoiachin.

    Judah was conquered and ruled by Assyrians who were conquered by Egyptians who ruled Judah up to 605 BC. Egyptians; were conquered by Babylonians under King Nebuchadnezzar. This was according to the prophecies of Jeremiah.

    b. The Call of Jeremiah. Read Jer 1: 19.

    Jeremiah’s father was a priest called Hilkiah.

    He was born in the territory of Benjamin; at a place called Anathoth, He was well educated.

    Jeremiah was called to be a prophet in 627 B.C during the reign of King Josiah.

    He received his call in form of a dialogue with Yahweh. God told him that he had appointed him to be his messenger; even before he was formed in his mother’s womb, God had selected him to be a prophet.

    Jeremiah said he was too young and did not know how to speak.

    Jeremiah was forewarned of the hostility he would encounter in his prophetic career. God told him that He would protect him and not to fear.

    God touched Jeremiah’s mouth. This symbolized that God is the one who shall put words in his mouth.

    Jeremiah responded to God’s call in faith and obedience.

    He was given a message that God was going to bring judgment upon the Kingdom of Judah.

    God promised to make him a fortified city, an iron pillar and bronze wall for protection. He was commanded by God not to marry, neither have children and not to attend social gatherings, weddings, and funerals. His mission made him isolated and lonely.

    As a result, his own family and relatives rejected him and plotted to kill him. But he had few friends like Ebed- melech, Ahikam who helped him to get out of a pit.

    Jeremiah was persecuted by; the kings of Judah. Priests including priest Pashhur opposed him, and false prophets like Hannaniah.

    He prophesied that God shall punish wicked Kings, priests, and ordinary people.

    He suffered spiritually and emotionally. At the fall of Jerusalem in 587 B.C, the army officers of Nebuchadnezzar released him from prison.

    He went to Egypt where he died at an old age and as a faithful servant of God.

    His life was symbolic to the people of Judah. During his call, Jeremiah saw two visions.

    Vision one was the vision of a “branch of an almond tree”. The tree seemed dead, bare, yet life was in it.

    This vision was telling Judah that although God seemed to be ‘sleeping’, He was watching over them if they obey Him.

    Vision two was “a pot boiling in the north, and it is about to tip over this way” (1:13).

    The boiling pot tilted away from the north signified that the destroyers of Judah would come from the north.

    The pot was ready to boil over and spill its contents. This meant that Judah was soon going to have trouble. Babylon would pour horrifying disasters on Judah.

    Lessons from the call of Jeremiah God has a purpose for each person and He can call anybody to do His work.

    He calls the unborn, the young, old, rich, and poor.

    God prepares people for His work, through specific experiences at family level, in school, and church.

    A person who is called to serve God should be ready to meet opposition. God protects His servants and promises to be with them.

    Jeremiah felt inadequate to speak. Christians should not let their human weakness hinder them from performing their tasks.

    Christians should respond to God’s call in obedience.

    Lesson Two. Evils Addressed by Jeremiah. Read Jeremiah 2, 3, 4, 5,7, 9, 10, 23, and 28.

    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson,

    1. Name the evil practices that Jeremiah condemned

    2. Explain why Jeremiah condemned these evil practices

    There were many evils in Judah and Israel. We have mentioned some of them. These were: necromancy, dishonesty, deception, false prophecy, human sacrifice, and idolatry.

    i. Necromancy.

    Words related to necromancy are divinations, magic, sorcery, and playing tricks on people’s minds.

    Necromancy is the art of seeking hidden knowledge from the mysterious world of spirits: using magic, and divination, which is invoking the dead.

    Divination was condemned in the Hebrew language. Diviners, magicians, sooth sayers and fortunetellers used necromancy.

    Prophet Jeremiah condemned necromancy.

    Reasons why Jeremiah condemned necromancy

    Necromancy was a deception and therefore an evil practice. The diviners gave false information from their own imagination.

    This practice polluted the true worship of Yahweh and indicated Israelites lack of faith in the one true God.

    Two, by trusting in divination, and magic, the Israelites showed their lack of knowledge of the one true God.

    Three, by consulting the mediums, the Israelites disobeyed God (Jer 27:8-10).

    ii) Deception and Dishonesty

    Dishonesty is lack of moral integrity or moral uprightness.

    Deception is cheating, and telling lies intentionally.

    It is also giving false and misleading information. The Israelites were dishonest because they worshiped God and at the same time committed social injustices against their brothers and sisters.

    Their repentance was insincere. There was treachery, and greed.

    They laid traps for each other. People pretended to be friendly and at the same time conspired to kill.

    Jeremiah challenged the Israelites people to ‘circumcise their hearts which were deceitful.

    Their tongues were ‘deadly arrows’ and they listened to false prophesies like that of Hannaniah Jeremiah condemned deception.

    This was because it led to syncretism, and hypocrisy in worship; and breaking down of the covenant way of life.

    Jeremiah warned the Israelites and asked them to repent.

    iii. False prophesy by Hannaniah. Jer 28

    During the reign of king Zedekiah, Hannaniah broke the yoke that Jeremiah was wearing.

    Hannaniah spoke in the name of Yahweh. He lied to the people as he spoke from his imagination and dreams.

    Jeremiah denounced Hannaniah. He predicted and prophesied the death of Hannaniah in the same year.

    And it came to pass. Jeremiah had also prophesied that the captivity of Judah should be long contrary to Hannaniah who said Judah will be exiled for 2 years.

    Reasons for condemning false prophets Prophets of Baal were still in existence.

    False prophets like Hannaniah had filled the people of Israel with unrealistic hopes of peace yet Judah was to be destroyed. Recall the

    characteristics of true and false prophets.

    False prophets did not condemn sin. They prophesied for money and in the process misled people away from Yahweh.

    False prophets prophesied from their dreams, imaginations and not from God.

    They gave people false hopes. They intended to make themselves popular, with the King and the people.

    iv) Human sacrifice.

    The people offered human sacrifice to idols and oppressed each other.

    Human sacrifice is the act of killing human beings for a religious or spiritual purpose.

    The Israelites copied this activity from the Canaanites.

    Children were believed to be the best sacrifice since people believed they would get great favors from the deities.

    Some kings such as Ahaz and Manasseh sacrificed their sons to idols.

    Jeremiah condemned human sacrifice.

    Reasons for condemning human sacrifice

    Human sacrifice was an act of idolatry. It indicated infidelity of the Israelites to the one true God.

    It demonstrated Israel’s disrespect for the sacred gift of life.

    It showed their lack of knowledge of the true nature of Yahweh.

    Human sacrifice defiled the land for life is in the blood.

    Blood speaks hence the land was crying at this vengeance.

    God did not ask for human sacrifices.

    Human sacrifice was a sign of lack of love of God and love for one another.

    It is a demonstration of disregard for human life.

    Only God has the right to take away life.

    In our country people kill each other every day especially on the road.

    Why do we do this?

    v. Idolatry

    Idolatry is the worship of many gods. Idols are images made by people for worship. The Israelites practiced syncretism, which we said was the worship of Yahweh and idols.

    The people of Israel were worshipping Baal the Queen of heaven, sun, moon, stars, and also Yahweh (Jer 8:2).

    Idols were placed even in Yahweh’s sacred places. The temple was defiled by idols.

    This the temple unclean. Jeremiah condemned it.

    He told the people of Israel that “{they have forsaken the fountain of living waters (GOD) and hewn out for themselves broken cisterns (IDOLs) that can hold no water” (Jer 2: 11-13).

    Why did Jeremiah condemn idolatry? Read Jer 2: 20, 2:1- 3, 5: 7- 8.

    Idolatry is like adultery and prostitution. It defiled people and was a sign of lack of faith in Yahweh.

    It defiled the land.

    Idolatry led to divine judgment and punishment. People of Judah abandoned Yahweh the ‘Husband’ and chased “lovers” the idols and deities The Israelites (Northern kingdom) had been punished before and yet Judah did not learn from them.

    By worshipping idols Judah broke the covenant and their relationship with God.

    And unless the people of Judah repented, they would be punished; as there is only one true living God to be worshipped and obeyed.

    Is there idolatry among Christians today’s.

    vi. Other evils condemned by Jeremiah

    People of Judah trusted that the temple was secure, holy and cannot be destroyed.

    Jeremiah denounced this false belief about the temple. He warned them that God would destroy the temple because of the many evils committed in it.

    The temple of God had become a ‘den of robbers’ and human sacrifices.

    People of Judah committed other evils such as hypocrisy (Jer 7; 9-10); social injustice (adultery, murder), stubbornness, and rebellion.

    vi. The temple

    Temple is a place of worship. The temple of Israelites was in Jerusalem.

    It signified the presence of God among his people.

    The Israelites believed God could never destroy or allow destruction of the temple.

    Jeremiah stood at the gates of the temple court during Jehuiakim’s reign, and Judah that God would destroy the temple and send them to exile.

    He urged them to repent and turn back to God.

    King Josiah heard the message of Jeremiah and he reformed religious practices in Judah.

    vii. Religions reforms carried out by King Josiah

    This topic is not clearly spelt out in the syllabus.

    It is based on the book of Deuteronomy. The scroll was discovered in the temple during repairs.

    Josiah ordered the repair of the temple of God.

    He led a national ceremony to review the covenant.

    He destroyed idols and altars associated with the worship of foreign deities throughout Judah.

    He eliminated all the priests associated with the worship of false deities.

    He celebrated Passover in Jerusalem.

    The successors of King Josiah did not follow his example. They became corrupt.

    They persecuted the prophets of God.

    They listened to false prophets. They promoted idolatry and child sacrifice.

    viii. The Relevance of Jeremiah’s teachings to Christians today.

    Christians should denounce hypocrisy in the society today.

    They should not result to witchcraft, divination and sorcery.

    They should be upright, and worship God in sincerity.

    They are to proclaim divine judgment upon those who refuse to obey God’s will, just like Jeremiah declared God’s judgment upon Judah due to the sins of the people.

    Like Jeremiah, Christians should speak out against modern idols like love of money, power, obsession with sports, sex, and drugs among other evils. Christians should condemn destruction of human life, violence; murder, abortion, parents killing their own children, genocide and exploitation of the poor.

    Christians should be aware of the existence of false teachings and prophecies.

    They should pray for God’s guidance and wisdom to be able to distinguish truth from false teaching.

    Christians have a responsibility to correct one another and call on sinners to repent.

    Christians are to be trustworthy, upright, and merciful to the poor and condemn dishonesty.

    They should practice justice in their relationship with others; preach against disobedience, stubbornness and pray to God to help them overcome these vices.

    Read these review questions and answer before reading answers

    1. Why was Jeremiah reluctant to accept the call?

    2. Which evils / sins did Jeremiah Condemn?.

    3. Give examples of idol worship in Kenya.

    4. Describe Jeremiahs temple sermon

    SAQ answer.

    1. Jeremiah felt inadequate because he was too young to work for God.

    He argued that he did not know how to speak.

    He was afraid. He knew he would face stiff opposition from the people of Judah.

    The message of God’s judgments is difficult to deliver.

    2. Read text again and look for evils and sins that Jeremiah condemned.

    3. Examples of idol worship in Kenya are many.

    Some people including Christians practice witchcraft, sorcery, personality cults and hero worship of religions and political leaders. Other people, worship money, materialism, media, and sports obsession with power / status Sexual immorality – devil worship.

    4. Jeremiahs temple sermon. Read text again.

    Lesson Three. Jeremiah’s Teachings on Judgment and Punishment

    Read Jeremiah 5:12-18, 6;1-30, 7:30, 8:1-17, 10: 17-25, 15;1-9, 17:1-13, 25: 1-38

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to: -

    a Summarize in two paragraphs Jeremiah key teachings.

    b Explain the significance of symbolic acts related to judgement and punishment.

    c Describe suffering and lamentations of Jeremiah.

    d Explain the teachings of Jeremiah on the new covenant.

    a. Jeremiah teachings.

    Sin was internalise in the hearts of the people of Judah. God punished them.

    God punishes people because of their unfaithfulness.

    Punishment is a penalty, for an offence or a crime committed.

    But in punishing people, God is a just judge. He does not punish people without a reason irrespective of their status.

    God judges people by looking into their hearts. Divine judgment is for a group. For example, the people of Judah were punished as a group.

    However God searches each person’s heart and judges accordingly.

    God executes His judgment by means of political and historical events. Divine punishments are in forms of natural disasters like drought, famine, and epidemics.

    God’s punishment is unavoidable, and inescapable.

    Judah took the best option by surrendering to the Babylonians.

    The purpose for God’s judgement is to correct the sinner. God gave his people a chance to repent before he punished them.

    God’s judgment is universal.

    It is not limited to one nation. God punished the neighbours of Judah who at that time were Egypt, Moab, Ammon, and Babylon.

    God’s punishment is severe compared to that of venomous snakes that bite the people of Judah.

    God’s judgement is not necessarily a punishment from God for one’s sins.

    It is symbolic. The sufferings of Jeremiah were symbolic of the life of the people of Judah.

    What can we learn about God’s punishments? Are modern disasters such as cyclones, floods, earthquakes, landslides, epidemics, bomb blasts, civil wars, forest fires, rebellions in schools a sign of God’s judgment and punishment? What do you think?

    b. Symbolic acts related to judgement and punishment

    People use several methods to convey messages to each other.

    We use songs, advertisements, dramas, and stories by the fireside, in novels, the Internet, and magazines to communicate messages about children, adults, society, political leaders, poverty and many others.

    The prophets used:

    (1). Oracles; ‘Thus says the Lord’;

    (2) Allegories

    (3) Parables

    (4) Songs

    (5) Symbolic Visions

    (6) Symbolic actions and

    (7) dramatized messages

    Symbolic acts of Jeremiah

    i The linen waist cloth (Jer.13)

    ii Jeremiah’s personal life (Jer.16)

    iii Jeremiah’s visit to a potter (Jer.18)

    iv The broken earthen flask (Jer.19)

    v The symbolic vision of 2 baskets of figs (Jer.24)

    vi The wearing of the yoke

    i. The Linen Waist Cloth. Read Jer.13

    Jeremiah was instructed by God to buy a linen waistcloth and wear it around his waist without dipping it in water.

    He was told to hide the cloth in a hole near river Euphrates. Afterwards he was told to take the cloth. He found it spoilt for wearing.

    Significance.

    The liner material was for priestly garments in Israel. It symbolized Israel’s holiness.

    The unwashed cloth represented Judah’s sinful pride.

    Israel used to cling close to God but now Israel / Judah were spoilt, rebellious, arrogant and pursued foreign gods.

    God was going to destroy them if they did not repent.

    The spoilt linen waistcloth was a symbol for future God’s action.

    ii. Jeremiah’s personal Life. Read Jer 16.

    His life was a symbolic act. He was told not to marry, have children, and nor attend funerals, social gatherings, feasts and wedding parties.

    Significance.

    The personal life of Jeremiah was one of suffering. This signified the suffering that the people of Judah would be subjected to.

    Judah was punished because of their wickedness and rebellion.

    Jeremiah’s loneliness signified the perishing of families through the sword, famine and disease.

    It would be a time of terror for the families of Judah.

    Their normal social life of feasting, merry making would come to an end.

    There would be no weddings and no one to bury the dead.

    Hence Jeremiah was forbidden from mourning for the dead.

    iii. Jeremiah’s at the potter’s house (Jer.18)

    Jeremiah was told to go to a potter’s house.

    He found the potter making a clay vessel. “ Whenever a piece of pottery turned out imperfect, he would take the clay and make it into something else (18: 4).

    The potter made a better pot, more perfect vessel than the spoilt one.

    Significance.

    God is the potter. People of Judah are the clay. As the potter destroyed to vessel, God intended to destroy Judah because of their wickedness and mould those who repented into better people.

    God was going to shape them into faithful people.

    God’s judgement was to be a corrective punishment.

    iv. The broken clay Jar. Read Jer.19.

    God told Jeremiah to buy a clay flask He then took some elders and priests to the valley of Valley of Hinnon.

    He delivered a sermon condemning the people of Judah for their idolatry and other evils.

    Jeremiah then broke the clay jar in their presence and announced to them that Yahweh would destroy Jerusalem and Judah as Jeremiah had destroyed the jar.

    Significance.

    The kings, priests and prophets of Judah would be shattered like the clay flask because of their sins. Sine, they brutally sacrificed their children; they are to suffer horrifying experiences at the hand of their enemies.

    They shall suffer starvation and turn into cannibals; eating their own children and neighbours (v.9).

    Broken pieces of a clay pot cannot be moulded. No one was to escape judgment.

    However there is hope after punishment.

    v. Two Baskets of Figs (Jer.24).

    Jeremiah received the visions, after the deportation and exile of leading citizens of Judah and Israel to Babylon.

    Two baskets of figs were placed in front of the temple.

    One basket had very good figs, which had ripened.

    The other basket had bad figs unfit for human consumption.

    Significance.

    The basket of good figs signified the first exile. God would renew their hearts; use them to fulfil his promises to the Israelites. He would recreate them to a new people.

    The basket of the bad figs represented people living in Jerusalem and Egypt.

    Since they were not exiled they had a self-righteous attitude.

    They thought that God spared them because they were truthful but it was not so.

    They shall also be destroyed through famine, and diseases. This vision signifies hope and restoration of the Israelites.

    vi. Jeremiah Wears an Ox Yoke. Read Jer. 27.

    When Zedekiah son of Josiah became the ruler of Judah, Jeremiah was instructed by God “to make” for himself “ a yoke out of leather straps and wooden crossbars” and to wear it around his neck (27: 2).

    Jeremiah moved around in the yoke for quite sometime in public.

    He was also given a message for ambassadors of kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre, and Sidon, who were coming to see King Zedekiah in Jerusalem.

    They were to give God’s message to their kings.

    The message was to “submit to King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia; his son, and his grandson.

    Any nation that accepted this message shall not suffer; but if any nation ..will no submit to King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia rule, God will punish that nation by war, starvation and disease” Read Jer 27:6-8.

    The message for king Zedekiah was to surrender to the Babylonian rule and live, if he resists he would perish.

    The message for priests and people of Judah was not to be misled by the false prophets.

    The temple would be destroyed.

    Its treasures looted by the Babylonians.

    Significance.

    The yoke represented the Babylonians rule. Nebuchadnezzar was used by God to bring judgment to all nations.

    Yahweh is a universal God and his judgment is universal. Sinners are punished regardless of their origin or nation.

    Those who repent are spared.

    Reflection questions

    Why did God inspire Jeremiah to use symbolic acts to convey his message?

    Answer

    Israelites were stubborn.

    Jeremiah acts were reminders to Judah to turn to God and stop idolatry and all the sins they were committing.

    They had drifted too far from God.

    False prophets were prophesying lies to them.

    The people of Judah were expected to meditate on these acts and understand God’s will for them and see the seriousness of the matter.

    This was also to imprint a lasting impression in their minds.

    SAQ. Which methods do pastors / priests use to communicate God’s message to Christians today?

    c. The sufferings and lamentations of Jeremiah Read Jer 11, 12, 17:14 – 18, 18:18- 23 , 20: 1 – 6, 27, 37, and 38.

    Jeremiah sufferings were experiences that were painful; physically and emotionally.

    In suffering there is loss and grief.

    Lamentations are strong emotional expressions of pain and grief.

    Jeremiah suffered in the following ways.

    I. Rejection by his own family and relatives.

    They plotted to kill him. This grieved Jeremiah.

    II. Anathoth planned to kill him but God protected Jeremiah.

    He pronounced God’s judgment upon them.

    III. Jeremiah suffered when he was accused falsely.

    He was accused of blasphemy after the temple sermon.

    He foretold the destruction of the temple, just like Jesus Christ in the New Testament did.

    IV. He was accused of treachery.

    That he was planning to leave Jerusalem and join the Babylonians.

    This led to Jeremiah being arrested and put in an underground jail.

    V. Jeremiah received death threats because of speaking for God.

    King Jehoiakim plotted to kill prophet Uriah.

    The prophet escaped to Egypt but he was followed to Egypt, arrested and killed by king Jehoiakim.

    The king had planned to accuse Jeremiah of Uriah death. Ahikam and other elders defended Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 26)

    VI. Jeremiah suffered loneliness and solitude.

    He felt emotional anguish and complained to God of his orders not to marry, neither attend social gathering and celebrations.

    This made Jeremiah lonely since he did not participate in the family life, political life, community activities and religious life.

    VII. Jeremiah experienced inner personal struggle

    Due to his love for his own people He did not want to see them suffer but the people were stubborn Read Jer. 12:1 – 6, 15:10 – 21, and 27.

    VIII. Jeremiah’s prophesying judgment caused him emotional pain and agony.

    His messages were mainly of severe judgment and punishment.

    IX. He went through a spiritual struggle in his relationship with God.

    He felt frustrations, doubts, self-pity and despair.

    He wondered why God made him suffer. Why do the wicked prosper? He also wondered why God was taking too long to fulfil his prophecies.

    God assured him that Judah would be punished and promised to give Jeremiah victory against his enemies.

    X. Jeremiah suffered physical assault, imprisonment and an attempt on his life.

    Pashhur, the chief temple priest ordered beating and chaining of Jeremiah to the temple gate.

    Jeremiah prophesied that Pashshur’s name would change to ‘terror everywhere’.

    XI. King Zedekiah released Jeremiah from the cell to his court.

    Jeremiah continued to prophecy and was thrown in a muddy cistern.

    Here he was rescued by Ebed- melech an Ethiopian Eunuch.

    The court officials had accused him of not being patriotic. Jeremiah remained in jail until the Babylonians overthrew Jerusalem.

    He did not change his prophecies. Read Jer. 10:1 – 6, 27, 37, and 38.

    Is there relevance of the sufferings and lamentations of Jeremiah to Christians today?

    From his suffering Christians learn to be ready to face opposition and rejection from their own family members and relatives for the sake of the gospel.

    Christians should be prepared to suffer persecution for the Lord.

    Christians should be ready to make sacrifices for the sake of God. Be ready to lead humble lives.

    Jeremiah’s open confessions to God encourage Christians to be open to God. Christians should let God avenge for them just like Jeremiah prayed to God to revenge his enemies.

    Christians should not lose hope in times of difficulty.

    Christians learn that tribulations strengthen their faith.

    Christians should learn to deal with negative emotions such as self – pity, grief and trust God.

    Jeremiah was told by God to repent of his negative utterances.

    Christians should do the same as they are assured of divine security and protection against their persecutors.

    Lesson Four. Jeremiah’s Teaching About the New Covenant

    A covenant is an agreement. Another word for covenant is testament. Jeremiah taught that there would be a new covenant between God and Israel.

    This new covenant would be different from the Old (Sinai) covenant.

    The new covenant would renew the broken relationship between God and his people.

    Lesson outcomes. After reading Jeremiah’s teaching:

    a. State the terms of the new covenant.

    b. Identify the differences between the old covenant and the new covenant

    c. Summarize the similarities between the old covenant and the new covenant

    a. The New Covenant.

    In the new covenant, the law would be written in the hearts of the people unlike the old covenant where the law was written on stone tablets.

    Every individual would know God personally and not through prophets as it was during times of Jeremiah and previous one.

    Each person would be responsible for his/her sins.

    God would forgive sins and remember them no more.

    The new covenant would be established after God’s punishment of Israel and establishing a’ new Israel’, a ‘new people’ of God.

    The new covenant would establish a new beginning. People would forget the first Exodus.

    The second Exodus would be deliverance and restoration from Babylon.

    God would initiate the new covenant as he did with the first.

    It would be a new covenant of peace, unity, prosperity, Joy and gladness. In the new covenant a ‘righteous branch’ would be established.

    The new covenant would be everlasting. It would not be broken again.

    b. Differences between the old covenant and the new covenant Old Covenant New Covenant

    1. Based on law Based on faith

    2. Word written on stone tablets Word written in peoples hearts

    3. God known personally by a few priests prophets and prophets Each to person to know God personally

    4. Covenant broken when people sinned Everlasting covenant

    5. Sins punished collectively Sins punished individually

    6. 1st Exodus from Egypt 2nd Exodus from Babylon

    7. Sealed by animal sacrifice Sealed by Jesus sacrifice (blood) What are the similarities between the old and the new covenant? Jesus fulfilled the new covenant.

    Jesus is the ‘righteous branch’ from the lineage of David. In the last supper, before his death, Jesus said ‘this cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.

    Read Luke, 22:20.

    The death and resurrection of Jesus marks the new covenant.

    Jesus spoke of forgiveness of sins of humanity Jesus forgave people’s sins, for example, the sinful woman in Simon’s house (Luke7: 36 – 50). In the new covenant the law would be written in people’s hearts.

    Jesus summarized the Mosaic Law into ‘love God with all your heart, mind, strength and love your neighbour as you love yourself.

    Jesus established the kingdom of God as a new community of God’s people based on faith (the Christians).

    Jesus fulfilled the new covenant prophecies The teachings of Jeremiah new covenant of hope and restoration is fulfilled in Jesus Christ and the new testament church (Christians) Heb.8:7 – 12.

    Lesson Five. Jeremiah’s Teachings on Hope and Restoration

    Learning Outcomes

    (a) Explain the symbolic acts related to hope and restoration.

    (b) Describe the fall of Jerusalem and the exile of the Israelites.

    (c) Relate the relationship of the teachings of Jeremiah to the New Testament and Christian life today.

    A. Symbolic acts related to hope and restoration.

    The symbolic acts were one hope and restore. Hope is to expect something that is desired; while to restore is to bring back as nearly as possible the former or original state or condition.

    The symbolic acts were 5 in number.

    The first symbolic act was a vision of 2 baskets of figs. We have discussed it. Refer to the symbolic act related to judgment.

    The second symbolic act was Jeremiah buying a field.

    God instructed Jeremiah to buy a field from his cousin Hanamel of Anathoth.

    Jeremiah bought the field for 17 cents of silver.

    He then handed the title deed and open copy to Baruch.

    Baruch was told to keep the title deed and the copy in an earthen vessel for preservation for a long time.

    Jeremiah prophesied the restoration of the exiles to their homeland.

    The significance of this symbolic act is the assurance of restoration of Judah and Israel after suffering.

    People will be restored to their homeland.

    After 70 years people of Judah would reconstruct their homes, cultivate their land, and own property (Jer 32; 1 -15).

    The third symbolic act was Jeremiah’ letter to the Jews in Babylonia.

    Jeremiah wrote to the people of Judah a letter of encouragement while in exile.

    They were to settle down, build houses, marry and have children, live in peace with the Babylonians.

    They were to pray for the welfare of their masters and to ignore false prophets who lied to them about the safety of Jerusalem and a quick return.

    God would restore them back to their land after 70 years of exile were over. The exiles were to trust in God and not give up (Jer.29).

    The fourth symbolic act was a wooden ox yoke.

    The yoke represented captivity and suffering of Jews in exile.

    It was also a sign of hope if the people of Judah were willing to submit to the Babylonian rule.

    God would restore them back to their land. Their yoke would be broken and they would be set free.

    The fifth symbolic act was the visit to the porter’s house

    b. The fall of Jerusalem and the exile of the Israelites (Jer.39)

    Jeremiah’s prophecy came to pass. Jerusalem fell to the Babylonians in the ninth year of king Zedekiah in 587BC.

    The Babylonians conquered Jerusalem and seized it. King Zedekiah fled but; he was captured by the Babylonians army.

    He witnessed the execution of his sons. His eyes were gauged out.

    He was then taken in chains to captivity in Babylon.

    Solomon’s temple was looted and destroyed. Villages, Jerusalem and the palace were destroyed and burnt down.

    The priests, court officials, army officials, people in the upper class, craftsmen were executed.

    City people were taken to Babylon as captives.

    The poor, aged and a few people were left behind and given vineyards to farm.

    Nebuchadnezzar’s army was brutal to the Israelites. Many were killed.

    A few like Ebed – Melech were spared as prophesied by Jeremiah (he had rescued him from the well).

    Nebuchadnezzar ordered the release of Jeremiah.

    He was treated well Judah became a province of Babylon.

    Gedaliah was appointed governor of Judah.

    He stayed at Mizpah, the headquarters of Judah.

    Ishmael killed Gedaliah. Later Jeremiah was forced to go to Egypt by the Israelites.

    Jeremiah died in Egypt, an old man, and still faithful to his call.

    Lesson Six. Relating the Teachings of Jeremiah to the New Testament and Christian Life Today

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1.Describe the teachings of Jeremiah in relation to Christian life today

    2. Describe the teachings of Jeremiah in relation to the new testament

    Jeremiah was rejected by his; relatives, friends and the Israelites. In the New Testament, Jesus was

    rejected in his hometown of Nazareth: and by the religious leaders of Israel.

    Jeremiah compared himself to a lamb being led to the slaughter.

    Jesus in the New Testament is referred to as a lamb led to the slaughter.

    Jeremiah’s suffering symbolizes divine judgment over Judah.

    However Jesus sufferings was to bring salvation to all mankind.

    Both Jeremiah and Jesus experienced spiritual agony. Jeremiah experience agony and felt left alone by God.

    Jesus too felt agony when praying in the garden of Gethsemane and when on the cross.

    Jeremiah taught that God is universal and a just judge.

    The gospel of Jesus is universal and everybody is judged according to his or her faith in God.

    Jeremiah and Jesus accused the Israelites of turning the temple into a “den of robbers”.

    Jeremiah and Jesus were both accused of blasphemy.

    Both challenged false beliefs about the temple.

    Both Jeremiah and Jesus spoke of the coming judgment of God.

    The new covenant was fulfilled in the life and ministry of Jesus Christ Jeremiah spoke of hope and restoration.

    Jesus gives hope of eternal life in the New Testament.

    ii. Relationship of Jeremiah’s teaching to Christian today.

    Christians are to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ.

    They are empowered by the Holy Spirit to endure suffering and to grow spiritually.

    Christians like Jeremiah face false prophets who speak in Jesus name.

    Christians are to be watchful and obey Yahweh Like Jeremiah Christians should call people to repentance.

    The new covenant is fulfilled in Christian’s individual relationship with God. Christians are the new people, the new Israel as prophesied by Jeremiah.

    His teachings reveal that God is universal.

    Christians are from all corners of the earth.

    Christians should prepare for divine judgment by practicing love, righteousness, self-denial, and faith in God.

    Revision exercise

    1. List the evils that Jeremiah condemned

    2.What are some of the evils that church leaders condemn today?

    3. Explain the symbolism used during the call of prophet Jeremiah

    4. What did Jeremiah teach about the new covenant?

    5. Why did prophet Jeremiah condemn the way the Israelites worshipped?

    6. Explain Jeremiah’s temple sermon as recorded in jeremiah7: 1-15

    7. What forms of punishment did Jeremiah prophesy that God would use on Judah?

    8. Outline the content of Jeremiah’s letter to exiles in Babylon

    9. Explain four symbolic acts related to judgement and punishment as demonstrated by prophet Jeremiah

    10. Identify the relevance of Jeremiah’s teaching to Christians today

    11. In what ways is the prophetic mission of Jeremiah similar to that of Jesus?

    Topic Six. Nehemiah

    Introduction

    The book of Nehemiah is a historical writing.

    Nehemiah is a record of his deep dependence on God and his frequent prayer to God.

    Nehemiah means “Yahweh has comforted.

    Nehemiah was the son of Hacaliah of Judah.

    He was not a prophet.

    He was exiled to Babylon.

    Persians captured Babylon and improved the living condition of the Israelites.

    They were allowed religious freedom but had to pay tributes.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this topic you should be able to;

    a. Describe the historical, religious and social background to Nehemiah

    b. Identify occasions when Nehemiah prayed

    c. Explain the importance of prayer in Christian life

    D .Describe leadership qualities of Nehemiah and relevance to Christians today.

    Lesson One. Background to Nehemiah

    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson,

    i. Describe how the people of Judah lived and worshipped.

    ii. Explain the conquest of Israel and Judah by foreign forces.

    iii. Give reasons why God allowed Judah and Israel to be conquered and exiled.

    a. Political and historical background.

    From 587 BC to 538 BC, Israelites were in exile. In 538 B.C., the first group of Israelites was set free and returned to Judah.

    Cyrus the Great, of Persia ruled his subjects through governors.

    They were led out of Babylon by Joshua the high priest and Zerubbabel who became the first governor of Judah.

    Some Jews remained in Babylon.

    They were referred to as Jews in Diaspora or dispersion. Other Jews remained in other lands including Egypt, and Mediterranean lands Nehemiah.

    He was a cupbearer in the palace of the Persian king Artaxerxes I.

    He later became a governor of Judah.

    Even after the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem, Israelites remained subjects of the Persian king.

    The Wall of Jerusalem was important to Israel and Judah.

    The Wall represented a sense of pride, ownership, privacy, independence and Security.

    The Greeks conquered the Persians; who were later conquered by Romans.

    b. Social background

    The Jews in foreign lands retained their Jewish way of life.

    The land of Israel was partly occupied by foreigners.

    The foreign cultures of neighboring rulers influenced Israelites who returned.

    They for example, intermarried with foreigners, a custom that God did not allow. Israelites were not to intermarry with other people according to the Mosaic Law.

    In spite of this however, Jews maintained their separated identity.

    Some of the foreigners despised Jews.

    The wealthy Jews oppressed the poor Jews.

    In Jerusalem there was starvation.

    Nehemiah condemned oppression of the poor.

    c. Religious background

    Jews returned to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem and the altar of God for sacrifices.

    While in exile, Jews were allowed by the Babylonian king to practice their religion.

    They worshipped Yahweh, practiced circumcision, obeyed dietary laws and observed the Sabbath.

    The exiles could not however observe all the religious practices for example offering animal sacrifices.

    Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem to rebuild it’s the wall.

    The temple of Jerusalem was rebuilt, cleared and dedicated to God.

    Lesson Two. Prayers by Nehemiah and modern Christians

    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson the learner should be able to:

    a. Outline occasions when Nehemiah prayed to the Lord.

    b. Discuss the importance of prayer

    Nehemiah prayed, mourned, and fasted.

    He prayed often and for all actions, keeping God’s law, forgiveness, punishments, human relations, Jerusalem, good works, contributions and offerings, observance of Sabbath day, and preparing duty allocations for priests and Levites. .

    i. When he learnt about the suffering of Jews who remained in Judah and the ruined state of Jerusalem;

    He prayed for forgiveness on behalf of his people (Neh.4: 1 – 11).

    ii. Making a request to King Artaxerxes to be permitted to return to Judah (Neh.2: 4 –

    iii. When his enemies ridiculed the Jews and planned to discourage them from rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem.

    Tobiah in particular said that the wall was poorly constructed and it could be brought down by; a fox jumping on it.

    Nehemiah requested God to punish the enemies who were mocking temple builders (Neh.4: 4 – 5).

    iv. When he learnt that his enemies were conspiring to attack Jerusalem to stop the construction work

    He prayed and organised people to provide a 24-hour guard of the wall (Neh.4: 7 – 9).

    .v. For his good work,

    He prayed for his works (Neh 5:19).

    vi. When his enemies plotted to destroy him

    He prayed God for strength and courage to overcome his enemies (Neh 6: 19).

    vii. When Shemaih attempted to frighten him to hide in the temple claiming that there was a plot to kill him,

    Nehemiah prayed and asked God to punish his enemies (Neh 6:14).

    viii. When he organized contributions for Levites and musicians; and people to distribute them.

    He asked God to remember his work for the house of God (Neh 13:14).

    ix. He stopped trade on the Sabbath day, and organised rest on the Sabbath day.

    He warned traders against violating the Sabbath law. He asked Lord to remember him for these actions (Neh.13: 22).

    x. Nehemiah prayed for punishment of the son of Joiada.

    The son of Joiada had brought disgrace to the priest hood by marrying a foreigner, the daughter of Sanballat from the town of Beth Horon, (Neh 13:29).

    After cleansing the Israelites of foreign influence, he forbade mixed marriages.

    xi. He prepared duty regulations for priests and Levites.

    He allocated them duties. He then organised Jews to bring offerings for maintaining priests and Levites.

    He prayed God to remember his work for the temple, priests and Levites (Neh 13:31).

    b. Importance of prayer in Christian life

    Through prayers, Christians express their faith in God and praise God for his greatness, goodness, holiness, and majesty.

    Prayer brings Christians closer to God; it strengthens their relationship with God.

    Through prayer Christians request for their needs, blessings, success, good health, and protection among other requests.

    Prayers help Christians to listen to God and to seek his will. Prayer is a source of strength.

    It gives Christians courage to face and overcome life’s challenges.

    Christians seek guidance, comfort and support in times of trials.

    In prayer, Christians intercede for the sick, poor, hungry, prisoners, friends, family and community. The communal / public prayers unite Christians together.

    Through prayers, Christians ask for forgiveness and the ability to forgive others.

    In prayers, Christians trust that God listens and answers their prayers.

    Lesson Three: Leadership Qualities of Nehemiah

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. State the leadership qualities of Nehemiah.

    2. Explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s leadership qualities to Christians today.

    Introduction.

    A leader is someone charged with the responsibility of guiding, controlling, directing and leading others.

    Nehemiah had many leadership qualities. These were: -

    1) God fearing man.

    Nehemiah feared God, relied and depended on God.

    2) Prayerfulness.

    He prayed constantly before and after making decisions.

    3) Courageous.

    He displayed courage even when his life was in danger.

    4) Hard work and commitment.

    He was dedicated to the rebuilding of the wall of the temple and Jerusalem.

    5) Team spirit

    He was a team leader, motivating people to work.

    6) He had planning and organizational skills

    7) He was visionary

    He had compassion for the needy especially the poor, Levites and priests

    9) He was patriotic loved his country

    10) Wisdom. He made wise decisions at the right time.

    11) He led by example, a role model

    12) He was honest and sincere in his prayers

    13) He was shrewd and impartial

    14) His trusted God absolutely.

    15) He was decisive.

    He told God about decisions he had made and asked

    for their recognition.

    16) He was humble.

    He asked to be allowed to return to Jerusalem and oversee the repair of its wall and temple.

    17) He believed in law and punishment of wrong doers.

    He asked God to punish lawbreakers especially Jews who married foreigners.

    b. Relevance of Nehemiah’s leadership to Christians today

    Christians should copy all the leadership qualities of Nehemiah.

    They should trust in God and seek his guidance in all their activities and needs.

    1. Christians should live a life of prayer.

    2. Christians should be courageous, be ready to defend the gospel of Jesus Christ.

    3. Christians should be dedicated to their work. Work diligently and honestly.

    4. Christians should set realistic goals and organize their activities.

    5. Christians should seek wisdom from God to be able to choose.

    appropriate activities to attain their visions.

    6. Christians should care for the needy and be compassionate to all.

    7. Christians should be patriotic and ready to defend their country against internal / external threats.

    8. Christians should need to fight for the rights of the helpless children, widows, orphans, and aged.

    9. Christians should seek God first, view themselves as servants of God and be good role models.

    Lesson Four. Building the Wall of Jerusalem

    The wall of Jerusalem was destroyed when Babylonians conquered Judah.

    After finishing the wall, he dedicated it to the Lord.

    Dedication is to devote something in honor of a person held dear or to set aside something for some special purpose.

    Learning Outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should be able to: -

    a. Describe the problems that Nehemiah faced when building the wall of Jerusalem.

    b. Describe the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem.

    c. Identify lessons, which Christians can learn from Nehemiah.

    a. Nehemiah rebuilt the wall of Jerusalem.

    The rebuilt wall had several gates with different names.

    The gates were the entrances to Jerusalem.

    Their names were Dung gate, Potsherd gate, Fountain gate, Water gate, Horse gate, East gate, Sheep gate, Fish gate, Watch gate and Ephraim gate.

    Knowing the names of the gates may not be necessary but its good information.

    b. Problems faced by Nehemiah.

    When Nehemiah was building the wall of Jerusalem, he faced many challenges.

    There was lack of cooperation by the nobles of Tekoa.

    They did not want to do manual work at first but they later repented.

    Nehemiah faced opposition from enemies such as.

    Sanballat, and Tobiah, the Arab who tried to thwart the progress of Nehemiah’s work.

    As he built Jerusalem, the rich oppressed the poor.

    This was worsened by famine The priests misused the temple and the offerings.

    For example, temple duties had been abandoned.

    The Levites were not getting their share of the offerings and the Sabbath was violated.

    There was laxity in observance of the Sabbath.

    This was a challenge to Nehemiah because Sabbath day should be kept holy.

    There was a lot of foreign influence because of the conquests by several foreign armies, intermarriages and interactions between Jews, neighboring people and foreigners.

    Marriages in particular threatened the identity of the Israelites as a nation.

    Worse still Priests married to foreign women defiled the priesthood according to Nehemiah.

    Because of these assimilations of Jews through marriages, Nehemiah knew that Israel and Judah would eventually be lost as God’s nation.

    Because of his opposition to these interactions, Nehemiah received death threats.

    c. Dedication of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:27 – 47)

    The rebuilt wall was dedicated to God. The wall restored security and prestige of God’s people.

    The wall of Jerusalem was set-aside for God in a solemn ceremony.

    There was a dedication ceremony in which people sung with symbols, harps, lyres, trumpets and other instruments.

    The priests, and Levites purified themselves.

    The people led by Ezra, Nehemiah, the priests and other leaders of Judah walked around the wall.

    They divided themselves into two groups.

    One group walked from the right side and the other group from the left side and converged at the temple.

    Sacrifices were offered and people rejoiced.

    Some men were appointed to be in charge of the storehouses; where tithes, and first fruits of harvest were kept.

    d. Relevance of Nehemiah’s experience to Christians today

    Christians should expect opposition, as did Nehemiah.

    They should not be afraid of being ridiculed, mocked and despised.

    If it happens, Christians should persevere in God’s work.

    They should put their trust in God like Nehemiah did.

    They should also fight for the welfare of the disadvantaged groups and not exploit them.

    They have a moral obligation to condemn injustice and take practical steps to help solve problems that afflict individuals, groups, nations, and society.

    They should be in the forefront fighting HIV/ AIDS and drug abuse.

    Christians should be on the look out for external influence that may corrupt morals of the society and the church.

    They should learn that leadership involves suffering, persecution, and sacrifices.

    This is foregoing personal interests for the sake of the kingdom of God.

    Lesson Five: Renewal of the Covenant

    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should be able to: -

    i. List the stages followed to renew the covenant.

    ii. Identify issues that Ezra mentioned in his prayer.

    iii. List the vows that were made by the Israelites during renewal of the covenant.

    i. Stages of the renewal of the covenant.

    Israelites were the chosen people of God.

    They had suffered many hardships.

    There was therefore a need for the renewal of the covenant between God and Israelites.

    The ceremony to renewal the covenant was held in Jerusalem and was led by Ezra, the Levites and other religious leaders.

    The renewal of the covenant can be discussed in 3 main stages:

    Stage 1.

    A great public assembly was held in the square of Jerusalem inside the water gate. God’s law was read and expounded to the people.

    The people of Israel praised and worshipped God.

    They cried and grieved.

    They were sad because they realized that they had failed to observe the Mosaic Law.

    They were instructed to go and celebrate, as it was a holy day of God and an occasion for joy not sorrows.

    State 2.

    The feast of booths/tabernacle was celebrated for 7 days.

    It was a reminder of the days in the wilderness when the Israelites dwelt in tents.

    The Law of Moses was read each day during the celebrations.

    Stage 3.

    There was a public confession of sin. People fasted, prayed and praised God.

    The public confession was followed by the renewal of the covenant vows and a promise to keep God’s law in future.

    Ezra’s prayer closed the celebrations. In his prayer, he recalled God’s acts of creation.

    He then recounted the history of the Israelites.

    He mentioned the previous acts of God; where the Lord had demonstrated His love and mercy for the Israelites.

    He then confessed the sins of their ancestors and the present Israelites.

    These were the sins of rebellion and disobedience.

    ii. Promises and vows made by Israelites during the renewal of the covenant.

    Israelites promised God that they would.

  • Live according to God’s law, by obeying all his commands and requirements.

  • Stop intermarrying with foreigners living in their land.

  • Cancel debts every 7th year.

  • Contribute annually towards the temple expenses to ensure that the house of God was not neglected.

  • Provide sacrifices and offerings for the temple and arrange for provision of wood for burnt sacrifices according to the law.

  • Offer first fruits of their harvest and dedicate the first born and flocks as required by the law.

  • Pay for their tithes as required by the law.

    Which lessons can we learn from the renewal of the covenant?

    God is good, loving, merciful, and faithful to his promises.

    God forgives all people and we are all sinners.

    We fail in our moral obligation to God and to one another.

    Since we are sinners, we should repent our sins and strive to live according to God’s law.

    Christians are to encourage one another as well as others to repent as it brings about reconciliation with God and with one another.

    Christians should be forgiving and avoid situations that lead them to sin.

    SAQ. Check from form 1 work, this information.

    1. Outline Nehemiah’s final reforms.

    2. What is a covenant?

    3. What are the components of a covenant?

    4. Discuss how the covenant was renewed.

    5. List examples of covenants in the Old Testament and modern life.

    6. Explain what Christians can learn from the experiences of Nehemiah.

    7. Compare or relate the teachings from Nehemiah’s exemplary life to the teaching of St. Luke’s Gospel and Christian life today.

    Lesson Six: Final Reforms of Nehemiah

    Introduction.

    Changes for improvement are known as reforms, which are either political, economical, social, religious or a combination of any of them.

    Examples of reformers are King David, Prophet Elijah, and Martin Luther King among others.

    Nehemiah. After building the wall, Nehemiah went back to King Artaxerxes II who if you remember had given permission to go to Jerusalem and build its destroyed perimeter wall.

    Later he returned to Jerusalem and carried out these reforms.

    Lesson outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should be able to:

    a. List reforms of Nehemiah

    b. Suggest what we can learn from the teachings of Nehemiah and that of St. Luke’s Gospel.

    a. Reforms by Nehemiah.

    We have discussed reforms, which Nehemiah carried out during his stay in Judah, where he was the governor (Neh 5:14).

    The major reforms were

    i Rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem as well as its gates.

    ii Cleansing of the temple:

    Nehemiah threw him out Tobiah a foreigner who was living in the temple quarters.

    iii Reinstatement of the Levites and other temple workers.

    Levites, and musicians had left the temple duties to work in their farms to earn a livelihood.

    They were supposed to work in the temple and be supported by member contributions.

    Nehemiah organised Jews to make offerings and tithes to support temple workers. With these contributions, Nehemiah reinstated and redeployed Levites, priests, musicians and other temple workers.

    iv Reform of the Sabbath observance.

    The Israelites were told by the Lord to work for 6 days and rest on the Sabbath day.

    The Jews started working on the Sabbath day. The merchants camped outside waiting for the reopening of the gates of the temple to do business.

    When Nehemiah started rebuilding Jerusalem, he ordered closure of the gates of Jerusalem from the eve of Sabbath to the end of the Sabbath.

    Separations from foreigners (Neh.13: 23 – 30).

    It was against God’s law to marry foreigners.

    Nehemiah cursed the men who had married foreign wives.

    He beat Jews, pulled their hair and forced them to take oaths that neither they, nor their sons nor daughters shall intermarry.

    vi Purification of priesthood and the office of the Levites.

    Nehemiah cleansed the priesthood.

    He sent away Eliashib, a grandson of the High Priest Joshua, because he had given Tobiah a foreigner, a room in the temple.

    b. Comparing teachings of Nehemiah and St. Luke’s Gospel

    i Nehemiah lived a prayerful life while St. Luke’s gospel emphasizes importance of prayer.

    Jesus taught the role of prayer in Christianity.

    ii Nehemiah fasted, St. Luke’s gospel records that Jesus fasted.

    iii Nehemiah prayed for forgiveness of sinful Jews. We see Jesus in St. Luke’s gospel being a leader who prayed for the forgiveness of his enemies.

    iv Nehemiah cared for the needy.

    Jesus showed compassion to the needy and taught his followers to follow His example. v Nehemiah condemned evil so did Jesus

    vi Nehemiah is seen as a reformer of the Mosaic Law. In St Luke Gospel, Jesus was also a reformer.

    He insisted on inner holiness.

    vii Nehemiah cleansed the temple of traders so did Jesus.

    viii Nehemiah was very strict on the Sabbath observance. St. Luke’s gospel teaches that Jesus is lord over Sabbath.

    He healed and “Worked” on Sabbath.

    ix Nehemiah was opposed to racial intermarriages, St. Luke Gospel was dedicated to Theophilus, a gentile convert.

    x Christianity kingdom of God in St. Luke’s gospel is for all, not just the Jews.

    xi. Nehemiah had good leadership skills and wisdom. These are demonstrated in St Luke Gospel.

    c. Relating Nehemiah’s teachings to Christian life today

    i Prayers and fasting are fundamental to Christians just like they were to Nehemiah who led a prayerful life.

    ii Nehemiah’s example teaches Christians to face all forms of opposition with courage, wisdom, and firmness.

    iii The good leadership qualities of Nehemiah are relevant to Christians and they are to be emulated.

    iv Nehemiah cared for the needy. Christians should learn to give spiritual food, physical food and clothing to the needy, orphans, widows.

    v As Nehemiah renewed the covenant, Christians should seek spiritual renewal publicly and privately.

    They should seek for communal as well as individual forgiveness.

    vi Nehemiah cleansing the temple and organised an inventory for temple contributions, offerings and tithes. He also appointed key people to look after temple contributions and pay Levites and priests.

    Christians should learn to use the church buildings and contributions rightly.

    vii Nehemiah was guided by the Law of Moses and land just like Christians are guided by the scriptures.

    (Bible) and the law of the nation. The Bible is the source and basis of Christian principles.

    Revision questions

    1. Describe the political background of Nehemiah

    2. Describe the social background to the vocation of Nehemiah

    3. Describe the religious background to the vocation of Nehemiah

    4. Describe occasions when Nehemiah prayed

    5. State occasions when Christians pray

    6. What is the importance of prayer in Christian life?

    7. Identify the leadership of Nehemiah’s patriotism

    8. Explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s leadership to a Christian today

    9. Explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s experience to Christians today

    10. explain the problems that Nehemiah encountered in his vocation

    11. Explain the steps taken by Nehemiah to renew the covenant

    12. State the promises the Israelites made during the renewal of the covenant

    Study activities.

    Visit a church or your church and observe the display of the gifts of the Holy Spirit by the members.

    Study the books of Amos, Jeremiah and Nehemiah before hand.

    Form three answers.

    Topic One: the Gifts of the Holy Spirit.

    Qn a. Explain the meaning of the Pentecost.

  • Pentecost means fifty days after the harvest.

  • It was one of the religious festivals celebrated by Israelites annually.

  • In the Old Testament, the day of the Pentecost was celebrated during the wheat harvest in order to thank god for the blessing of the harvest.

  • Israelites came from all over the world and gathered in Jerusalem for this celebration.

  • In the New Testament, the meaning of the festival changed.

    It was celebrated to commemorate the coming of the Holy Spirit upon God’s people as they gathered in the upper room.

    Qn b. Describe the manifestations of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. (Acts 2: 1-40) OR (narrate the events that took place on the day of Pentecost).

  • Disciples gathered in a room.

  • Sounds came from heaven like a rush of mighty wind and filled the house.

  • There appeared tongues of fire.

  • The tongues of fire were distributed on each one of them.

  • They were filled with the Holy Spirit.

  • They were speaking in foreign languages and tongues.

  • Those who were observing them were amazed, as they could not understand what they were saying.

  • They accused them of being drunk.

  • Peter stood up and explained that they were not drunk as it was too early in the day to get drunk.

  • He explained how they were filled with the Holy Spirit as prophesied by prophet Joel.

  • He told them that it was Jesus whom they had rejected and crucified who had sent them the Holy Spirit.

  • The people asked peter what they could do.

  • Peter told them to repent and be baptized.

  • On that day about 3000 people were added to the church.

    Qn c. write down five teachings we learn about Jesus from Peter’s speech on the day of Pentecost.

  • Jesus was from Nazareth

  • He had a divine nature or was son of God

  • He had a human nature

  • He was attested by God to work miracles and wonders through Jesus.

  • Jesus’ death/ crucifixion was according to God’s plan

  • God raised Jesus from the dead

  • Jesus conquered death

  • The death and resurrection of Jesus fulfils the prophecy of David

  • Jesus was a descendant of David

  • The Holy Spirit was from Jesus Christ as he had promised.

  • God has made Jesus Christ both lord and Christ/ messiah

  • Jesus ascended into heaven. He is exalted at the right hand of God

  • The risen Christ is a source if hope or salvation to many sinners/crippled/the dead

    Qn d. What were the qualities of peter that made him a successful leader for the apostolic church?

  • He was a man of great faith

  • He was a good orator

  • He dedicated his life to Jesus

  • He was filled with the holy spirit

  • He could perform miracles or wonders

  • He was an eye- witness of the ministry of Jesus Christ.

  • He was full of wisdom and knowledge i.e. Anania’s and Saphira’s case.

    Qn e. what lessons can Christians learn fro the events of the day of Pentecost

  • They learn that Jesus always honors and keeps his promises e.g. he promised to send the Holy spirit and did it.

  • Baptism in the holy spirit is very important for every believer.

  • That obedience yields immediate results i.e. the disciples obeyed Jesus by testifying in Jerusalem and they received the Holy Spirit.

  • It is important for believers to meet for fellowship. The disciples did this and they received the Holy Spirit.

  • That the Holy Spirit enables Christians to declare the gospel with boldness.

  • It was the plan of God that Jesus was crucified.

  • Jesus indeed rose from the dead as peter witnessed
  • Jesus was the son of God.

    Qn f. state the teachings of Jesus on the Holy Spirit

  • The Holy Spirit comes from the father

  • The Holy Spirit will comfort disciples

  • The Holy Spirit will abide with believers forever.

    He was to teach the world and reveal the truth about God

  • The Holy Spirit would guide them into all truth and make them understand or know more about Jesus

  • The percolate i.e. comforter/make strong/counselor who give advice

  • He was to help them attain eternal life. If it was necessary for him to die and return to the father so that Holy Spirit will be sent to them.

    It was to replace Jesus as a counselor and an advocate

  • He was to give the disciples authority to forgive or not to forgive

  • The spirit would remind them all that Jesus had taught them

  • The holy spirit will reprove the world of sin, righteousness and judgement

  • He would glorify Jesus amongst the believers

  • He will enable believers to be witnesses of Jesus in the whole world

  • He was to strengthen disciples as a wonderful counselor

  • He was to continue with the work of Jesus as a witness

    Qn g. what is the role if the holy spirit according to Jesus?

  • He comforts believers

  • He teaches believers all things

  • He bring into remembrance all that Jesus taught his disciples

  • The holy spirit would convict the world of their sins and lead them to righteousness

  • He will guide the believers in all the truth

  • He will glorify Christ and teach about him

  • He will tell of the things to come in the future

  • He would not speak on his own authority but would speak only what he hears from the father.

  • He will enable believers to be witnesses of Jesus in the world

  • He will counsel believers because he knows the mind of God

  • He will enable believers know the perfect will of God

    Qn h. what is the role of the Holy Spirit in the believers (or Christians or the church)

  • He enables believers to preach with power

  • He comforts believers

  • He guides believers in all truth

  • He gives believers boldness to witness about Jesus

  • He enables Christians to produce the fruit of the spirit

  • He washes sacrifices and justifies the believer in the name of Jesus

  • He teaches believers all things

  • He enables Christians to access God the father and son in prayer

  • He enables Christians talk in tongues in worship

  • He enables Christians to perform miracles in the name of Jesus

  • He enables Christians to declare sins and transgressions of others

    Qn i. Outline the fruits of the Holy Spirit (Galatians 5:6-26)

  • Love -showing compassion to one another

  • Joy -deep happiness when one has a good relationship with God

  • Peace -being at peace with all people

  • Patience -being to wait in difficulties

  • Kindness -being caring and helpful towards others

  • Goodness -seeking to do best in their lives

  • Faithfulness -having confidence in God

  • Gentleness -being calm and avoiding violence

  • Self-control - have strong control over their emotions

    Qn j. state the criteria for discerning of the spiritual gifts

  • The gift must glorify Jesus so that one who is under the influence of the Holy Spirit will be able to recognize Jesus as lord and savior.

  • The gifts must not call Jesus accursed

  • The test of love. The gift must be accompanied with a good or true frit. To discover whether or not the person who has the holy spirit must bear the fruits of the spirit.

  • One who is user the influence if the Holy Spirit is known by his or her way of life. He/she will act and behave in accordance with the teachings of Jesus.

  • Doctrinal test for example, prophecy should always in agreement with the scripture because the Holy Spirit cannot contradict what is written.

  • Loyalty or conformity to Jesus. The gift doesn’t envy other believers

  • The gift must be subject to the word of God

  • The true gift will be guided by principles of sincerity and honesty

  • The true gift will humbly submit to God

  • The gift should encourage the growth of the church and edify her

    Qn k. List down the gifts of the Holy Spirit.

  • The gift of wisdom (a deep understanding of who God is an his purpose for human life)

  • The gift of knowledge that is the basic understanding of the truth about Jesus Christ

  • The gift of faith that refers to the confidence or truth in God’s inspiration and help in undertaking difficult tasks

  • The gift of healing: the power to heal all types of sicknesses

  • The gift to perform all types of miracles including healing

  • The gift of prophecy: that is the ability to expound on the scriptures and foretell its future implications

  • The gift of distinguishing gifts: the ability to tell the difference between gifts that come from the spirit and those that are not

  • The gift of speaking in tongues: the ability to understand and interpret tongues

  • Lastly the gift of love, which is the greatest of all the spiritual gifts.

    Qn l. Explain why Paul taught that love is the greatest of all spiritual gifts.

  • Paul taught that love is the greatest of all spiritual gifts. He said that love is patient and kind

  • It’s not jealous or boastful.

    It is not arrogant or rude or conceited. It does not hold grudges or ill mannered or selfish

  • It does not insist on its own way. It is not irritable or resentful

  • It does not rejoice at wrong doings but rejoices in the truth

  • Love bears, believes, hopes and endures all things

  • It is ready to deep firm its faith, hope and its patience

  • Love does not succumb to pressure but always perseveres

  • He justified that love is the greatest gift of the spiritual gifts because in prayer, the gift of tongues becomes nothing but meaningful when accompanied by love (charity)

  • On faith, Paul says that even if one has faith that can move mountains but has no love, he is nothing

  • Charity or generosity including sacrificing own life is nothing without love

    Qn m. Explain how the Holy Spirit is manifested in the church today

  • Through dynamic, power, bold and vigorous teaching of the gospel

  • Through speaking in tongues in many evangelical churches

  • Through the gift of healing many people are healed as they are prayed for

  • Through the gift of love, Christians show mercy to all members of the society regardless of their race, sex or age (helping the poor in the society)

  • Through the gift of prophecy some believers give proper guidance to the church

  • Through the gift of discernment of spirits believers are able to tell the type of spirit that is in operation

  • Through the gift of faith, believers have been able to accomplish tasks that seem rather impossible

  • Some Christians through the holy spirit are able to withstand a persecution to the point of death

  • The holy spirit convicts sinners and makes them confess their sins

  • Through the holy spirit many Christians see heavenly visions and dreams

  • The fear of the lord is upon many evangelical groups through the Holy Spirit

  • In some evangelical gatherings, there are many supernatural things during worship e.g. shaking and swaying

  • It is also manifested through prayer at individual or congregational levels

  • Through decision making in church i.e. solving problems and issues in church

  • Through singing and dancing or music

  • Through offertory and alms or sadaka

  • Holding fellowship meetings, bible study and reading the bible

  • Celebration of sacraments e.g. Eucharist and lord’s supper

  • Bringing new converts to the church

  • Pastoral cave and counseling It is manifested in Ecumenism: working together of the churches

  • Writing Christian literature e. g. books, pamphlets and magazines

  • Enabling Christians to confess their sins and reconciliation meetings

  • Education and giving instructions

    Qn n: State ways in which the gifts of the Holy Spirit have been abused in the church today.

  • Cheating that one has a certain gift of the Holy Spirit

  • Commercialization of the gifts.

    People are asked to pay money before being prayed for or being healed.

  • False interpretation of the bible, prophecy or predicting the future.

  • Unscrupulous Christians may impart demoniac powers or innocent faithful.

  • Some Christians who possess the gifts of the Holy Spirit develop pride or selfishness or superiority complex.

  • Wrong use of the gifts of the Holy Spirit where faithful get into ecstasy or trance which may lead to injuries.

  • Distinguishing oneself as a person with a special call e.g. preacher with intention of exploiting others or situations.

    Topic Two: Unity of Believers

    Qn a. Write down the terms used in the New Testament to refer to believers in Christ

  • The people of God

  • The body of Christ

  • The bride of Christ

  • The vine and the branches

  • The assembly of God

  • Christians

  • The people of the way (followers of the way) other terms

  • Followers of Christ

  • New Israel

  • Church

  • The sheep

  • The royal church

  • Brethren

  • Royal race

  • Royal priest hood

  • Holy nation

  • The children of light

  • Saints

  • Brothers and sisters in Christ

    Qn b. identify five causes of disunity in the early church

  • The question on the inclusion of the gentiles in the church.

    Some Jewish Christians were not ready to accept gentile Christians in the church unless they underwent circumcision.

  • There was negligence of the widows in the distribution of food

  • Disagreement between and among leaders e.g. Paul and Barnabas, Peter and Paul

  • Groupings in the church where some Christians owed loyalty to individuals.

    They said that they belonged to individuals like Apollo others Peter and others Paul

  • Question of immorality, where some Christians did not live according to the teachings of Christ.

  • The problem of the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Some Christians became arrogant because they were more gifted than others.

  • Different interpretations of the doctrines e.g. resurrection, sin, salvation, Christology, Holy Spirit, dressing.

  • Behaviour during the lord’s supper

  • Christians took others to a pagan rule of law

  • Question of the resurrection of the body

  • Question of celibacy

  • Question of incest sexual immorality

  • Different approaches to common life between Christians communities in Jerusalem and Antioch

    Qn c. identify factors, which cause disunity among Christians today

  • Selfishness or greed for money by some Christians

  • Rivalry or competition for leadership positions or greed for power

  • Misinterpretation by some Christians of the work of the holy spirit

  • Arrogance or pride by some Christians

  • Corruption in the church

  • Failure by some Christians to live according to the law of God or their failure to live exemplary

  • Lack of concern by some Christians about the plight of others

  • Misinterpretation of the bible or doctrinal differences

  • Misuse of church funds or power by some leaders

  • Lack of transparency and accountability in running church affairs

  • The emergence of charismatic movements in the church creates a situation where some Christians think that they are more spiritual or holier l than others

  • Political interference where Christians find themselves in different political camps

  • Sexism where women are not involved in decision-making. Women are under represented

  • Discrimination against the youth or churches ignoring the youth in running the church

  • Tribalism where Christians are divided along tribal lines
  • International differences

    Qn d. Discuss reasons why members of Christian families in Kenya find it difficult to harmoniously live together

  • Unfaithfulness or promiscuity

  • Misuse of family resources or lack of resources

  • Child abuse e.g. beating, raping, incest or favourism

  • Alcoholism or drug use and abuse

  • Separation of family members e.g. due to wage labour or education

  • Denial of conjugal rights

  • Sickness e.g. HIV/AIDs, impotence, barrenness or cancer

  • Child delinquency

  • Lack of tolerance or forgiveness or presence of cruelty

  • Greed for wealth or self esteemed prestige or professionalism

  • Religious fanaticism or denominational differences

  • Traditional or cultural inhabitation or western cultural influences or permissive

  • Generation gap

    Qn e. explain how the church strengthen family relationships today

  • Through guidance and counseling and mediation

  • Hold seminars, conferences for couples, children the youth through publications on Christian living e.g. magazines, books or pamphlets

  • Use of mass media e.g. televisions. Radios or videos

  • Through offering pastoral care in homes or house to house visits

  • Giving financial support to the needy families

  • Praying for families

  • Through preaching, teaching and condemning vices

  • Offering employment to the jobless

  • Providing vocational training skills

    Selected Old Prophets and Their Teachings.

    Q1. Define the terms prophet and prophecy

    Prophet: Refers to one who speaks God’s message. He is God’s spokesman.

    His message includes predictions of the future.

    Prophecy: Is the message spoken by a prophet. Oracles spoken by prophets.

    Q2. List the five categories of true prophets

    i) Major prophets

    • These include Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel.

    • They are called Major Prophets because the books are long and contain clearly written messages.

    • They bear the names of the writers.

    ii) Minor prophets

    • These refer to 12 books that are short and contain less important than those in major books e.g. Amos, Hosea, Joel, Obadiah through to Malachi.

    iii) Canonical prophets

    • Both the major and minor prophets are together referred to as canonical prophets.

    iv) The early prophets

    • They belonged to guilds or schools.

    • They lived together in communities under a chief prophet. Elijah and Elisha are examples.

    • These are those who served in places of worship e.g. at Dan, Bethuel)

    • They were called cultic prophets because they were associated with religious activities in shrines.

    • They traveled around together delivering oracles.

    v) Cultic prophets

    • They worked side by side with priests and said prayers especially people’s petition to Yahweh.

    Q3. State the difference between true and false prophets

    True prophets False prophets

  • They were called by God to be His spokesmen
  • Not called by God.

  • Were obedient to God.
  • Not obedient to Him.

  • Believed in one God.
  • Could worship other gods and led people into immorality.

  • They were prayerful.
  • Not prayerful.

  • Spoke and acted with authority from God.
  • No authority from God.

  • They led holy lives.
  • Were immoral e.g. believed in false gods.

  • Spoke God’s word.
  • Spoke their opinion.

  • Suffered physically and psychologically because of speaking the truth.

  • Run away suffering.

  • Spoke the truth.
  • False.

  • Did not ask for pay.
  • Asked for pay.

  • Spoke form a common tradition based on the Mosaic Law.
  • Did not have any reference.

    Q4. In what ways were God’s prophets called?

  • Some were called through visions or dreams e.g. Amos and Samuel.

  • Others were called through other prophets e.g. Elisha.

  • Words or message came into their minds.

  • Through prophetic symbolic actions e.g. Jeremiah

  • Through common objects – an object becoming a significant sign of God’s power and activities Jer. 1:11-13.

  • Through prayers.

    Q5. Outline the similarities and differences between the Old Testament prophets and the Traditional African Ones

    a) Similarities:

  • Both possessed spiritual powers.

  • Both were mediators between people and a Supreme Being.

  • Both performed the role of healing people physically and spiritually (miracle).

  • They received calls mainly through visions/dreams, which were considered supernatural.

  • Were both expected to be people of integrity and obedient to religious codes.

  • Gave warnings and solutions to their people in case they offended the Supreme Being.

  • Foretold the future.

    b) Differences:

    Old Testament Tradition African

  • Received their message from God
  • Received their message from spirits and ancestors.

  • Appointed by God.
  • Inherited

  • Rejected by people
  • Respected and feared in society

  • Prophecy went to other nations
  • Confined in tribal community

  • Prophecies preserved in writing
  • Passed on orally

  • Believe and worship of one God
  • Believe in god spirits

  • Performed miracles
  • Did not

    Q6. What is the relevant of prophets to Christians today?

  • Through reading their prophecies, Christians get to know the will of God.

  • Jesus who is the cornerstone of Christianity is stressed throughout prophecy – since Abraham.

  • Prophecy has helped many to be preachers (i.e. prophecy = preaching).

  • Christians learn to be faithful to Yahweh just like the Old Testament prophets.

  • They too learn to be holy and prayerful like them e.g. Jeremiah.

  • Prophets encouraged justice e.g. Elijah, Christians should do the same.

  • As prophets, Christians should provide hope to the people in times of suffering.

  • They learn that they can face suffering just like the prophets did e.g. Jeremiah e.g. persecution, rejection etc.

  • They should condemn sin like the prophets.

  • The writings of the prophets strengthen their faith when they need them.

    Prophet Amos

    Q1. List the visions that Amos saw

  • He saw a swarm of locusts. Amos 7:1-3

  • He saw a great fire. Amos 7:4-6

  • The plumb line/crooked wall. Amos 7:7-8

  • Basket of ripe fruits. Amos 8:1-3

  • The destruction of the temple. Amos 9:1-4

    Q2. Explain the evils that Amos condemned in his teachings

  • Sexual immorality (Amos 2:17)

    • Amos condemned temple prostitution – 23:17.

    • Father and son were going to the same woman.

    • They copied these from the Canaanite pagans, which was wrong and unfaithful to Yahweh.

  • Slavery: (Amos 2:6)

    The righteous, the rich made the poor slaves.

    This is because they borrowed from the rich and could not repay so they made them work like slaves and treated them harshly.

    Some sold them for a paid of sandals.

    This was breaking God’s laws, which guided them on how to treat their poor fellow Israelites.

  • Idolatry: Amos 5:26

    Amos accused them for breaking God’s covenant by worshipping other gods.

    Cheating in Business: He condemned the following:

    • Merchants used false measures

    • They overcharged the poor

    • Sold goods of low quality

    • They sold poor people for not paying debts

    • They too charged high interest rates

  • Bribery and Corruption Ex. 23:8

    • He condemned elders who were unjust and corrupt.

    • They took bribes and grew rich from heavy levies from innocent people in law courts.

  • Greed and excessive luxury

    • He condemned women of Samaria who drink and lived in luxury when there were poor needy people.

  • Breaking God’s law on garments secured for pledges

    • God gave Israelites items that were to be given out to the creditors as a guarantees for the goods

    borrowed e.g. Millstones for grinding, were to be taken and returned in the evening because they were used daily.

  • Robbery and Violence

    • Poor were being oppressed and violated.

  • Self – Indulgence and false sense of security

    • Leaders thought God could not punish them because they were a chosen race.

    • But Amos told them they would be attacked.

    Q3. Give reasons why Prophet Amos condemned idol worship in Israel

  • It broke the covenant way of life.

  • It was against the 10 commandments, which directed the Israelites to worship one God.

  • It was a sign of disobedience to God.

  • It promoted immorality e.g. temple prostitution.

  • The worship of God belittled and degraded God.

  • It promoted falsehood in the society.

  • Religion became commercialized.

  • Led to false prophecy.

  • People got concerned with external behavior and not internal.

    Q4. List evils in society today that Amos would condemn

  • Tribalism

  • Bribery and corruption

  • Robbery with violence

  • Dishonesty in business

  • Grabbing of public land and property

  • Stealing

  • Oppression of the poor e.g. underpayment

  • Immorality e.g. prostitution

    Prophet Jeremiah

    Q1. List evils that Jeremiah condemned

    • Human sacrifice

    • Hypocrisy in worship

    • Dishonesty in business

    • Defilement of the temple – temple prostitution

    • Social injustice

    • Idolatry

    • False prophecy

    • Necromancy

    • Exploitation of the poor

    Q2. What are some of the evils that the church leaders condemn today?

    • Hypocrisy/pretence in worship

    • Murder/suicide/abortion/genocide

    • Exploitation of the poor/robbery

    • Dishonesty

    • False prophets

    • Human sacrifices among devil worshippers

    • Sexual immorality e.g. adultery

    Q3. Explain the symbolisms used during the call of Prophet Jeremiah

  • God touched Jeremiah’s mouth. This was to symbolize that God was the source of the message. Jeremiah was to deliver.

  • A branch of an almond tree that was base – God was watching to see the fulfillment of the message he gave to Jeremiah.

  • A pot of boiling facing away from the North and about to tilt toward Judah. God would use a nation from the North to bring judgement on the people of Judah because of their wickedness.

  • A fortified city. A bronze wall and an iron pillar. God was going to protect him even though he was going to meet opposition.

  • To uproot and pull down, to destroy and overthrow. God would pass judgement on the nation of Judah and other nations.
  • To build and to plant. There was still hope of the restoration of people of Judah after exile.

    Q4. What did Jeremiah teach about t the New Covenant?

  • The new covenant was to be written in people’s hearts.

  • The covenant was to be made between God and the remnant community after exile.

  • The people were to have a personal knowledge of God in the new covenant.

  • God was to forgive their sin and remember them no more.

  • Each individual was responsible for his won sins.

  • The new covenant was to be initiated by God.

  • The new covenant was to last forever.

  • It was as a result in the emergence of a new people of God or new Israel.

    Q5. Why did Prophet Jeremiah condemn the way the Israelites worshipped?

  • They broke God’s commands e.g. the 1st and do not worship other gods – they worshipped idols.

  • They practiced hypocrisy i.e. they were concerned with external religious observance while their hearts were far from God.

  • They forgot the saving history of God and worshipped other gods e.g. Asherah.

  • They practiced syncretism i.e. they worshipped both Yahweh and foreign Gods.

  • They listened to false prophets and rejected God’s prophets e.g. Jeremiah. They even killed some.

  • They dishonored the sanctity of human life by offering human sacrifice.

  • They neglected the disadvantaged (widows & orphans).

  • They were dishonest in business and deceitful to one another.

  • They narrowed themselves in necromancy, divination and magic.

  • They rebelled against God by breaking the covenant relationship.

    Q6. Explain Jeremiah’s temple sermon as recorded in Jeremiah 7:1-15

  • God commanded prophet Jeremiah to speak in the temple.

  • It was a response to the people of Israel to stop understanding religion through the practice of syncretism and immorality.

  • At the gate to the temple, Jeremiah proclaimed that the people of Judah had to change their way of life and stick to the covenant they made with God.

  • They had to stop defiling the temple of placing idols in it.

  • They had to stop committing social injustices and as murderer/exploitation of the weak, orphans widows and foreigners.

  • The practice of human sacrifice was murder and displeasing to God.

  • Hypocrisy was bad.

  • The Israelites believed that the temple was secure from destruction because of its holiness was not true.

  • God would destroy Israelites/Jerusalem through invasion of a foreign nation.

  • If the people stopped their evil ways, God would not bring judgement upon them.

  • God would destroy the temple of Jerusalem and send the people to exile.

    Q7. What forms of punishment did Jeremiah prophesy that God would use on Judah?

  • The punishment would be in form of a foreign body that God use to conquer Judah.

  • They would be attacked and their city destroyed.

  • People would suffer and die due to their sins.

  • The punishment would in form of drought. This would affect people and animals.

  • God’s punishment would come through death, diseases and sword.

  • Their punishment would be a defeat inflicted to them by Babylonian.

  • The punishment would be the loss of their land to a foreign nation and their enslavement.

  • God would allow the enemy to destroy Jerusalem and take survivors to captivity.

    Q8. Outline the content of Jeremiah’s letter to exiles in Babylon (Jer. 29)

  • He encouraged the Israelites in Babylon to build houses and live in them.

  • Plant gardens and eat their produce.

  • Marry and increase.

  • Pray for their rulers.

  • Not to worship false gods.

  • Not to be cheated by false prophets.

  • To obey their masters.

  • Worship one God.

    Q9. Explain four symbolic acts related to judgement and punishment as demonstrated by Prophet Jeremiah

  • Linen waist cloth – the rotten/useless linen cloth that had been hidden in the caves and lift to rot stood for Israel’s state of being useless before the eyes of God. A sign that they had soiled their priesthood.

  • Jeremiah was asked not to marry the solitary life symbolized solitude in exile.

  • Two baskets of fig fruits – the bad fruits signified that the bad people would be punished.

  • Wooden yoke – he was asked to carry a wooden yoke and work around with it signifying suffering in Babylon – exile.

  • Breaking an earthly flask – destruction of the temple.

  • Visit to a potter – whereby the potter destroyed a pot due to poor shape and remolded it. God would remold Israel to a shape befitting them.

  • Not to comfort anybody – these would be sorrow and suffering, no help while in exile.

    Q10. Identify the relevance of Jeremiah’s teaching to Christians life today

  • Christians are called to preach God’s gospel as Jeremiah did.

  • Christians should accept suffering like Jeremiah did.

  • They should learn to distinguish between false and true prophets.

  • Like Jeremiah, they should condemn evil in society.

  • They have a duty to call people to repentance as Jeremiah did.

  • Christians should be good examples to the people by living, holy and upright lives as Jeremiah did.

  • People should be able to know the nature of God through the lives of Christians.

  • They should believe they are the new community as prophesied by Jeremiah in the new covenant.

    Q11. In what ways is the prophetic mission of Jeremiah similar to that of Jesus?

  • Both were rejected by their own relatives and communities.

  • Both experienced opposition from political and religious authorities.

  • Both prophesied the destruction of the temple.

  • Both lamented over the stubbornness of the people of Jerusalem.

  • Both predicted divine judgement and punishment in Israel.

    Jeremiah predicted the new covenant that is fulfilled by Jesus.

    Prophet Nehemiah

    Qn 1. Describe the political background of Nehemiah

  • He worked during the Babylonian exile which lasted between 589- 538 BC

  • During his vacation, Israelites were oppressed politically

  • The Israelites hoped that God would soon liberate them fro this bondage

  • In 538 BC the Babylonians were conquered by Cyrus the great king of Persia

  • In 538 BC king Cyrus allowed Israelites to return to Judah

  • King Cyrus gave the Israelites a decree to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem

  • In 538BC the first exile under Zebu Babel

  • Joshua the priest departed from Babylon and started to rebuild alters of God

  • Under the guidance of prophets Haggai and Zachariah the temple was rebuilt and dedicated

  • The second exile arrived under prophet Ezra; after king Artaxerxes authorized Ezra to re establish

    Israelites religious and moral expectations of the Mosaic Law.

  • Nehemiah was a servant the king Artaxerxes palace.

    The king authorized him to go and rebuild the walls of Jerusalem.

  • Amidst all opposition from Samaritan, Nehemiah accomplished the reconstruction of the walls of Jerusalem in 52 days. He then dedicated the walls to God.

  • This restored the sense of political pride in Israel.

    However the Israelites remained subjected to the Persians and continued to pay tribute.

    The Persians were later overthrown by Romans who ruled the entire region until the time of the birth of Jesus.

    Qn 2. Describe the social background to the vacation of Nehemiah

  • Israelites men married foreign women

  • Children spoke different languages from their mothers

  • Hebrew language almost became extinct

  • Nehemiah condemned mixed marriages and even banned them

  • Exiles who returned home were humiliated by foreigners who partially occupied their land

  • The Samaritans threatened Nehemiah’s life as the rebuilt walls of Jerusalem

  • Rich Jews oppressed the poor e.g. they would confiscate their property for failure to repay debts

    Qn 3. Describe the religious background to the vocation of Nehemiah

  • While in exile the Babylonians allowed the Jews to continue with their religious lives.

  • The exiles became the period of purification

  • They returned with a new zeal to worship God; they rebuilt the altar under Zerubbabel for offering burnt offerings to God

  • The returnees built the temple of Jerusalem under Haggai and Zachariah and dedicated to god by Ezra

  • Nehemiah embarked on rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem amidst opposition in 52 days the wall was complete.

    Consequently, Jerusalem once more became the centre of worship for Israel. Idolatry was not allowed again in Israel after the exile.

  • The temple of Jerusalem was dedicated to Yahweh. The Israelites renewed their covenant with God under prophet and priest Ezra.

    Nehemiah carried out various religious reforms.

    Qn 4. Describe occasions when Nehemiah prayed

  • When he heard about the suffering of his fellow Jews back in Judah

  • When he learned about the state of ruin of Jerusalem and king Atarterxes to request him to allow him go back to Judah.

  • When his enemies e.g. Tobiah and Samballat ridiculed him as he reconstructed the walls of Jerusalem.

  • When he learned of his enemies conspiracy to attack Jerusalem.

  • When his enemies conspired to destroy his life/ kill him

  • When Shemiah attempted to frighten him to hide in the temple as hi life was in danger.

  • When he cleansed and arranged the temple as a house of God.

  • When he warned the people of Judah against violating the Sabbath law

  • After chasing away the son in law of Samballat from the temple

  • After cleansing the Israelites of foreign influence

    Qn 5. State occasions when Christians pray

  • When they are faced with diverse persecutions.

    They ask God to protect them

  • When they don’t understand certain scriptures.

    They ask God to give them revelation

  • When they are faced with certain difficulties of life.

    They ask God to help them

  • When the nation is facing political crisis. They pray for peace

  • When they feel inadequate and sinful. They ask God to perform certain miracles for them e.g. healing.

    Qn 6. What is the importance of prayer in Christian life?

  • Prayer helps Christians to praise God, give thanks to him and to repent

  • It helps Christians to pour out their hearts to God

  • It helps Christians to rely to God for emotional and mental stability.

    It helps put our problems to God

  • It strengthens Christians. It gives them determination and character to remain steadfast in their responsibilities despite the challenges

  • Through prayer a Christian can request to stand against personal attacks and temptations

  • Prayer is the source of courage and strength in times of tribulations

  • It brings one closer to God, we use it to praise God, use it to ask for God’s supply of their needs, used to ask for forgiveness and promotes important virtues e.g. persistence and patience and promotes unity among different communities

    Qn 6. Identify the leadership of Nehemiah’s patriotism

  • He was a tune patriot i.e. after talking to the Jews and getting the news of distribution of Jerusalem, he was forced to go back home.

  • Reliance to God. He totally relied on God and to his call i.e. in most cases he prayed before carrying out an activity

  • Devoted/ talented. As a cupbearer to the emperor he was an educated, talented and trustworthy young man

  • Visionary. He had a vision and he shared it with enthusiasm to inspire Jerusalem leaders to rebuild the wall.

  • Initiative.

  • He took the initiative to persuade the emperor to put things right.

  • Exceller organizer. He carefully organized the rebuilding process.

    He organized how the wall of Jerusalem was to be built in steps.

  • Careful planner. He carefully examined and inspected the wall before starting the work.

  • People’s representative. He was a proper representative of his people in Israel.

    he had a sense of responsibility to his community.

  • Shrewd. He avoided the meetings organized by his opposer and overlooked the abuses placed on him.

  • Impartial. He appointed men of integrity and God fearing to keep guard over Jerusalem.

  • Selfless and kind. He had the skill of solving problems. He hence cancelled all debts that people had.

  • Homogenous. He employed different strategies to counteract his opposer.

    Qn7. explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s leadership to a Christian today

  • A Christian should use his/her present position to serve God

  • Christians should acknowledge God as their source of power and giver of gifts

  • A leader should appoint people who are trustworthy and honest to help him/ her in ruling the country

  • God answers our prayers as a result of asking others for help

  • A Christian leader should keep his /her plans a secret until it matures to make an announcement.

  • Christians should share their visions with others the way Nehemiah did.

  • Leaders should take care of the needy in the society.

  • As a Christian one could be lured to temptations; the way Nehemiah was opposed we should be ready to resist temptations.

  • Christians should be ready to help in solving problems in the society Christians should act as role.

    models by carrying out spiritual activities with the truth and helping in work after starting projects.

    Qn 8. Explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s experience to Christians

  • They should not exploit the needy and disadvantaged

  • They should defend the rights of the weak and use their work place, family and friends

  • They should ask God to protect them from the mischief of their enemies

  • That they should pray to God to give them guidance in their endeavors

  • That they should persevere in all difficulties as Nehemiah did

  • The should condemn the injustices in the society

  • They should know that leadership involves challenges and difficulties

  • They should be practically involved in problem solving e.g. HIV/AIDs scourge

    Qn 9. Explain the problems that Nehemiah encountered in his vocation

  • Oppression of the poor Jews by the rich Jews e.g. demanded high interests on borrowed money

  • Great opposition from the enemies they tried to frustrate his/her efforts to build the walls of Jerusalem

  • Threat to his own life. His adversaries wanted to kill him

  • Lack of co-operation and support from the Jews. They refused to work with him on the wall project

  • Excessive foreign influence in Israel. Intermarriage brought about foreign influence which threatened to extinct the Jew culture and language

  • Violation of the Sabbath laws. Israelites went on to do their daily chores on the Sabbath day

  • Abuse of the temple. Eliaship housed Tobias the heathen and God’s enemies

  • Misuse of offerings. The levies were denied their share of sacrificial offerings as required by the law

    Qn 10. Describe the steps taken by Nehemiah to renew the covenant

  • Ezra the priest read the book of the covenant and explained the meaning of the Law of Moses.

    The Israelites listened carefully and their lives changed.

    They responded Amen, amen

  • Celebration of the feast of shelters.

    After reading the scriptures, they realized that they had not been celebrating the feast of shelters.

    This was to remember their deliverance from Egypt.

    They were also to think about God’s protection and guidance.

  • The Israelites confessed of their sins as they learnt that they had not been following God’s commandments.

    Nehemiah was devoted to confession of national sin and prayers to God’s grace.

  • Recital of God’s dealings with Israel.

    They recital of God’s mighty acts is done in this.

    They remembered their history and this renewed God’s grace and power in them.

  • A renewed covenant sealed. The covenant was renewed in writing and the leaders put seals.

  • The binding agreement that people and God was done by the Israelites joining hands.

    Qn 11. State the promises that Israelites made during the renewal of the covenant

  • That every seventh year, they would cancel debts according to the Mosaic Laws.

  • That they should observe God’s commandments and live according to his laws.

  • That they would offer the first of their harvests as required by Torah.

  • That they would dedicate their first-born sons to God.

  • That they will not intermarry with foreigners at all.

  • That they will not buy corn or anything else on the Sabbath day.

  • That they will remit their arrival temple expenses to ensure that God’s house was okay.

  • That they will provide sacrifices and offerings at the temple.

  • That they will pay their tithes according to the law.

    Group study activities

    1. Read and study the book of Luke by

    2. Dividing up the chapters in the book of Luke among the members of the class and let every group present a summary of the chapters allocated to them.

    3. Check out movies about the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ but note that your study according to the syllabus is based on St. Luke’s gospel.

    Form Four – Contemporary Christian Living

    Form four work deals with social issues in society. We shall compare the issues in the following communities – The Traditional African Society Christian community and the contemporary one.

    By the end of it the student should be able to understand the meaning of life and live to it’s fullest.

    Topic One. Introduction to Christian Ethics

    Instructions. Form four work covers contemporary issues in a Christians life.

    You are advised to read newspapers, listen to radio news, watch television news and current affairs and any other relevant news source. Work in twos.

    Give yourself topics to study and then give a presentation to your partner or colearner.

    Learning outcomes. After reading and discussing Christian ethics, you should be able to:

    a. Explain the meaning of Christians ethics

    b. Explore the basics of Christian’s ethics

    a. Christian ethics.

    The word ethics comes from a Greek term ‘Ethikos’ which means custom, or conduct.

    Ethics are moral principles, which influence a person’s behaviour. Ethics are defined as the systematic study of human actions and behaviour.

    We use ethics to judge, determine and assess the right and wrong of human behaviour.

    Morals refer to human character, which is the inclination to behave in oneway or another.

    Ethics is the study of morals and they determine and influence personal and societal behaviour.

    Christian ethics is the study of human conduct or behaviour from a Christian point of view.

    b. Basis of Christian ethics. Sources of Christian’s ethics: -

    1. The bible, teachings of Jesus Christ

    2. Human reason and experience

    3. Natural law

    4. The Christian community – the church

    5. Situation ethics

    6. Authoritative Christian literature – based on the bible

    7. Gods revelation – through prophets

    i. Human reason.

    These are internal thoughts that guide us when we are making decisions and taking actions.

    We use our minds and thoughts when confronted by situations. They also rely on internal thoughts in their life experiences.

    Internal guiding thoughts have many parts.

    One is our Conscience. This is our inner self that tells us and lets us know what is right and wrong.

    There are four types of consciences; doubtful conscience, sensitive conscience, certain conscience and perplexed conscience.

    For a Christian, rights and wrongs are in the Bible. God gave the Law of Moses to Israelites.

    Jesus came and explained the Old Testament and taught new scriptures in the New Testament.

    These teachings, which we have covered from Form one to three, explain very clearly what is right and wrong.

    When doubtful of the morality of an action, Christian consults the Bible to know if a decision is right or wrong.

    ii. Human Experiences:

    These are internal and external guides

  • When confronted by situations, Christians use their minds i.e. human reason and their life experiences in making decisions.

  • They rely on internal guides, (Human reason) and experience (external guides)

    Internal guides

    (i) Conscience:

    Mind, aspect of knowing right or wrong. When right, there’s’ approval when wrong it registers guilt.

    When doubtful of the morality of an action we should not do it If conscience is perplexed then make us decision.

    A decision should be based on a certain conscience.

    Types of conscience

    - Doubtful conscience

    - Sensitive conscience

    - Certain conscience

    - Perplexed conscience

    2. One can also make decisions based on knowledge and free will To make a decision one should have

    - Facts about the act, its aims, circumstances.

    - One should be free to perform

    A decision ought to be thoughtful

    3. Intuition:

    Inner feeling, insight It’s an internal moral sense to do good or avoid evil.

    Intuition is important in situations that require quick and immediate that requires quick and immediate action.

    4. Feelings

    Feelings are subjective e.g. it feels good to do so this, hence will do…” it can be dangerous to make decisions purely based on feelings especially in marriage friendship etc.

    Eternal guides Experience

    Guides here include authoritative persons such as parents, teachers, police, civil leaders philosophers, and religious leaders.

    Rules from secular, religions, and African traditional culture are part of external guides.

    The bible

    The bible, quoted in the text but now out of text guides Christian behaviour.

    God communicates to his people through the Bible.

    The Bible offers answers to questions in relation to the life of a Christian.

    Today, there are ethical issues not found in the bible e.g. HIV / AIDS, sexual and reproductive health rights, contraceptives, abortion, globalization, cloning, environmental degradation, genetically modified foods, terrorism, international trade etc. this gives reason and other sources / factors are basis of Christian ethics in addition to the bible.

    Moral principles in the bible

    - They are mostly found in the teachings of Jesus and the ten commandments, sermon on the mountain

    - Christians are also encouraged to have Faith

    - The virtues encouraged include generosity, love, kindness, faithfulness, patience, humility, peace, mercy, loyalty etc.

    Christian community – church

    Church leadership can make decisions, which touch on their followers.

    They guide people on ethical issues e.g. politics, land, justice, abortion, contraception etc.

    Church organizations give rules on those conduct of their members.

    Natural law

    - The awareness that one has to choose good and avoid evil

    - If one studies human nature and reflects upon it he/she will discover natural laws of human behaviour

    - Natural law, natural rights such as right to education, life own property many etc. are incorporated into the constitution of any nation.

    - The constitution then guides the behaviour of list citizens; Christians being citizens of a country are guided in their behaviour by the constitution.

    Situation ethics

    One should reason out the rightness or wrongness of an act. The rightness or wrongness of an act depends on its uniqueness, the circumstances.

    - Christians are warned against making decisions based on circumstances or the situation e.g. a pregnant student seeking abortion as the option so as to continue with education.

    Gods revelation

    God reveals himself to people through prophets, natural events, the law, dreams and visions.

    Through such ways God guides Christian on how they should approach certain issues.

    God’s revelation does not contradict with the bible.

    Revision questions

    1. What is the meaning of Christian ethics?

    2. What is the basis or source or foundation of Christian ethics?

    3. List the basic life skills that one needs to be able to lead a better life

    Topic Two: Christian Approaches to Human Sexuality, Marriage and Family Introduction

    Christian approaches refer to how Christians view and handle issues of human sexuality, marriage and the family in accordance with Christians ethics. Through marriage, the family is formed.

    Lesson One: Human Sexuality

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

    a Define human sexuality, marriage, and family

    b Explain the Christian teaching of human sexuality

    c Assess the traditional African understanding of human sexuality

    d Determine gender roles in traditional African home

    e Explain Christians teachings about male and female relationships

    f Explain and appreciate Christian teaching on responsible sexual behaviour

    g Explain Christian teaching on irresponsible sexual behaviour and their consequences

    a. Human sexuality.

    This is a sacred gift from God. It was given to Adam and Eve. Human sexuality is that which makes us male or female.

    It is our biological or physiological differences associated with the state of being male or female.

    It is part of our biological make up. Males and female have different body structures, features, appearances and biological characteristics.

    In terms of physical strength more men are stronger than females.

    Besides the biological make up, we have an emotional side, which includes our attitudes, and feelings.

    Females are said to be more emotional, and talkative than males.

    Human sexuality is also in our brain and mind and it is what makes us human beings.

    If you look at animals they also have different physiological features based on sexual differences.

    b. Christian teaching on human sexuality.

    Males and females are God’s creation. Men and women were created for many reasons.

    These are

    (1) to be fruitful and to multiply; and

    (2) for companionship.

    In Genesis we learn that men and women share the image of God because God intended man and woman to play complementary roles and both are equal before God.

    Sex in marriage is a sign of love and it is sacred.

    In marriage man / and woman become one flesh.

    Both of them have the ability to control their sexual desires.

    Christian teaching forbids:

    sex before marriage, adultery or unfaithfulness, and other unnatural sexual behaviours like lesbianism, homosexuality or being gay, and incest. God created human body and it is to be kept holy.

    Chastity is encouraged while unfaithfulness in marriage is discouraged. Husbands / wives are to respect one another and give to each other in mutual love.

    c. Traditional African understanding of human sexuality.

    Human sexuality is highly valued in traditional African communities.

    It is understood in terms of marriage and parenthood.

    Procreation was the sole purpose of sex.

    Sex was to be practiced in marriage and it was regarded as another sacred duty.

    Adultery was discouraged and offenders punished.

    Irresponsible sexual relationships were forbidden.

    Virginity before marriage was highly valued.

    If a girl lost her virginity before marriage, she was treated with scorn and punishment.

    If a boy impregnating a girl, he was fined.

    In traditional African society it was a taboo to discuss openly sex matters.

    Grandparents taught sex education to their grandchildren.

    Sex education was taught during initiation stages.

    Free mixing of girls and boys was not allowed except under supervision.

    Girls were married off immediately after initiation to avoid temptation of engaging in pre-marital sex.

    To reinforce self – discipline in relationships between the opposite sexes the African traditional society instilled the fear of supernatural curses through myths, taboos and rules.

    Marital status. Husbands and wives were expected to relate to each other, their parents, and in laws according to the community customs.

    Conflicts between a husband and a wife were resolved through intervention of relatives.

    d. Gender roles.

    There are specific chores and duties for either male or female in African traditional societies.

    Roles were therefore according to gender. Boys went hunting, herding, while girls fetched firewood, and helped in cooking.

    At an early age, girls and boys would mix freely as they played together.

    Mature boys and girls however, were restricted from mixing freely without supervision by elders.

    But there was gender identification. The boys identified with their fathers and other male adults, while girls identified themselves with their mother and other female adults.

    Education. Children belonged to the community and not just to their biological parents.

    At the adolescent stage; 13 – 18 years education was given to the adolescents and intensified at initiation stage.

    Boys and girls were taught traditional rules, and secrets of the society during initiation.

    Learning was informal. Knowledge was communicated through songs, stories and riddles among other forms of presentations.

    All adults acted as parents to the young ones.

    Socialisation. Men were socialized to be superior, while women were socialized to accept their subordinate position and role.

    Everyone knew and accepted what he/she was culturally supposed to do.

    Division of labour was based on sex.

    In the African communities, despite their differences, there were many common customary roles, rules, regulations, taboos and beliefs that governed the practices related to male – female relationships from early childhood to old age.

    These traditional African practices relating to male – female relationships existed at various levels. In all of them, man held superior positions when compared to those of women.

    Age. Old women and men were accorded respect. They were consulted for advice and counsel.

    Kinship system was emphasized.

    e. Christian teaching on male- female relationships.

    We learn that the husband is the head of the house and should love his wife like Christ loved the church.

    Once a wife is loved, she should submit to her husband.

    We also learn that both male and female are equal and co – creators with God.

    Adam and Eve were created to complement each other.

    Likewise men and women should love each other.

    Jesus taught that each man should have one wife and vice versa. Once married, the husbands’ body belongs to the wife and hers belong to him.

    If that is the case, wife and husband should avoid immorality.

    Males and females are to relate freely.

    But the youth are to avoid the passions of youth.

    These are sexual sins. There are no specific chores or duties for either male or female. Relationship between sexes should be governed by love, chastity, respect, self-control, and selfdiscipline.

    Parents are to love their children, while children are to obey and honor their parents.

    Parents are asked to bring up their children in a Godly way.

    Lesson Two. Christian Teaching About Human Sexuality

    Lesson Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should

    a. Outline Christian teaching on responsible sexual behaviour

    b. Analyse Christian teaching on irresponsible sexual behaviour

    c. Discuss effects and consequences of irresponsible sexual behaviour

    d. Give examples of the effects of irresponsible sexual behaviour Sexual behaviour is part of human behaviour.

    The Bible gives principles of sexual behaviour in the Ten Commandments.

    a. Christian teaching on responsible human sexuality.

    Christianity teaches us about responsible sexual behaviour.

    Being responsible means that one is exercising self – control or self-discipline in matters of sexual behaviour.

    Self-discipline is necessary when we have a relationship with the opposite sex (Read, 1 Cor.7: 9 1 Peter 5:8).

    It is called responsible sexual behaviour, which is obedience to God’s commands.

    Christians promote healthy social relationship between boys and girls, men and women, and husbands and wives.

    Responsible sex is between male and female. Sexual intercourse is allowed only between married couples (1 Cor.7: 3 – 5).

    Married couples are obliged to be sexually faithful to one another (Heb.13: 4) adultery is condemned (exodus 25:14). Relationship between a husband / wife should be one of respect faithfulness, love, care, mercy, submission, tolerance, and forgiveness.

    b. Christian teaching on irresponsible sexual behaviour.

    There are many irresponsible sexual behaviours.

    They include among others all acts and forms of: perversion, misuse, and abuse of sex, incest, rape, fornication, adultery, homosexuality, lesbianism or gay, prostitution, concubine, masturbation, bestiality and child marriages among others.

    These irresponsible sexual behaviours are against God’s will for humanity.

    Christians are to shun irresponsible sexual behaviour. This is because their bodies are the temples of the Holy Spirit.

    Thus whatever Christians do with their bodies, it should be for the glory of God.

    Let us now discuss in brief some of the irresponsible sexual behaviour; beginning with

    (i) Incest.

    which is a sexual relationship between people who are closely related by blood. For example, sex between a brother/sister, father / daughter. Incest is condemned in the Bible.

    It was punishable by death in the Old Testament. Read Leviticus 18:6 – 8.

    ii) Rape.

    Rape cannot be justified and it is condemned in The Bible.

    Rape is an act of forcing another person to have sexual intercourse without his or her consent.

    It is sexual violence and a crime against humanity.

    It is also a denial, and a violation of human rights of the victims who are sexually assaulted.

    Victims of rape include boys, men, girls, women, and babies especially girls.

    Rape is an expression of hatred toward the opposite sex.

    In traditional African society rape was abhorred and culprits were punished by death.

    In Kenya rape is punishable by 20 years imprisonment.

    Indecent assaults or sexual abuses such as touching a person of the opposite sex without their permission or use of vulgar language are both punishable by up to 5 years imprisonment.

    iii. Fornication.

    This is consensual sexual intercourse between unmarried people. It is condemned by both African and Christian teachings and punishment in African traditional society was by either payment of fines, stoning, and ritual cleansing.

    In the Old Testament, men were forced to marry the girl.

    Jesus said that fornication was due to people’s evil thoughts.

    Abstinence for the youth is encouraged and preached.

    Why do the youth engage in pre – marital sex?

    There are several reasons.

    Some of them are:

    sexual curiosity, proving manhood, human weakness, lack of self control, testing fertility, fear of being jilted / rejected; commercial sex for money; copying acts in the print and electronic media.

    Others reasons are

    frustrations, drug abuse, bribe to get a job, and permissiveness in the society.

    iv. Adultery

    Is committed by adults who have extra marital affairs; between “married partner and another party”.

    Adultery is having sex outside marriage with a person with whom one is not married to.

    Adultery is caused by lack of self – control, sexual dissatisfaction, long periods of wife and husband separation, sexual dysfunction and vengeance by an initially faithful spouse who wants to be even with the unfaithful spouse.

    v. Prostitution.

    This is the practice of giving sexual pleasure for money or other material benefits.

    A prostitute can either be male or female.

    Prostitutes are referred to as commercial – sex workers.

    Why is there prostitution?

    There are factors leading to prostitution.

    These are economic reasons such as unemployment, poverty, rejection of a girl at home, drug abuse, stress, anger, anxiety, frustrations in the family and pornography.

    The church condemns prostitution because it defiles the body, which is a temple of the Holy Spirit. It’s sexual immorality. Read Gal 5: 19 – 21.

    vi. Homosexuality/ Gay/ Lesbianism.

    This is sex between people of the same sex for example; man and man (homosexuality), woman and woman (lesbianism).

    Homosexuality is a common practice in modern world.

    It is also a church problem.

    The Anglican Church in USA, and Canada have accepted homosexuality.

    The Anglican Church has gay bishops.

    African Anglican churches are opposing this practice.

    What makes people prefer sex with the same sex?

    The Christian view is that homosexuality is a sign of a lack of Christian moral values.

    It may also be due to confinement in a prison and permissiveness in society.

    If it is allowed to continue, it shall disintegrate traditional African values. Because of its threat to God’s people, the Church condemns homosexuality.

    Other reasons for condemning it is because

    (1) God created a male and a female. Read, Genesis 1:28.

    Two, sex is sacred. Homosexuality is an unnatural relationship, which lowers human dignity.

    It does not provide sexual fulfillment (as traditionally).

    Homosexuality is illegal in Kenya.

    vii. Sexually transmitted Diseases (STDs).

    There are many diseases passed from one person to the other through sex. These are gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes genitalis is, hepatitis B, clamydia, trichonomiasis, HIV/AIDS. Lets discuss them one by one.

    HIV / AIDS.

    This is human immune deficiency virus (HIV) that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) condition.

    Syndrome refers to many symptoms.

    HIV is transmitted largely through sex with an infected partner; through blood transfusion; sharing sharp objects with infected persons; and from an infected mother to the unborn child.

    The HIV virus destroys the white blood cells, and weakens the body ‘s immune system.

    When the body is weak, it is not able to fight, and defend itself against infections.

    Persons with the virus are vulnerable and susceptible to opportunistic infections.

    The signs / symptoms of AIDS are manifestations of symptoms of the opportunistic infections.

    Some symptoms include persistent coughs, loss of weight, oral thrush, loss of appetite, and diarrhoea.

    Churches encourage Christians to be compassionate to HIV/AIDS affected people, and to support the infected and the affected individuals like the orphans, widows, and widowers.

    It also teaches against sexual immorality and against all forms of discrimination.

    Gonorrhea

    Is caused by a bacterium called “Neisseria gonorrhea”.

    Its symptoms appear a4 days after infection.

    Its symptoms are burning sensation when passing urine; pain or discomfort in the genitals;

    sticky discharge or pus in the vagina or through the urethra.

    The good news is that Gonorrhea is curable if treated early.

    Syphilis.

    Primary syphilis may show up in the form of a sore or a wound in the genitals a few days after infection.

    The wound heals by itself without treatment after some time. Syphilis infection may take several years about 7 years before its symptoms re appear.

    The symptoms of syphilis are a painless sore or pimple on the man’s penis or woman’s vulva; and swelling of the glands in the groin.

    Other symptoms, which may appear later, are skin rashes, and sores either in the face armpits, under breasts, mouth or throat.

    Herpes genital

    Is a sexual disease caused by a virus. It creates wounds in the genitals.

    A pregnant woman can transmit the infection to her newborn baby during delivery.

    This disease can be controlled although there is not an effective treatment.

    Hepatitis B virus

    causes Hepatitis B. It is transmitted through sex, injections by unsterilized needles and contact with contaminated blood.

    The infection does not show on the genitals.

    The signs and symptoms of Hepatitis B include yellowness of the eyes (jaundice) due to liver damage and pain around the upper abdomen.

    c. The effects of irresponsible sexual behaviour.

    There are many effects of irresponsible sexual behaviour.

    They include among others HIV / AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STI), abortion; family separations and divorces, deaths, unplanned pregnancies; children living in the streets; school drop outs and psychological problems.

    i. Effects of incest.

    These are many. One, incest undermines the healthy relationships between members of a family as it brings shame and guilt among the parties involved.

    Two, incest destroys relationships within the family and can lead to breaking up of a marriage. Three, incest destroys self-esteem, self – respect, and dignity of the victim.

    We find that abused boys and girls end up having problems when trying to establish healthy relationship with members of the opposite sex.

    Four, incest can lead to pregnancy, and abortion.

    And as you have read in the newspapers, it can lead to infections with sexually transmitted diseases (S.T.I.’s) and HIV / AIDS.

    As I write, a father was jailed for life for raping his daughter and infecting her with HIV/AIDS virus.

    ii. Effects of Rape.

    This crime has very serious consequences and harmful effects on the victim.

    Rape may result in pregnancy and can led to physical, psychological, social, and spiritual side effects.

    The victim may suffer

    (1) serious physical injuries and

    (2) may contract both the STI’s, and HIV / AIDs.

    The victim is traumatized, and ashamed of self.

    The victim suffers from guilt, loneliness, humiliation, posttraumatic stress disorders, and depression among others psychological manifestations.

    Young rape victims in particular may loose trust in the opposite sex.

    All these sufferings can lead to suicide and death.

    iii. Effects of Fornication.

    Some of these are having children out of wedlock; feelings of distrust, guilt, and hurt; contracting STI’s and HIV/AIDS; loss of self-respect; early and forced marriage and abortion.

    iv. Effects of Adultery.

    Christians teach against adultery because it is against God’s commandments and can lead to divorce, abortion, STI, HIV/AIDS, domestic violence, murder (death) and psychological problems.

    v. Effects of Prostitution are many.

    It can lead to break up of marriage, and family.

    It lowers a person’s dignity and can lead to unplanned pregnancies, school dropouts; infections such as STI’s and HIV /AIDS and improper use of family resources.

    vi. Effects of homosexuality.

    It is a threat to procreation. It promotes loose short-term informal relationships and therefore promotes HIV / AIDS.

    Homosexual couples are prone to HIV/AIDS infections because of having many partners; although this is changing in USA where homosexual couples are being married in churches.

    vii. Effects of Sexually transmitted diseases

    HIV / AIDS effects are numerous.

    They include recurrent illness due to opportunistic infections. There is also stigmatization.

    Some individuals have feelings of guilt, anger, denial and depression.

    The sick persons have to look for extra finances to care for their health.

    They have the burden for medications, and special diet. HIV/AIDs has no cure and leads to death like many other diseases.

    Parents die and leave their children as orphans.

    Gonorrhea effects are many.

    The disease damages a woman’s fallopian tubes leading to infertility; and a man’s epidydymis leading to sterility.

    An infected expectant mother can infect her newborn baby with gonorrhea.

    The disease may affect the eyes of the unborn child causing blindness.

    Gonorrhea can also cause inflammation of joints, the heart and liver.

    Effects of Syphilis

    They are damage to the heart, brain and the nervous system. This disease can lead to madness and death of the victim.

    If a child is infected while in the womb, or during birth, the brain maybe damaged.

    The child may have either physical deformities or the infected mother may give stillbirths.

    Effects Herpes genitals.

    Infection can cause severe brain damage; cancer of the neck of the womb.

    If a woman is pregnant, the disease can cause death of the baby.

    The wounds and sores exposes the sick person to HIV /AIDS infections.

    Effects of Hepatitis B.

    This disease damages the liver and may lead to death of the infected person.

    It has a vaccine, but not treatment.

    viii. Other consequences of irresponsible sexual behaviours

    These are death, unplanned pregnancies, children living in the streets, school dropouts and psychological problems related to irresponsible sexual behaviour.

    These include among others: stress, depression, self – pity, withdrawal, aggressiveness, and violence.

    Stress is the response of the body and mind to any situation that exerts pressure or makes demands on a person.

    The intensity or pressure experienced determines the level of stress.

    Some of the signs of stress are: anxiety, worry, drop in performance, chest pains, mood swings, rebellion, ulcers, heart palpitations, fatigue and guilt feelings.

    Solutions.

    To avoid stress, it is suggested that individuals should accept that one is stressed; identify sources of stress, rest, exercise, listening to therapeutic music and talk to a counselor.

    Depression.

    This is an acute mental disorder. It is also a state of hopelessness and low spirits.

    Depression can be mild or severe.

    It has physical, emotional and behavioural signs and symptoms.

    Let me caution you that it is only a medical doctor who can know if one has a depression or not.

    We are told by doctors that signs of a depression are: persistent headaches and chest pains; loss of appetite; too much appetite; loss of memory; insomnia i.e. lack of sleep; weight loss or gain; nervousness and mood swings; low self-confidence; suicidal tendencies and self-pity.

    Other signs and symptoms are loss of libido (sexual desire); poor performance in school and in work places; hopelessness; loss of interest in ones activities; hypertension and high blood pressure.

    d. Irresponsible social and human behaviour.

    There are social and human behaviours that are contrary to Christian life.

    These unacceptable behaviours are abortion, and divorce. Abortion is termination of pregnancy before the foetus is capable of independent life.

    There are two types of abortions.

    One is spontaneous abortion or miscarriage. The other is induced abortion, which is deliberate and illegal in Kenya.

    Induced abortion has been debated in Kenya.

    The main question is should abortion be legalized or not.

    This is because abortion is legal in some European countries.

    Why do mothers seeking abortion?

    There are many reasons, which are known only to mothers.

    These are one, pregnancy due to rape and incest.

    Two, if the mother believes that the unborn child will be a burden.

    This may be because the baby is conceived outside wedlock and the mother lacks economic resources to take care of the baby.

    Another reason maybe that the mother is in school, and she cannot look after the baby and continue with her education.

    Three, medical personnel may abort a deformed foetus or in order to save the life of the mother if it is in danger. Christian’s view of abortion as murder (Exodus20: 13).

    This is because abortion interferes with the mother’s body, and destroys the baby. Christian view is that the body is the temple of the Holy Spirit.

    God is the giver of life and He alone has the right to take it away.

    Abortion carries with it stigma and the effects mentioned above make Christians condemn abortion.

    e. Effects of irresponsible social and human behaviour.

    Effects of abortion are infertility, ectopic pregnancy, destruction of a woman’s body parts; fetal malformation; risk of the mother bleeding to death and destruction of uterus.

    Other effects are that the mother may experience in future still births, miscarriages, risk of barrenness; failed abortions leading to deformed babies and psychological problems that we have discussed.

    These are stress and depression.

    Revision questions.

    1. Explain the T.A. understanding of human sexuality

    2. Explain Christian attitudes towards human sexuality

    3. In what ways is sex abused in Kenya?

    4. Why do you think minors are defiled or sexually abused in Kenya?

    5. Explain the Christian teaching on male/female relationships

    6. What is the Christian teaching on responsible sexual behaviour?

    7. List the different types of irresponsible sexual behaviour

    8. Explain the Christian teaching on irresponsible sexual behaviour

    9. State the effects of irresponsible sexual behaviour

    Lesson Three: Marriage

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to;

    a. Explain in brief the meaning of marriage

    b. Explain Christian teachings about marriage

    c. Describe courtship in African Traditional society

    d. Discuss the traditional African and Christian approaches to marriage preparation

    e. Explain celibacy as an alternative to marriage

    a. Definition of marriage.

    Marriage is a binding legal union between a man and a woman who agree to have a lasting relationship as husband / wife.

    Marriage partners choose each other.

    In some cases, senior member of the family and church influence the choice of a marriage partner.

    When marrying partners agree to marry, they are joined in church and they become husband and wife.

    Marriage is thus a covenant in which the partners give themselves to one another.

    Marriage involves other members of the community hence it is a social and community affair.

    Marriage is a permanent union.

    Marriage is a community requirement in which everyone in the community participates.

    Each person is expected to undergo marriage because it is a rite of passage.

    Marriage gives a person, a high social status and prestige in the community.

    Marriage is also a covenant between a man and a woman that should not be broken.

    Two people are joined in marriage in order to procreate and perpetuate the community.

    Once married, a couple is allowed to have sexual relationship, and companionship.

    Marriage is an expression of and fulfillment of mutual love and comfort.

    It enhance unity; social prestige, and respect in society.

    Purpose of marriage is sexual fulfillment; cultural and social requirement; obligation to build a family; and procreation although children are a gift from God.

    Forms of marriages

    There are many forms of marriages.

    There is a marriage ceremony organised as a symbol or mark of the union between a man and a woman.

    These marriages ceremonies are either civil, or religious. The main religious ceremonies are Christian, Islamic, Hindu, and Sikh among others.

    We also have African customary ceremonies many of which are polygamous.

    Christianity does not allow polygamous marriage.

    Secular approaches to marriage.

    In the modern world, some people choose not to marry for personal reasons.

    Some people have children without getting married while others opt to have a marriage without children.

    Husband and wife are equal.

    Monogamy is practiced for economic reasons.

    In some families’ women are the heads of the family.

    Choosing a partner is an individual act and not communal.

    In marriage traditional qualities of a good wife such as industrious, honesty, and hospitality are not considered.

    The modern society values external beauty, financial status and social status.

    As a result, there is a high rate of marriage, separation, and divorce.

    At times young people fail to be married in church.

    There is no formalization of marriages.

    These marriages are called “Come-we-stay” arrangements. Gender issues in marriage. The wife is subordinate to the husband but had rights.

    Marriage did not end with death of the husband.

    The wife was inherited by one of her husband’s brother.

    This is widow inheritance / Levirate marriage.

    She could also refuse to be inherited but remained married to that man even in death.

    The wife could not marry outside the family because of dowry.

    There was dowry payment to parents.

    If a wife died, the man would marry the sister of his dead wife. This is surrogate marriage.

    Those who did not marry were considered “lesser humans”. Young people were prepared for marriage during initiation, which was witnessed in a public ceremony.

    During marriage, couple makes vows to each other.

    The ancestors are invoked to bless the marriage.

    Factors that lead to a stable, healthy and successful marriage People are different and they understand their roles differently.

    Here am giving you a few suggestions.

    Discuss with your study companions and come up with other suggestions.

    One important factor is mutual responsibility by the couple.

    This occurs if there is mutual consultation with each other in decision-making.

    Two is forgiveness of each other.

    Three is good treatment of each other especially with equal respect.

    Four is sharing scriptures together.

    Five is giving love and respecting each other.

    Six is having a faithful sexual relationship and lastly being open and honest.

    Seven is African traditional qualities of a good wife who is described as: hardworking, fertile, morally upright, generous, kind, obedient, humble, clean, beautiful, polite, warm hearted and hospitable.

    Eight are the qualities of a good husband, which are described as: being able to provide good leadership in the family.

    Other qualities are being aggressive, wise, brave, courageous, responsible and good property manager.

    b. Christian Teaching about Marriage.

    Christians teach that marriage is sacred and that it is a divine institution, which is ordained God.

    God started it when he created Adam and Eve.

    Marriage should therefore be monogamous and permanent as God protects marriages.

    The woman should submit to the husband who is told to love the wife as Christ loved the church.

    Church teaches respect of each other.

    Marriage is complete even without children as it is between a male and a female.

    Marriage is not obligatory and it ends when one partner dies.

    Christian’s preparation and approach to marriage

    Christians organise youth seminars, and rallies to teach the youth how to choose marriage partners and how to treat wife / husbands; care for the children; behave towards in laws; acquire wealth (men); and head a family.

    Youth are taught to avoid sexual intimacy before marriage. Those intending to marry are encouraged to go for pre marital counselling.

    During counselling, they are informed that love is the most important bond of unity in marriage.

    Church encourages partners to go for HIV /AIDs test before marriage.

    Marriage ceremony is conducted in church

    Choice of a marriage partner

    There are many ways of identifying a marriage partner.

    One is arrangement by parents.

    If not one can make an individual decision and choose a wife or husband.

    Two is through an intermediary or third party.

    In African traditional polygamous marriages, the first wife identified a wife for her husband.

    Girls would be given out to a chief as a gift

    c. Courtship in African Traditional society (A.T.S).

    Courtship varied from community to community.

    Courtship is the period between engagement and wedding ceremony.

    During courtship premarital sex is forbidden. Girls and boys dressed with bracelets and rings.

    Courtship was important in A.T.S.

    This was because

    The man and woman who were girls and boys got to know each other better before marriage.

    It was a period when girls/boys were instructed in family life education. It was also a period for linking the two marrying families.

    The couple had time to learn about one another’s character, and know their families.

    It is a symbol (sign) of the girl’s presence in her home (maternal home).

    She continues to live with her own people.

    The families and clan had an opportunity to check if the marrying couple was related and if their clans were acceptable to the parents.

    Courtship gives time to the two families to negotiate and pay the bride wealth or dowry.

    Bridal Wealth, dowry, bride price are all expressions of partnership.

    The family of the man pays dowry to the family of the woman.

    Some churches disregard bride wealth, while others encourage it.

    Dowry is paid in different forms.

    The girl’s family decides what it wants. Will it be livestock (poultry, pigs, camels, cows, goats, sheep), beer, grain, jewellery and clothes among others. Importance of dowry.

    It acts as a compensation for the girls labour and seals the marriage covenant.

    It is a public expression of appreciation for the coming of a new wife/mother into the man’s family.

    It promotes friendship and cements relationship between families.

    It shows commitment and seriousness of the future husband.

    After dowry payment, the woman belongs to her husband. A ceremony is carried out depending on the community.

    Bride price payment is accompanied by marriage ceremonies.

    Lastly dowry helps in maintaining peace

    Traditional African approaches to marriage preparation.

    Polygamy is one husband, married to many wives.

    Polygamy is allowed by the African traditional religion because it occurs if the first wife is barren;

    ensures that all women have husbands; prevents infertility; provides extra labour in farms.

    A polygamous man has a higher status because many wives symbolize wealth.

    Children are important in a marriage because

    They promote social status of their parents.

    They cement a bond of unity between husband / wife.

    They are a source of labour, and wealth.

    They are heirs to the family wealth They provide security to the family.

    Divorce is legal dissolution of marriage. Christians allow divorce because of specific grounds. Divorce was rare in African traditional societies.

    Divorce is granted under circumstances of: adultery, witchcraft, laziness, cruelty and disrespect of wife.

    In the contemporary society, divorce is sought after or allowed because of: unfaithfulness in marriage or adultery; domestic violence; misuse of family resources; childlessness; inlaw interference and alcohol abuse.

    Legal reasons for divorce

    According to the laws of Kenya, divorce is allowed under the following reasons;

    adultery; if a man deserts his wife for more than 3 years; if a partner becomes insane; and domestic violence for example, physical, and psychological torture.

    Christian teaching about divorce.

    Christians discourage divorce because marriage is a permanent status.

    There is no room for divorce.

    Church discourages divorce because of its adverse effects.

    Some denominations allow divorce if there is adultery.

    God hates divorce.

    Married couples should remain faithful to each other

    Effects of divorce

    They are strained relationships, children suffering psychologically, and experiences of rejection.

    A divorcee faces social stigma, rejection, and isolation.

    If parents separate, they create single parent families.

    These families suffer from economic hardships and feelings of failure and inadequacy.

    e. Celibacy as an alternative to marriage.

    Celibacy is a Latin word “Coelebes” meaning bachelor.

    Why do some people fail to marry?

    There are many reasons.

    Some of these are to pursue education leading to delayed marriage;

    and career demands (workaholic).

    Other people are discouraged by examples of failed marriages.

    Other reasons maybe economic independence, poor health, HIV /AIDS, mental illness;

    parental interference and disappointment from past failed relationships.

    This happens if parents do not approve a partner.

    Revision questions

    1. Explain the traditional African understanding of marriage

    2, what is the importance of children in traditional African society?

    3.what is the Christian teaching about marriage?

    4. What is the importance of courtship period in T.As

    5. Why are many people opting for celibacy?

    Lesson Four: the Family

    Introduction.

    As society grows and changes, the family grows and changes.

    As a result, there are several types and practices of the family.

    In this lesson, we shall discuss the traditional family as it is practiced in the Bible, the traditional African societies and some Christian families.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to

    a Explain types of families in society

    b Analyse traditional African family values and practices

    c Explain Christians family values and practices

    d Discuss problems related to family life today

    e Compare approaches to family by Christians and traditional African society

    f. Discuss responsible parenthood

    The family.

    What is a family? Family is the basic social unit of human society.

    This basic unit is extended to include relatives bound together by blood, marriage, friendship, and adoption.

    They are all members of the family.

    In Kenya, there are many types of families.

    a. Types of families

    i. Nuclear family is parents and their children. .It is father, mother, and children.

    There is an increase of monogamous families or nuclear because of urbanization as rural youth come to towns in search of white-collar jobs.

    Migration to cities by people of different tribes has led to pluralism.

    Education, high cost of living have led to the death of the African culture, which required men and women to marry many partners to produce many children to defend their tribe.

    Advantages of nuclear families are many.

    One, the man is able to give undivided attention to one wife and children.

    Two, there is sharing of mutual love, and peace in the home.

    Three it is economical to manage one family.

    Four there is little competition for attention, less strife, quarrels and stress.

    Five, it is easier to monitor the behaviour of a few children.

    ii. Polygamous family

    Father, mothers, children. These type of family have disadvantages in modern Kenya.

    Modern society is a cash economy.

    Thus if a man has many wives and children, they may lack basic necessities like food, shelter, education and clothes.

    iii. Single parent family

    one parent, and children. Single – parent families are created by several circumstances.

    One is by parents separating. Separation of parents is due to several reasons.

    These are for example, one partner going to another country and failing to return to his or her country and family.

    Two, a single family is created by divorce.

    Divorced parents may decide not to marry again.

    Three is when one parent refuses to marry.

    This happens when a girl gets pregnant and the boy does not marry her. Four is because of death of a spouse.

    The remaining parent may decide not to remarry.

    Five is when some mothers decide to have children without marriage.

    This may not be correct as there is no research to suggest it.

    Six is imprisonment of one partner for a long time.

    One parent is left looking after children because one is in jail.

    iv. Extended family father, mother, children, uncles, aunts, and cousins. This is the common family type in traditional African communities.

    v. Children led family. This happens when parents die and the 1st born takes care of brothers and sisters including cousins.

    vi. Grandparent headed family.

    The HIV/AIDs epidemic has introduced this type of family where grandparents take care of their grandchildren due to the death of both parents especially the mother due to HIV / AIDS disease.

    This scourge has made many children orphans.

    In other cases parents go for further studies abroad and leave their children with their parents.

    b. Traditional African family values and practices.

    In African societies creation of a family is through marriage, and subsequent procreation.

    Family is viewed as a sacred institution in African society.

    The African traditional family includes the dead (ancestors), the unborn children and the living.

    An African traditional family has obligations and duties.

    These were

    (1) offering sacrifices to ancestors,

    (2) pouring libations; and

    (3) giving the dead decent burials

    (4) providing basic needs to their children

    (5) bringing up children to be morally upright individuals.

    Further to this, the African traditional family is responsible for the upbringing, caring, and protection of its children.

    This is demonstrated by the nuclear family, which provides necessities required to meet and satisfy the economic needs of its members.

    The African traditional family is expected to participate in communal activities.

    Work in the family was divided according to age, gender and social status.

    Each family member worked for its basic needs as well as the welfare of the community.

    The African family had well-stated and practiced values

    There were

    (1) respect for family members

    (2) providing responsible parenthood, which is the process of bringing up children to become all round or self reliant persons

    (3) educating children in all aspects of life. Parents and the extended family members helped their children to develop intellectually and cognitively.

    The family taught children physical skills.

    It also gave children confidence to appreciate their physical strength.

    Children were taken through a rigorous physical curriculum of games such as wrestling, swimming and running to develop their physical strength. Children’s bodies were nourished thoroughly.

    They were served good and nutritious food, which improved their muscle strength.

    Children were taught social skills.

    They learnt how to behave towards adults, peers and grandparents. They developed social skills since parents allowed them to socialize and interact with other children, grandparents and the community.

    This made them grow socially, emotionally and psychologically.

    They had a curriculum for teaching and training in traditional African religious values, family matters, moral and social values. This teaching of children started from an early age.

    The teaching method used was observation and practice.

    Parents taught by being good role models. They were expected to model desired values and family practices.

    Children were taught how to relate with one another as brothers and sisters.

    Parents were to show tolerance to children.

    These values show that African parents understood their parental roles and responsibilities.

    These values were sometimes; exploited by the irresponsible family members or specific individuals.

    This exploitation encouraged dependency, leading to conflicts, competition, hatred, and jealousy.

    Christian parents are expected to train their children to know God; be self -disciplined, and follow the Christian way of living. Another duty is to provide basic needs to their children.

    Christian understanding of the family

    Among Christians, family is sacred and instituted by God.

    Read again about the Christian teachings about marriage.

    Role of children in the Christian family

    A Christian child is expected to obey parents, honor them, and respect parents.

    This is one of the Ten Commandments given to Moses by God.

    Parenting styles

    a) Dictatorship /authoritative / autocratic – the parents is the final authority, imposes decisions.

    b) Permissive or liberal style – also referred to as “Laissez faire” the children do as they want.

    c) Democratic style – parents discuss with their children on family issues. This is the best style.

    Problems related to family life today

    Families are faced with numerous problems such as

    a) Children abuse – sex assault, beating

    b) Domestic violence – abusive language, frequent fights, emotional abuse

    c) Diseases e.g. HIV / AIDS epilepsy , autism.

    d) Children with special needs, blindness, deafness or those with mental challenges, motor co – ordination (Autism)

    e) Separation, divorce

    f) Childlessness

    g) Single parent families – economic hardships

    h) Misuse of family resources, economic crisis

    i) Affluence – a lot of wealth

    j) Unemployment, underemployment

    k) Retrenchment – laying off of some employees in order to reduce the workforce

    l) Mismanagement of family finances

    m) Alcohol and drug abuse

    n) The generation gap

    o) Poor relations with in-laws

    p) Cultural and religious differences

    Traditional African approaches to problems related to family life today

    1) Individuals were prepared for challenges of family life right from childhood

    2) Adolescents, initiates were given family life education

    3) People entered marriage knowing that it’s a life long union

    4) Rules were clear to govern marriage relations

    5) Polygamy helped reduce unfaithfulness

    6) There were no single parent families. Members lived together reducing loneliness

    7) Widows / widowers were encouraged to marry again

    Traditional brew was taken in moderation

    Christian’s approaches to problems related to family life today

    1) Christian families are obliged to live according to Christian principles and values such as mutual respect, self discipline, understanding, honesty, faithfulness, love and forgiveness

    2) Premarital counseling is carried out

    3) Church holds regular seminars and conferences on family life matters.

    Love and respect for each other.

    Christian wife to submit to husband who is head of the family.

    They are taught to take each other as complementary and equal partners.

    4) Women are encouraged to form participate in church organizations e.g. mothers union, women’s guild where they learn roles of being a wife, mother, and a woman.

    5) Some churches offer advice to families on management of their families. They are encouraged to have investments.

    6) Breadwinner is encouraged to write a written will.

    7) To improve the parent – child relationship churches offer guidance and counseling to the youth Christian parents are advised to set positive role models to their children.

    9) Parents are encouraged to be open and promote effective communication with their children.

    10) Churches in case of serious family conflicts such as child abuse, domestic violence, advise legal action.

    11) Churches organize youth seminars where they talk about drug abuse, premarital sex, negative peer pressure and media influence etc.

    12) Relevant information is passed through books, pamphlets, magazines, media FM, TV etc.

    13) Some churches welcome unwed mothers

    14) Churches provide health services, guidance on HIV / AIDS

    15) Some churches care for widows, orphans widowers and the needy

    Revision questions

    1. State the different types of families

    Topic Three: Christian Approaches to Work

    Learning Outcomes:By the end of the topic you should be able to

    a Define the term “work” and “vocation”

    b Explain and appreciated the traditional African attitude towards work

    c Explain the role of professional ethos, ethics and code in society

    d Explain virtues related to work

    e Discuss the moral duties and responsibilities of employers and employees

    f Discuss Christian approaches to issues related to employment

    Lesson One: Definition of Terms Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

    a. Explain the meaning of work. Vocation, profession, trade, craft, and job

    b. Give general reasons why people work

    Work

    Use of energy, physical or mental, for the purpose of improving human life.

    It is any activity that requires expenditure of energy or application of skills e.g. studying, teaching, cooking, farming etc.

    Vocation

    Work can be described as a vocation, profession, trade, craft, career or a job.

    Vocation is from a Latin word “Vocare” which means call ‘ Christians believe that every individual has been called of God to various duties.

    Vocation is work that requires special skills, special training or a unique call or a special mission in society.

    Profession

    Work that is characterized by a code of ethics, lengthy specialized training, advance knowledge and self – disciple.

    Professionals have their own set standards.

    The professionals determine entry requirements for new members and usually have machinery for dealing with errant members. E.g. Law, medicine, architecture etc.

    A trade

    Refers to an occupation, a way of making a living.

    Some trades require specialized training examples hairdressing

    A craft

    An occupation which requires manipulative skills or use of the hands e.g. woodcarving, pottery, weaving.

    A craft may be a trade depending on the nature of occupation.

    A career

    An occupation that one chooses to pursue in his/her life. It’s the general way of earning a living.

    Job

    Refers to tasks performed, services rendered in return for payment of wages.

    Most jobs are temporary others casual and others permanent and pension able.

    What determines one’s career, vocation?

    1. Available opportunities for future development in a particular job

    2. The need to serve others especially the church and the needy

    3. Interests, strengths, talents, abilities

    4. Inclination or attraction to a certain kind of work

    5. Pressure from parents, peers etc

    General reasons why people work

    a) It’s an essential element of life

    b) God ordained work. Humans work for their food

    c) Work contributes to the development of the community

    d) Work is personal. It defines a person

    e) People work to earn a living

    f) People work for enjoyment, leisure

    g) To assist and give to the needy

    h) To get luxuries

    i) People work to raise their standards of living

    j) For self satisfaction and fulfillment

    k) For personal development

    l) To keep a person occupied and not idle

    m) To acquire wealth and status in the society

    n) To socialize with other members of the society

    o) To attain independence and not depend on someone else

    Lesson Two: Traditional African Attitude to Work

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

    a. Explain importance of work

    1. Work is essential to the well being of the individual and survival of the community

    2. Work ensured basic needs such as food, shelters etc were provided.

    3. In traditional African society work was divided according to the age, gender, and status e.g. chief, elder of the individual.

    4. Everyone was a worker. Boys assisted in herding, fishing, girls assisted in cooking fetching firewood.

    Women cooked, took care of babies constructed houses (maasai) etc.

    5. Works among the traditional African societies included pastoralist, farmers, livestock keeping, fishing, bee keeping etc.

    6. Work was a communal affair; people would work together and assist each other.

    7. Work was not for a wage (Money). The rewards of work-included food, communal unity, acquisition of moral values etc.

    8. Hard work was emphasized, laziness was condemned.

    9. There were some specific works for specialization e.g. herbal medicine men, divination, prophecy, rain making, pottery etc.

    10. Work involved giving prayers, offerings, and sacrifices to God.

    11. Through work, the basic needs of the individual, community were fulfilled.

    12. Through work potentials; talents and skills were explored, acquired and utilized.

    13. Work had a religious dimension as well as a social dimension. It brought people together improving their relations.

    14. SAE

    1. Find out how different communities in Kenya lived in the past and how they live today

    2. How did the lifestyle of the communities influence daily activities

    Lesson Three: Christian Teaching on Work

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Describe the christians teachings about work

    The Christian teaching on work is based mainly on the interpretation of the bible, the teachings of Jesus and the teachings of the apostles.

    Some of the teachings are: -

    1. God himself instituted work. He created the heavens and the earth and all in it. Since God worked man should work. (Gen. 2:1)

    2. God’s work of creation is good (Gen. 1:31) Christians should endeavor to produce good works.

    3. Work is a duty, an obligation, a command Christians are responsible for God’s creation (Gen.2: 15).

    They are to protect it – animals, birds, plants, marine life are all under the care of man.

    4. Human beings should work to acquire their basic needs (Genesis. 1:29 – 30, 3:19) God blesses the work of our hands.

    5. Human beings are co – creators with God (Gen.1: 28) God continue to create through human beings.

    Human beings glorify God through their work.

    6. God reveals himself through his work of creation. God had a purpose for his creation. He is orderly, source of life, Almighty etc.

    7. Work is a co – operative undertaking.

    Eve was created to be Adam’s helper (Gen. 2:20) Christians should co – operate in their undertakings.

    8. Hard work is praised and laziness is looked down upon.

    (Proverbs 31:27). Christians should work for their daily needs and not become a burden to others.

    9. Work should be accompanied with rest (Gen.2: 2) God rested on the 7th day from all his work. God commanded the Israelites to rest on the 7th day.

    10. People should enjoy what they have worked for (Ecc.3: 22).

    11. Work should be done for the glory of God and for the good of the society.

    12. People should work honestly not steal but work to earn an honest living (Eph.4: 28).

    13. Those who do not work should not eat.

    They should always work since God is always at a work (John 15:17)

    Lesson Four: Roles of Professional Ethos, Ethics and Codes in the Society

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to: -

    1. Define the following terms, professional ethics, professional codes and professional ethos.

    2. Describe the role of ethics.

    Definitions

    Professional ethics –:

    principles of behaviour / conduct that guide members of a particular profession.

    What workers are allowed to do and not to do.

    Professional ethos

    The group identity of members of a profession, their unique custom or character e.g.

    what identifies doctors, lawyers etc.

    Profession codes or code of ethics

    Collection of laws arranged systematically according to major concerns and core functions of the profession.

    Roles

    - To regulate the behaviour of professional (workers)

    - Enables professionals to understand their role

    - Ensures professionals provide quality of services to their clients

    - To encourage respect among professionals

    - Give guidance on how professionals should relate to one another

    - They safe guard professionals against being compromised / misused

    - They determine expected level of performance

    - They serve as a measure of competence

    - Act as a measure of quality service

    - They protect the professionals

    - They provide a reference point for disciplining (used to discipline the errant professional)

    - They inspire respect and high esteem for professionals

    - Through professional codes, ethics, ethos, professional earn public trust

    Lesson Five: Virtues Related to Work

    Learning outcome. By the end of the lesson the learner should be able to:

    1. Define the term virtue

    2. Give examples of virtues related to work

    Definition

    A virtue is a good human habit. It’s a moral principle, moral quality or goodness of character and behaviour.

    Examples of virtues elated to work

    (i) Diligence – hardworking

    (ii) Honesty, integrity – ability to be relied upon (Integrity) Honest is being truthful.

    (iii) Faithfulness – being trustworthy and loyal

    (iv) Responsibility – ability to make decisions and take action independently. Being mindful of other people’s welfare.

    (v) Tolerance – ability to bear with others or with difficult situations.

    Lesson Six: Moral Duties and Responsibilities of Employers and Employees

    Learning outcomes: by the end of the lesson, you should be able to: -

    1. State and explain the duties and responsibilities of employers towards employees

    2. List the rights of employers

    3. Outline the moral duties of employees

    4. List the rights of employees

    Employers: government, non – governmental organization, private sector – individuals, company, selfemployment.

    Employers have several duties and responsibilities towards their employees.

    They are:

    - To organize and conduct business efficiently for the benefit of the institution, employer, community

    - To respect the employee, treat them with dignity

    - Pay a fair wage to the employee

    - Ensure good healthy and safe working conditions

    - Provide social welfare for the employees e.g. time off, leave days, time for recreation

    - Grant leave as required by law or the terms of contract

    - Take care of the welfare of the employees give medical cover, pension scheme etc

    - To motivate their employees

    - To reward employees

    - Compensate employees made redundant

    Rights of the employer

    Employers have a right to / are entitled to

    (a) Get profits from their businesses

    (b) Carry out their businesses without unfair taxation

    (c) Form association with other employers

    (d) Obtain and conduct business

    (e) Hire, dismiss employees in accordance with the requirements of their firms and contract

    (f) Demand a fair days work

    (g) Conduct business without subjection to unfair conditions and competitions

    Moral duties of the employees

    1. Carry out their duties to the best of their ability without supervision

    2. Respect and protect the property of the employer

    3. Encourage peaceful solutions to any problems encountered in their work place

    4. To work diligently for self – fulfillment and development

    5. To respect their employer and fellow employees

    6. Observe terms of contract with employer

    7. Be loyal, honest, respect to the employer

    Rights of the employees

    To receive fair wages

    To have a reasonable work load

    Have reasonable hours of work

    Have safety and protection at work

    Right to join a labour union

    Right to further individual training and development education

    Rights to retirement, terminal benefits

    Rights to a fair opportunity for provision

    A right to time for rest

    Right to Favourable working conditions

    Lesson Seven: Christians Approaches to Issues Related to Employment

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to; -

    1. Define the following terms, wages and industrial action

    2. State the Christian teachings on wages

    3. List the reasons for industrial action

    4. State the results of workers strike/ industrial action

    5. Explain the Christian approaches towards strikes

    Wages and industrial action (Strikes)

    A wage is payments for work done. Payment is in modern times done according to hours, weeks or days that one works.

    Christian teachings on wages

    - Human beings have the right to work for a decent living (Matt.20:1 – 16) They should be paid for their work.

    - Workers should be paid wages to the amount and value of their work (1 Timothy 5:18)

    - Wages should be paid as agreed upon (Mathew 20:13)

    - Employers should not take advantage of the poverty of the employee (Deuteronomy 24: 14 – 15)

    - Human beings should not be enslaved to work (Ex.5:22 – 23)

    - Employers who degrade their workers in wages are condemned (Deut.24:14 – 15, Jer.22:13)

    - Oppression is condemned (Amos 5:18, 8;4)

    - Workers wages should never be withheld (James 5:4)

    Industrial action

    Also commonly called ‘Strike’ this is an effort by workers to stop work in protest by boycott go-slow sit – ins or refuse to work.

    There has been increase of industrial action in the recent past in most countries of the world.

    Reasons for industrial actions

    1 Due to increased awareness of workers rights

    2 Exposure to global trends through the media

    3 Formation of trade unions that fight for the rights of workers

    4 Due to poor working conditions

    5 Underpaying workers

    6 Threatening workers with unjustified dismissals

    7 Suspending the workers / interdiction – unjustly

    8 A hostile working environment

    Results of workers strikes (industrial / action

    a) Pay cuts

    b) Demotions

    c) Loss of jobs

    d) Employers suffer losses

    e) Inflation

    f) Injuries even death when confronted by police

    g) Victimization of some individuals

    h) Bitterness among the workers and employers

    Christian approaches towards strikes

    a) Christians recommend a peaceful co – existence between workers and employers

    b) There should be fairness, justice, love among workers, employees

    c) There should be an open communication channel across the ranks from top to bottom

    d) Employees should not destroy property

    e) Working conditions should be better and improved

    f) Employees to be human when dealing with employees

    Lesson Eight: Child Labour

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Define the term child labour

    2. State the reasons why children are employed

    3. State the disadvantages of child labour

    4. List down the causes of child labour

    5. Describe the position of the church in dealing with child labour

    A child is a person below 18 years. A child does not have an identity card, does not vote (in Kenya).

    According to International Labour Organization the minimum employment age is 14 years.

    Child labour

    It is engaging a person below the age of 14 years in wage / paid employment.

    Reasons why children are employed

    - To provide cheap labour

    - They cannot fight for proper terms

    - They are easily hired and fired

    Disadvantages of child labour

    Children are not yet mentally and physically prepared to do adult jobs.

    This leads to

    a) Exploitation of children

    b) Children paid less, taken advantage of c) It inhibits the growth of a child and denies them a chance to enjoy their childhood.

    d) It deprives them of their right to basic education.

    e) It exposes children to hazards (dangers) from machines, chemicals.

    f) Heavy workload deprives children of social educational, moral, psychological, physical rights.

    Places where children are employed.

    - Plantations – coffee, tea

    - Domestic services – homes

    - Tourism sector

    - Industries

    - Children are trafficked and employed as commercial sex workers

    Causes of child labour – reasons why children work

    1 Lack of money / poverty

    2 Death of parents

    3 Dropping out of school due to pregnancy, indiscipline, (truancy), poor academic performance or lack of school fees.

    4 Those who never went or taken to school.

    5 Lack of good role models e.g. coast province Mombasa, Malindi has several of the financially stable people being school dropouts, engaged in drug trafficking, commercial sex etc.

    6 Influence of cultural values e.g. circumcision of boys in some communities is done later in life and one is declared an adult e.g. the kikuyu circumcising at 13 years, or 12 years

    7 Children being lured by employers.

    8 Greed for material benefits

    9 Being homeless ending up as a street child

    Position of church in dealing with child labour

    - The church condemns it

    - It has put up homes for poor children (orphanages)

    - It provides guidance, counseling to both parents and children

    - Children are blessing from God hence should be loved and cared for

    - Parents have the responsibilities to protect their children from harm.

    Lesson Nine: Unemployment and Self –employment

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Define the term unemployment and self employment

    2. State the causes of unemployment

    3. Describe the response of Christians to issues of unemployment

    4. List the problems faced by self employed people Unemployment

    When people are capable and willing to work but are unable to find a viable income or occupation it is referred to as unemployment.

    Causes of unemployment

    1 Preference for prestigious white collar jobs (Office jobs, non – manual jobs)

    2 Corruption – tribalism, nepotism, bribery denying jobs to the qualified in preference for the unqualified.

    3 Unequal distribution of wealth – some regions are more resourceful than others. Industries, good infrastructure concentrated in some areas.

    4 Inadequate resources for self – employment (lack of capital, skills)

    5 Limited job opportunities – probably due to high population growth

    6 Few international investors in Kenya, probably due to high crime rate, insecurity.

    Identify ways of creating job opportunities Response of Christians to issues of unemployment

    a) They encourage self – employment in cases of unemployment

    b) They have set up vocational training, polytechnics to train people towards jobs that are for self – employment.

    c) Christians condemn idleness

    Self-employment

    Self-employment is an economic activity initiated, controlled by an individual.

    It is an occupation in which a person initiates a personal enterprise and manages it with the help of others.

    Examples Small businesses enterprises, Jua kali sector, music industry, entertainment (e.g. comedians), community work, agriculture etc

    Problems / challenges

    - Some lack sufficient capital to start a business and keep it running

    - Lack of necessary skills to run the business

    - High taxation leading to some business closing down

    - Small scale traders face undue competition from larger firms

    Revision questions

    1. What is work?

    2. List any six reasons why people work

    3. Explain T.As attitude towards work

    4. List some of the factors that have changed the attitude towards work in the modern society

    5. What are the rights of employers?

    6. State the duties of employees

    7. Why has child labour become common in Kenya?

    8. What are the causes of unemployment in Kenya?

    9. What can the government do to reduce unemployment in Kenya?

    Topic Four: Christians Approaches to Leisure

    Learning Outcomes:By the end of the topic, you should be able to

    a Explain the meaning of leisure

    b Discuss the traditional African understanding of leisure

    c Discuss Christian teaching on leisure

    d Discuss the importance of leisure

    e Outline various forms and uses of leisure

    f Explain how leisure is misused in the society today

    g Discuss the abuse of alcohol and other drugs and their effects

    h Explain Christian criteria for evaluating the use of leisure

  • Christian criteria for evaluating the use of leisure

    Lesson One: Meaning of Leisure

    Work is an obligation – however people cannot work 24 hours. They need to rest.

    God rested on the 7th day after work.

    Work and rest are complementary elements of human life. Definition of leisure This is the time when one is free from work or other duties.

    Time at one’s own disposal, which can be utilized in a productive manner depending on one’s interests and abilities.

    Leisure provides mental, physical relaxation, spiritual, emotional relaxation and enrichment.

    Forms of leisure

    1. Passive

    2. Active leisure

    Passive involves use of mental energy

    Active leisure – there is use of physical energy

    Examples of activities of passive leisure are

    - Watching television

    - Reading story books

    - Playing video games

    - Chatting with friends

    Examples of activities of active leisure are

    - Jogging

    - Mountain climbing

    - Gardening

    - Dancing

    - Tree planting

    - Playing football

    Leisure is used for

    - Enjoyment

    - Entertainment – song, dance, watching movies etc

    - Relaxation – exercises

    - Socialization – sharing, education

    - Religious engagement – wedding ceremonies, visiting the sick, worship

    In passive leisure others entertain while in active leisure the person is active, whole body is involved.

    Active leisure enables a person to

    1. Develop his/her body

    2. Build stamina

    3. Strengthen relationships etc

    Some leisure activities are dangerous e.g. boxing, motor racing; while others are expensive e.g. golf.

    leisure activities are addictive while others are unproductive.

    - Leisure activities should be planned for

    - Leisure activities can also be economic, income generating activities.

    Lesson Two: Traditional African Understanding of Leisure

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to: -

    1.Define leisure according to the traditional African understanding

    2. State the various forms of communal leisure activities

    In traditional African society leisure permeates all aspects of life.

    Leisure activities accompany work.

    Leisure and work were entertainment. Work was accompanied by singing, reciting stories sharing past events.

    Examples of leisure activities in traditional African society include

    - Wrestling

    - Running

    - Playing ajua

    - Mock fighting

    - Swimming

    - Spear throwing

    - Poetry

    - Music and dance etc

    Leisure activities that were communal include

    • Bull fighting

    • Tongue – twisters

    • Poetry recitation

    • Telling of myths legends

    • Dancing

    • Brain teasers

    • Riddles etc

    o Work in African society included fishing, tilling the land, herding, hunting, harvesting

  • Most leisure activities in traditional African society were active form of leisure, communal, not individualistic and not for monetary gains

  • All forms of leisure had an educational value. Folk stories had a moral value.

    People were taught not to be selfish, greedy jealousy etc Myths and legends tell of the origin of the community and its history of important people as well as history of the community.

  • In African traditional society, leisure led to acquisition of values or virtues such as co – operation, sharing, solidarity, love, bravery, empathy, endurance, tolerance etc. o Most activities were linked to the worship of God and, veneration of the ancestors.

  • Leisure activates were organized along gender and age group season (E.g. harvest – dancing, singing); wet rainy seasons – boat swimming

  • Rites of passage e.g. initiation, marriage, birth and naming provided leisure activities

  • Leisure activities were planned for

    Lesson Three: Christian Teaching on Leisure

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Describe the Christian teachings on work

    2. State the various ways that Christians use their leisure Christian teach that

    a) Work and leisure are of divine origin. God rested on the 7th day after working

    b) Leisure is a gift from God leisure should be put to good use. Its not be wasted

    c) Leisure provides us with the opportunity to worship God. Leisure should be used to serve God.

    d) Christians associate leisure with personal growth and fellowship

    e) Jesus recognized the need for rest by withdrawing his disciples from their active ministry. Its good to have time alone for reflection, rest, visit friend etc. f) Leisure should be used to seek God and help others e.g.

    Jesus prayed, helped the needy restored people’s health.

    Ways Christian use their leisure time – activities

  • Worshipping God

  • Visiting the sick

  • Caring for the needy

  • Resting

  • Watching television

  • Chatting with family members

  • Retreat – time spend away with a group of people to be alone with God

  • Visiting friends, relatives

  • Reading the bible

  • Praying etc

    Lesson Four: Important Use and Misuse of Leisure

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. State the importance of leisure

    2. List the ways that leisure can be used properly

    3. Describe how leisure is misused today

    Importance of leisure

    Leisure is necessary. It’s important in various ways

    1) It is a good time to assess the work we have done (Reflection time)

    2) It brings people together leading to self – growth and fulfilment (Social function of leisure)

    3) Leisure helps individuals to discover their hidden talents

    4) Leisure relaxes the mind – a change of activity, relieves the mind

    5) Leisure refreshes the body – restores lost energy

    6) Leisure enables Christians to offer charity to those in need

    7) Leisure provides time for worship and spiritual renewal Leisure gives one time to rest

    9) It’s time for recreation

    10) Give one time to attend social occasions

    11) Allows people to travel and visit friends and relatives

    12) Leisure can be used to enhance and acquire new skills and knowledge

    13) It’s a time to develop and discover ones talents

    Uses of leisure – proper of leisure

    Leisure can be used for

    a. Religious experience

    b. A time for rest

    c. Leisure is used to provide us with time to help others

    d. Leisure can be used to spread the word of God

    e. Development of talents

    f. Its an opportunity for individual growth

    g. Leisure strengthens social relationships

    h. Leisure can be used for reflection on one’s decision; actions etc leisure activities reveal who we are.

    i. Leisure can be used for educative and economic purposes Proper use of leisure is when leisure time is spent doing activities that add value to us.

    Misuse of leisure today

    Leisure time can be misused through various activities e.g.

    1) Spending too much time in passive activities e.g. pornography watching, watching films that are violent

    2) Spending leisure time in idle talk – gossip-leading to conflicts

    3) Spending time in gambling, casinos making bets on horses playing Ajua games etc

    4) Alcohol and drug taking – when a person over drinks alcohol, spends time drinking at the expense of family, abusing drugs is misuse of leisure time.

    5) Leisure can also be misused by engaging in dangerous activities.

    Night dancing, disco dancing has become a common form of leisure worldwide.

    What are the advantages and disadvantages?

    Lesson Five: Drug Abuse and Its Effects- Alcohol, Soft and Hard Drugs Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to: -

    1. Define the terms drug, drug use, drug abuse

    2. State the different ways that drugs are administered

    3. List the various categories of drugs

    4. List the different types of drugs

    5. Describe the various effects of different drugs

    A drug is any substance which when taken may alter or cause changes in the normal functioning of the body.

    Drug abuse

    Improper use of drugs. Using a drug for another purpose than what it is intended for Drug use

    Proper use of drugs

    Drugs are taken in various forms namely

    1 Liquids

    2 Lotions

    3 Ointment

    4 Powder

    5 Cake form,

    Drugs are classified as legal and illegal Ways of administering drugs

    Drugs are taken /administered in various ways

    - Infecting

    - Inhaling / smoking

    - Chewing

    - Swallowing

    - Drinking

    - Sniffing / snuffing

    Categories of drugs

    a) Medicinal

    b) Soft drugs

    c) Hard / narcotic drugs

    Types of drugs

    1) Preventive drugs e.g. drugs to prevent polio, cholera, yellow fever

    2) Curative drugs – drugs that cure diseases

    3) Sedatives, palliatives – drugs that alleviate pain, put patients to sleep e.g. drugs for diabetes, heart diseases, asthma, painkillers.

    4) Tranquillizers – drugs that relieve tension induce sleep e.g. piriton, valium.

    5) Stimulants – drugs used to increase physiological activity of a particular organ.

    They arouse the activity of the central nervous system / senses.

    6) Volatile drugs – these drugs intoxicate the user, they are derived from petroleum products paint thinners dry cleaning fluids glue etc. stimulants and volatile drugs classified as soft drugs.

    7) Hard drugs or narcotic drugs

    These are highly addictive drugs. The body forms dependence on these drugs.

    These drugs affect the mind causing drowsiness; sleep, stupor and they are the most commonly abused drugs.

    Examples are

  • Cocaine

    - From coca leaves

    - Its highly addictive

    - Causes mental problems

    - Can lead to death on overdose

    - A very expensive drug

    Other side effects are confusion, Convulsions, circulatory collapse and rapid heart beat

  • Bhang / Marijuana

    - A plant of Indian hemp

    - Also called marijuana, Hashish, Cannabis, Sativa depending on which part of the plant is taken i.e.

    leaves, stem, or roots.

    - Users become aggressive excited or high

    - Bhang changes perception of space, time and reality

    - It causes drowsiness and irresponsible behaviour

    - Its side effects causes people to be engaged in criminal activities e.g.

    robbery with violence as it gives changes in perception

  • Morphine

    Its used to suppress pain clinically

    - Its addictive

    - Its derived from cocaine

    - Used as local aesthetic

  • Heroine

    - Its pain relieving

    - Highly addictive

    - Powder heated in foil paper, vapour forms hence smoked referred to as” chasing the dragon”

    - Also called brown sugar

    - Its injected and inhaled

    - An overdose can lead to death

    - its expensive

    - It causes respiratory problems

    - Its depressive

    - Withdrawal symptoms when heroine is not available are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and severe anxiety

  • Soft drugs

    - Cigarette

    - Alcohol

    - Miraa / khat

    Cigarette

    - Made from tobacco - Cigarettes contain a) Nicotine – a highly addictive substance.

    b) Carbon monoxide, which damages arteries heart and lungs c) Tar – black substance which promotes cancer of the throat, heart and lungs Cigarettes are legal drugs in Kenya.

    Pregnant women may miscarry or terminate the pregnancy if they smoke.

    Leads to chest respiratory diseases poor blood circulation Leads to destructive fires due to carelessness

    Miraa / khat

    1 Plants / legally in Kenyan, and other parts of the world

    2 They are chewed

    3 Causes temporary excitement

    4 Makes one loose appetite for food and sex

    5 The juice in miraa causes temporary excitement in the user when ingested

    6 Miraa makes the user to be irritable

    Alcohol

    - Alcohol is a drug made through fermentation

    - It’s a drink used in social ceremonial occasions

    - It’s in form of beer wines, traditional brew (e.g. busaa, muratina, mnazi )and spirits e.g. whisks, brandy, gin, chang’aa

    - Alcohol is prepared by fermentation or distillation – heating to a certain degree.

    In African traditional society, alcohol was fermented and used for

    1. Medicinal value

    2. Entertainment

    3. Marriage celebrations

    4. Beer parties given to visitors

    - Excessive drinking was discouraged

    - Drunk people were scorned or scolded

    - Young people were not allowed to drink alcohol

    - When alcohol is taken excessively it is abused

    Alcohol abuse

    - Alcohol can lead to body dependence or addiction

    - Consequences of abusing alcohol are such as

    (i) Squandering family resources

    (ii) Health deterioration

    (iii) Lack of concentration leading to poor quality of work

    (iv) Family break-ups due to frustrations

    A man experiences a desire for sex but lacks the ability to perform leading to break ups

    (v) Deformed foetus if a mother abuses alcohol when pregnant

    (vi) Alcohol destroys brain cells

    (vii) It leads to unruly behaviour such as fights, violence

    (viii) One is vulnerable to risky behaviour – a drunk person is unable to make proper decisions hence vulnerable to sexual infections such as HIV / AIDS

    (ix) Can make a person cause accidents if driving under the influence of alcohol or staggering on the road.

    Lesson Six: Causes of Alcohol and Drug Abuse (Reasons Why People Abuse Alcohol and Drugs)

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. State and explain the effects of drugs

    2. State and explain the causes of drug use and abuse

    (i) Frustration due to unemployment, inability to perform well and meet set standards or other personal frustrations.

    (ii) Idleness – when idle some turn to alcohol and drug use

    (iii) Addiction

    (iv) Boredom

    (v) Bad examples from adults

    (vi) Availability of drugs in the Kenyan market

    (vii) Negative peer pressure

    (viii) Experimentation then addiction

    (ix) Media influence

    (x) Societal permissiveness

    (xi) Urbanization

    (xii) Pressure of work

    (xiii) Financial stress

    (xiv) Globalization – foreign world influences

    Effects of drug abuse

    Drug abuse poses danger to the health of a person, affects family, society in general.

    Effects of drug abuse are A. Psychological problems – drugs are addictive. The body becomes dependant on them. It cannot perform without the drugs.

    It leads to depression, irritability, aggressiveness, paranoia, one becoming afraid to face reality etc.

    B. Crime – robbery, theft, people abusing drugs will rob, steal so as to get money to buy the drugs.

    Drugs have led to students setting schools on fire, killing their fellow students.

    C. Illusion – users do not face reality.

    D. Health problems – one is prone to diseases because of frequent use of drugs.

    Drugs weakens the body’s system e.g. alcohol leads to liver Cirrhosis, stomach ulcers. One is susceptible / prone to HIV / AIDS infection STI’s lung cancer, still birth etc

    E. Economic problems Drugs are expensive. Abuse leads to depletion of family resources leading to poverty

    F. Loss of job and income

    G. Social problems

    Abuse of drugs leads to family conflicts, leading to separation, divorce, family quarrels fights and even murder (domestic violence)

    H. Accidents

    I. Frustrations

    J. Poor performance in school work

    K. Death

    People die out of drug abuse. An over dose of heroine, cocaine kills. Alcohol can lead to a blackout, this affects the brain.

    Lesson Seven: Remedies to Drug Abuse Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to:-

    1. List down the various remedies to drug use and abuse Drug abuse has become a global problem. Remedies or solutions include

    a) Law enforcement

    Through bodies such as UNDCP United Nations International Drug Control Programme Anti Narcotics Police Units, NACADA National Agency for the Campaign Against Drug Abuse so as to control abuse of Narcotics and other drugs.

    b) Education

    People to be educated on the effects of drugs.

    The curriculum from primary to secondary to include topics on drug abuse.

    Guidance and counselling

    Religious teachings – all religious condemn the abuse of drugs Family values to be promoted. Parents should set good examples to their children Every individual to cultivate individual values.

    Respect their body and take care of their bodies Rehabilitation of drug users / abusers

    Lesson Eight: Christian Criteria for Evaluating the Use of Leisure

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Describe the Christian’s criteria for evaluating the use of leisure Criteria – criterion – a principle or standard for judging something.

    How does a Christian determine whether a certain leisure activity is lawful, acceptable before God – criteria for evaluating the use of leisure

    1) Christians, should engage in leisure activities which promote their respect and dignity they should socialize with people who are morally upright (bad company corrupts good morals)

    2) God ordains leisure hence it should serve God’s purpose.

    3) Leisure should come after work.

    4) Leisure should be used for the good of others. The activities that are harmful to others should be avoided.

    5) Activities chosen should enrich their knowledge of God

    6) Activities should provide service to others

    7) Leisure doesn’t mean laziness

    A Christian should not engage in a harmful activity to self but those that promote respect and dignity 9) Christians to avoid activities that lead to sin or to addiction

    10) They should perform an activity which develop their physical emotional social and spiritual well being

    11) Leisure should be enjoyed with moderation

    12) Activities for leisure should be moral, within the laws of God and pleasing to good.

    Revision questions

    1. Identify five (5) reasons why the taking of alcohol as a way of spending leisure is condemned

    2. Write down five ways in which modern Christians use their leisure time

    3. Give five ways in which drug use and abuse could affect a Christian

    4.identify ways in which Christians can overcome temptations to drug use and abuse

    5(a). Why is leisure important in the life of a Christian?

    5(b). What factors have contributed to the misuse of leisure in Kenya?

    6.state the factors that have led to the misuse of drugs in Kenya

    Topic Five: Christians Approaches to Wealth, Money and Poverty Learning Outcomes:By the end of this topic, you should be able to: -

    a. Define the concepts wealth, money and poverty

    b. Explain and appreciate the traditional African understanding of wealth and poverty

    c. Describe the impact of the introduction of money economy in the traditional African society.

    d. Explain Christian teachings on money, wealth and poverty

    e. Discuss Christians approached to some issues related to wealth money and poverty

    f. Uphold the Christian principles in acquiring and using wealth

    Lesson One: Definition of the Concepts Wealth, Money and Poverty

    a) Wealth: – accumulation…

    Accumulation of materials owned by an individual, family or a group of people.

    Wealth is property that has economic value e.g. land, animals, money, valuable possessions such as jewellery, commercial and residential buildings etc.

    Ways of acquiring wealth

  • Inheritance

  • Business

  • Commercial farming

  • Salaried Jobs

  • Investment of money in financial institution

  • Provision of commercial services

    b) Money

    It’s the medium of exchange that functions as a legal tender. It is something that is generally accepted as a medium of exchange, a means of payment. It is usually in form of coins or notes.

    Good monetary media (money) has certain qualities.

    Qualities of money

    • It should be acceptable

    • It should be fairly stable

    • Easy to divide into small units

    • Easy to carry

    • Should be relatively scarce

    • It should be durable

    • Its value should be maintained through proper control of its circulations

    Money is a measure of wealth. What it can purchase is the value.

    Money is used to buy services, goods, pay debts etc.

    Examples of currencies in the world are Ksh. (Kenya), Rand (South Africa) US & Dollar, Pound (Britain) Euro (Europe), Yen (Japan) Etc

    c) Poverty

    State of being without adequate basic necessities of life e.g. food, shelter, clothing It’s a state of helplessness. It is characterized by poor health, hunger, and lack of education facilities, uncared for environment.

    Causes of poverty

    a. Adverse climatic conditions (Geographical factors)

    b. Poor family background (historical and social factors)

    c. Political stability leading to civil wars

    d. Poor governance

    e. Regional imbalance of natural resources

    f. Low level of technology

    g. Laziness

    h. Over dependence on foreign aid

    Lesson Two: the Traditional African Understanding Of Wealth and Poverty

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Define the terms wealth and poverty according to the traditional African understanding

    2. State the various ways in which wealth was acquired in traditional African communities

    3. List the causes of poverty in tradition African communities Wealth

    In African traditional societies wealth was measured in terms of the amount of land, livestock, grains, wives, children possessed by an individual or the community.

    Wealth was acquired in various ways.

    (i) As a gift from God

    Most Africans believe that wealth is a blessing from God.

    (ii) Inheritance

    In cases where the head of the family is dead, the eldest son becomes the custodian of the estate.

    The clan and community elders give direction on how the wealth is to be shared out.

    (iii) Bride wealth

    (iv) Farming

    (v) Exploitation of natural resources – honey, wood for carving, building materials etc

    (vi) Trade

    African communities were involved in barter trade where they exchanged good and services

    (vii) Raids

    wealth was also acquired by raiding other communities – goats, sheep, Cattle.

    - People were encouraged to work hard to acquire wealthy honesty - Wealthy people were highly regarded and were considered for leadership position.

    - Wealth was incomplete without a family

    Poverty

    Poverty was viewed as punishment or curse for wrongdoing.

    Other causes of poverty according to African Traditional Society were: -

    • Laziness

    • Lack of inheritance

    • Raids by other communities

    • Famine

    • Natural calamities

    • Sickness – rendering the individual weak to acquire wealth - In acquiring wealth, principles such as value for human life, mutual responsibility, and sharing, communal ownership were emphasized.

    - Places that were communal include grazing land, rivers, and watering places - Laziness was ridiculed through songs, riddles and proverbs.

    Lesson Three: Impacts of the Introduction of Money Economy in Traditional African Society

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Define economy, development and money economy

    2. Explain the reasons for the introduction of money

    3. Explain the impact of money economy in traditional African society

    Introduction

    - Money was introduced to Africa by the Europeans

    - Before colonial period, Africans practiced barter trade – actual goods exchanged with other goods e.g.

    animals would be exchanged with food grains, millet, sorghum, cowpeas, children exchanged for food during famine.

    - Trade merchants from Asia had introduced into Africa forms of currency such as the cowrie shells, gold and the Indian rupees. Europeans introduced currency still used today

    Economy:

    – careful management of resources, finances, income and expenditure of a family, a business enterprise, community or a country.

    The economy of a country is to be well managed if it has the ability to meet the social economic needs of her members.

    Development

    It’s measured by the healthy of its economy in the provision of health, education, housing, sanitation, employment, longevity of life, decrease of material and child mortality.

    Money economy: – Use of money as a means of exchange in economic activities e.g. banking, investment, insurance, payment of goods and services.

    Reasons for money introduction

    1) Colonization brought a lot of changes such as unoccupied land declared ‘Crown land’ for colonialists.

    2) Tax introduction Africans were supposed to pay taxes to the government. Taxes were paid in form of money.

    3) Introduction of formal education School fees was introduced. Fees were paid in form of money.

    4) Introduction of modern medical services People paid medical services using money.

    5) Emergence of new lifestyles Converts to Christianity were emphasized on to have materials, hence had to work to improve their living standards.

    They built houses, took their children to schools practiced modern family techniques hence had to use money.

    Impact of the introduction of money economy in traditional African society

    1) Introduction of wage – labour

    2) Break up of family ties as people migrated from rural to urban areas in search of employment

    3) African land taken by the colonialists, reducing people to squatters hence need to work

    4) There was creation of a gap between people – the rich and the poor

    5) Emergence of vices e.g. corruption, bribery, prostitution, robbery

    6) Deterioration of cherished African values e.g. bride wealth has become commercialized, customs lost etc.

    7) Loss of African human dignity. Africans had to pay taxes to the colonial government.

    They were forced to work in European farms so as to get money. They worked under dehumanizing conditions Production of traditional food crops declined replaced by cash crops.

    9) Individual ownership of land was emphasized. Land could be sold at will

    10) There was increase of rural – urban migration leaving the rural people less educated.

    11) Exploitation of the poor by the rich – poor wages, overcharging prices on foods.

    12) Destruction of the natural environment to create room for building projects, urban centres.

    13) The cost of living increased. Almost everything is acquired by money.

    Lesson Four: the Christian Teaching on Wealth, Money, Poverty

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Explain the Christian teachings on wealth

    2. Explain the Christian teachings on poverty

    Teaching on wealth

    1) Wealth is a blessing from God

    2) Those who obey God’s laws, teachings of the prophets are promised blessings by God Deut28: 1 – 4

    3) Wealth has duties associated with it e.g. 10% tithe, alms to the poor, and an aspect of stewardship.

    4) Wealth should be used wisely. People are not owners of their property but are stewards. Should share with the poor, needy.

    5) Wealth is not permanent e.g. parable of the rich fool. When people die, they take nothing with them.

    Naked into the world, naked out of the world. Job. 1:21

    6) Wealth can create a false sense of independence feeling of self reliance no need for God.

    7) Wealth should be obtained justly – no happiness for a person who gets riches in the wrong way.

    Wrong attitude to wealth can lead to idolatry and other dangers. Matt.19: 23 – 24 danger of materialism – making riches their God, the love of money is the root of all evil (1 timothy 6:10)

    9) It is wrong to discriminate against others on the basis of material possessions. Jesus associated with the rich, the poor, the sick etc.

    10) Seek spiritual wealth, which is permanent and more fulfilling than material wealth, which is transitory – temporal. Matt 6:19 – 20)

    11) Acknowledge God as the source of ones riches

    12) Use wealth to help the needy

    13) Wealth is an instrument to enable us live decently.

    14) Obsession with money and wealth leads to sin.

    15) Church leaders should avoid greed for wealth (1 Timothy 3:3)

    16) God will judge rich exploiters.

    Christian teaching on poverty

    1) Christian teachings discourage irresponsible behaviour and habits e.g. laziness, idleness and negligence. Some people became poor because of such.

    2) Some people become poor because of misfortunes

    3) Others are poor because of judgment due to disobedience to God

    4) God cares for the poor

    5) Those with more should share with the poor

    6) People should work to alleviate poverty in the society

    7) Jesus helped the poor so should we

    The poor in spirit will be blessed

    Lesson Five: Christian Approaches / Response to Issues Related to Wealth and Money.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Describe the Christian’s response towards wealth and poverty

    2. State the factors causing poverty

    3. Describe how wealth/ resources can be distributed fairly Christian can respond by

    A. Insistence on fair distribution of wealth

    B. Fighting against bribery and corruption

    C. Using life skills

    D. Practicing Christian values

    Introduction

    - Affluence – having a lot of material possessions and a luxurious standard of living. Poverty is a state of lack of the basic necessities.

    - Illegal means of acquiring wealth include fraud, grabbing public land, selling narcotic drugs etc

    Factors that have contributed to poverty

    1. Political instability

    2. Lack of formal education

    3. Laziness

    4. Negative attitude towards work – choosing jobs

    5. Historical factors – colonization lack of land

    6. Exporting unprocessed agricultural products cheaply then sold back expensively.

    A. Fair distribution of wealth / resources

    a) Christians to promote the value of justice, fairness, social responsibility.

    How? By having anti – corruption crusades, be role models, teach or import skills, advocate for cancellation of foreign debts, taxation to all etc.

    b) Fair salaries.

    c) Promotion of affordable and decent housing.

    d) Favourable terms of loans.

    e) Encourage Jua Kali artisans

    f) Christians to demand transformation of society through implementation of just economic policies that can ensure fair distribution of wealth.

    g) Encourage foreign investors through good infrastructure, incentives e.g. shorter process to register business, security.

    h) Christian to encourage investments by churches and inculcate in people the values of hard work, proper time management free education free health care for the poor or needy.

    Fair distribution of wealth / resources refers to jobs, infrastructure, hospitals, water, agricultural products etc.

    Lesson Six: Bribery and Corruption

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Define the following terms bribery and corruption

    2. Explain the factors that contribute to bribery and corruption

    3. Explain the consequences of bribery and corruption

    Fighting against bribery and corruption

    Bribery and corruption are related terms.

    Corruption: – practice of giving a bribe in the form of money, goods or privileges in return for a service.

    Bribery: – act of giving money, material goods or services to someone to influence the recipient to give underserved favour.

    It is aimed at influencing a decision to favour.

    Bribery is a form of corruption.

    - Corruption is some kind of moral degeneration.

    A practice whereby someone uses his/her influence in an activity that is not morally acceptable.

    - Example of corruption include promotion by a senior for a favour, colluding to miss work, use of government vehicles to attend to personal matters.

    In Kenya, Kenya Anticorruption commission KACC is a national body formed to fight corruption.

    Factors leading to bribery and corruption

    1. Un-employment – one will bribe to secure employment

    2. Greed for money – caused by peer pressure, poor moral values, wrong ethical foundation about money etc.

    3. Fear – fear of being imprisoned

    4. Ignorance – giving bribes in form of gifts

    5. Disintegration of traditional African values

    6. Lack of moral integrity – no Christian values, one having no spiritual basis

    7. Frustration in the place of work

    8. A perverted conscience

    Consequences of corruption and bribery

    1. Leads to injustice

    2. Leads to incompetent supplies of goods or services being awarded hefty contracts – leads to poor services e.g. road construction

    3. Poor infrastructure, poor public service delivery

    4. Leads to undermining moral fabric of society – leading to social hopelessness and despair

    5. Has led to lack of trust in public servants, and the government 6. Discontentment among people.

    7. Degrades the personality of an individual

    8. Can lead to imprisonment and lose of job

    Lesson Seven: Christian Attitude Towards Bribery And Corruption

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Describe the Christian attitude towards bribery and corruption

    2. Define the following terms life skills, decision making, critical thinking, creative thinking, self esteem and assertiveness

    3. List the steps involved in decision making

    2. Bribes cause injustice proverbs 17:23

    3. Seen as morally wrong as they negatively affect one’s family 4. Jesus drove out merchants from the temple. They had started exploitation of the poor.

    5. Condemned because it degrades the personality of an individual

    6. Amos condemned taking and giving of bribes

    7. Bribes blinds the eyes

    In the parable of John the Baptist condemned soldiers from taking bribes Corrupt judge and the widow, corruption is condemned.

    8. Christians are to live righteously and not give bribes or receive. They are the light of the world.

    9. Money gained from corruption is not acceptable before God.

    C Using life skills

    Life skills are abilities, which enable a person to face the challenges of life in an effective way they are

  • Decision making

  • Critical thinking

  • Creative thinking

  • Self esteem

  • Assertiveness

    a. Decision making

    Process of identifying the best alternative to overcome a challenge encountered.

    Often decisions we make do not only affect us but those around us.

    Steps to decision – making

    1. Identify the challenge (problem) what’s the problem? What is bothering you?

    2. Understand the challenge / problem: – What is really bothering you?

    3. Find out possible solutions

    4. Find out the possible options and alternatives

    5. Consider the possible consequences for each option

    6. Select the best option

    7. Implement

    8. Evaluate the outcome of the action

    b. Critical thinking

    g. Ability to examine and assess a given situation impartially or objectively.

    It involves reasoning carefully.

    Getting detailed information, consider the option before making a decision.

    Critical thinking

    makes a person responsible for their actions.

    c. Creative thinking

    This is the act or practice of using ideas imaginatively to solve a problem

    d. Self-esteem

    - This is the regard one has about himself or herself. Self-esteem can be low or high, positive or negative.

    A positive or high self-esteem person has confidence, is outgoing, social, appreciates self, realistic and independent.

    - A person with low, negative self-esteem is naïve, withdrawn, shy, feels inadequate, and no selfconfidence.

    e. Assertiveness

    Ability to express ones feelings and wishes without hurting others.

    Assertive people are confident; direct in dealing with others assertive people have a high self-esteem.

    Lesson Eight: Christian Values Related to Wealth, Money, and Poverty.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Define the terms, values, love. Honesty, reliability, fairness, justice, respect, humility, faithfulness, persistence and chastity.

    2. State the values related to work Values – Beliefs, which guide people on what is right and wrong.

    There are

    - Social values

    - Cultural values

    - Moral values

    Values related to wealth are: -

    - Love

    - Honesty

    - Reliability

    - Fairness

    - Justice

    - Respect

    - Faithfulness

    - Humility

    - Persistence

    - Chastity

    Love – intense emotion of attachment, affection, warmth, fondness, regard for a person or something How should love guide a Christian in relation to wealth creation

    ? Honesty – quality of being truthful, fair trustworthy, sincere, genuine. The opposite of honesty is dishonesty.

    Reliability

    – being dependable, faithful, predictable, unfailing. The ability of being relied upon and keeping promises.

    Fairness

    – condition of being unbiased, free from discrimination. Justice – fair dealings with the people, as they deserve according to the law. Being fair, giving people what’s due to them. Opposite of justice is injustice.

    Respect- Quality of having high regard for somebody or something. Politeness. It’s important to respect other people’s property.

    Humility

    – quality of not thinking that you are better than others. Being humble. Opposite of humility is pride, being proud.

    Those who humble themselves shall be exalted.

    Faithfulness

    – quality of remaining loyal or true to someone. Christians should be faithful at their places of work and in allocating their wealth to God’s work.

    Those who are entrusted with public resources to manage on behalf of the people should show a high degree of faithfulness.

    Persistence

    – quality to persevere. Quality to continue steadfastly, unrelentingly despite opposition e.g.

    the unjust judge and widow, job =, Jeremiah are people who persisted.

    Chastity

    – a state of being pure, holy, innocent modest. It is abstinence from actions that may make one impure before God.

    -Christians should strive hard not to defile their bodies in search of wealth

    -Christians should strive to live holy lives, avoid prostitution, drug abuse;

    corruption

    -people use sexual favour to get jobs or promotion. Christians should thus avoid such.

    Revision questions

    1. Explain the biblical teaching on wealth

    2. Discuss the biblical teaching on acquisition and use of wealth

    3. Explain ways in which people misuse wealth in Kenya today

    4. Show how misuse of wealth leads to family instability

    5. Give ways in which the Kenyan government is alleviating the high levels of poverty

    6. State the factors that have contributed to high levels of poverty in Kenya today

    Topic Six: Approaches to Law, Order and Justice Learning Outcomes:By the end of the topic you should be able to:

    a Define the terms ‘law’ ‘order’ and ‘justice’

    b Describe the traditional African practices that promote law, order and justice.

    c Explain the Biblical teaching on law, order and justice.

    d Identify and evaluate the need for law, order and justice in the society.

    e Explain the rights and duties of citizens.

    f Explain the causes and remedies of social disorder.

    g Evaluate the role of Christians in the transformation of the society.

    h Discuss church-state relationship.

    Lesson One: Definition of Terms

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Define the following terms law, order and justice

    2. State the types of law

    3. State the types of statutory laws

    Introduction

    - Law, order, justice are essential for the survival of any society.

    - Following laws leads to order and justice lack of following leads to disorder and injustice laws of Kenya are laid down in the constitution.

    A. Law

    Established rules by an authority to regulate human behaviour in the community Schools laws, religious laws, factory laws, hospital laws etc. laws differ from society to society.

    Laws are dynamic. Laws cover all aspects of life.

    B. Order

    Condition brought about by obedience to set rules or laws. Order leads to peaceful co – existence in the society.

    Where there is order, things are done systematically. The opposite of order is disorder.

    Types of laws

    1. Non – legal laws – no court action e.g. school rules

    2. Customary traditional laws – based on culture, social traditions.

    They have to agree with state laws.

    They are respected by state.

    3. Statutory laws / legal laws – laws made by local council or national government and citizens are expected to obey them.

    Types of statutory laws

    a) Civil laws – made by parliament on issues such as taxes, labour, divorce etc

    b) Criminal law – on crime / punishment

    c) Constitutional law – matters of state and governance

    d) Company law

    e) Religious laws e.g. Islamic law ‘sharia’

    C. Justice

    Treating others the way they deserve in relation to the law. Its administration of rightful dealings in a fair manner according to their actions.

    A just society follows rules and administers legal action to those who offend others or disobey rules.

    means treating people the same way without discrimination.

    Lesson Two: Importance of Law, Order and Justice

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. State the importance of law, order and justice

    a) They are essential to preserve harmony and protect people

    b) Laws guide people and ensure people’s rights are protected.

    c) They protect people’s property and enable people to live in harmony

    d) They protect the consumer from exploitation

    e) They safeguard religious freedom

    f) Laws control power of those in authority and promote political stability

    g) Provides stability, encouraging economic growth

    h) Helps to control discontentment among people

    i) Helps implementation of taxes effectively

    j) Provides / help in maintenance of security

    k) Ensures human rights are upheld

    l) Enables the government to protect its citizens from internal or external threats.

    m) International law regulates relations between countries.

    Lesson Three: Rights and Duties of Citizens

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able: -

    1. Define the terms citizen, rights and duty

    2. List the rights of citizens

    3. State te duties/ responsibilities of citizens

    Citizen

    Person who is a member of a state, kingdom, empire.

    A person who has full rights as a member of a country by birth, decent, registration, naturalization.

    Rights – legal claims that one is entitled to from the government Duty – ones responsibility to the government.

    Rights

    1) Right to life – to live securely

    2) Right to education

    3) Right to liberty / freedom e.g. one should not be imprisoned, detained,

    without trial. One is innocent until proven guilty

    4) Right to protection of property

    5) Right to own a family – right to marry and raise a family

    6) Right to health

    7) Freedom of movement

    8)Right to freedom of association

    9) Right to freedom of assembly

    10) Freedom of religion

    11) Right to own property

    12) Right to equality – non discrimination

    13) Protection of freedom of expression and speech (own opinions, ideas) Children have rights e.g.

    Right to life, education, parental care, health, protection from exploitation, right to identity etc.

    Duties of citizens (responsibilities)

    1) Pay taxes to the government

    2) Respect the flag and national anthem

    3) Respect those in authority

    4) Respect the laws of the land

    5) Register as a voter and voter in national elections

    6) Be responsible at work

    7) Participate in national development Promote peace and harmony in the society

    9) Report errant members of the society to law enforcement agents

    10) Protect the environmental – clean, plant trees, avoid poaching etc

    Lesson Four: Traditional African Practices That Promote Law, Order, Justice

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. State and explain the traditional African practices that promoted law, order and justice

    Some of the practices that promote law, order and justice are

    a) Punishment of offenders

    People who committed offences such as stealing, murder, witchcraft were punished through death, curses, paying heavy fines etc. this promoted law, order, justice.

    b) Installation of rules, kings, chiefs, elders

    They were installed to maintain law, order and to execute justice in their areas of jurisdiction

    c) Administration of oaths

    - Administered by specialists and are used as a method of establishing and maintaining law and order

    d) Making of covenants

    - Covenants were made if there was a conflict between two communities. They would promise to live in peace and harmony.

    e) Observing of taboos and customary law

    Taboos were prohibitions. Those who went against taboos were severely punished

    f) The kinship system

    Defined how people related one to another

    g) Rites of passage

    Ensured customs, laws were adhered to

    h) Religious practices

    Such as praying, singing, sacrificing and giving of offerings had the effect of maintaining order.

    Lesson Five: Biblical Teaching on Law, Order and Justice

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Describe the biblical teachings on law, order and justice God initiated Law, order, and justice.

    1. God’s creation is orderly. God desires order

    2. Man was created with a conscience to know right from wrong sin has consequences or punishment.

    God does punish disobedience i.e. justice

    3. God instituted the laws as part of his plan for salvation e.g. law of circumcision, Torah (10 commandments), circumcision of the heart, laws on what to eat etc.

    4. God’s law governed kingship in Israel. National prosperity depended on a king’s ruler ship. Kings were to ensure law and order

    5. In the New Testament John the Baptist urged people to observe the law (social justice).

    6. Jesus taught that the kingdom of God is based on law, order and justice. There should be fair treatment for all people.

    7. Jesus said that the law of Moses was given to guide people.

    8. Christians should obey the law of the land and respect those in authority.

    9. The apostolic teachings stress the need for law, order, justice (1 Cro.14: 33)

    10. Christians should be orderly.

    11. The birth of Jesus was orderly. His ministry was also orderly hence should Christians.

    Lesson Six: Causes of Social Disorder and Their Remedies

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. State and explain the causes of social disorders

    2. State the causes of discrimination

    3. Explain the causes of crime

    4. List the forms of punishment

    Social disorder is a state of confusion or lack of order in the society Causes

    1) Discrimination

    2) Inequitable distribution of wealth, resources

    3) Crime

    4) Racism

    5) Tribalism

    6) Sexism

    Discrimination

    Discrimination is unfair treatment.

    Discrimination is on basis of

    - Race

    - Tribe

    - Sex / gender

    People or a particular person is singled out and treated with disfavor or distaste.

    It is showing bias or prejudice.

    Causes of discrimination

    a. Culture

    b. Prejudice – bias original from opinions that have no known basis or supporting facts – stereotypes

    c. Ignorance e.g. on HIV /AIDS

    d. Social status – ones position in a society

    Inequitable distribution of wealth and resources

    - This is when riches of family, community, and nation are not fairly shared out due to Selfishness or poor planning.

    Some areas are marginalized.

    Racism – unfair treatment of people because of their race

    Tribalism – discrimination on basis of ethnic group

    Crime – an offence against state, normally settled in court. Its antisocial behaviour causing disorder.

    Causes of crime (Why people commit crime)

    1. Poverty

    2. Public mistrust for law enforces

    3. Lack of parental guidance

    4. Wide gap between the rich and the poor

    5. Greed for power, money

    6. Materialism

    7. Drug and substance abuse

    Sexism

    - Discrimination against people because of gender

    - Women are discriminated in areas such as jobs, no promotion for women, oppression of women at home, cultural values demeaning the status of women, wife beating / men beating, female genital mutilation (FGM) early children marriages etc.

    Remedies to social disorder

    1) Rehabilitation for drugs users / abusers

    2) Punishment for offenders of crime

    Forms of punishment

    - Imprisonment

    - Payment of fines

    - Corporal punishment

    - Probation

    - Being assigned community work

    - Being placed under house arrest

    - Learning in approved schools, Juvenile homes

    3) Equitable distribution of national resources

    - Develop marginalized areas

    - Create jobs

    4) Campaign against drug abuse

    5) The public to use hot lines to report crime to police

    6) Preach against racism, tribalism, and preach equality, freedom and interaction with all people

    7) People to be sensitized to appreciate and respect different ethnics groups Promote national unity through education /cultural programmes

    9) Creation of more national schools so as to have students from all backgrounds

    10) Encourage domestic tourism

    11) Enlighten women on their rights

    12) Employment on merit

    13) Rich countries to share wealth with the poor

    Lesson Seven: Role of Christians in Transforming the Social, Economic, Political Life of The Society

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Define the term transformation

    2. Describe Christian’s participation in social life

    3. Describe Christian’s participation in political life

    4. Describe Christian’s participation in economic life

    Transformation is to completely change the attitude, character, and well being of the society

    a) Christian participation in the social life

    - Christians are involved in the preaching of the gospel in many places in the country.

    They use print and electronic media to spread the gospel.

    - Christians have shown concern for the destitute and victims of violence in the society by building homes for them and providing them with food and clothing.

    - Christians run schools, vocational institutions, universities providing educational services - Christians offer medical services to the society - They speak openly against sexual immorality, murder, bribery, corruption, abortion etc.

    - They show compassion to those in need the poor, HIV / AIDS orphans, widows, widowers, aged etc.

    - They offer guidance and counselling to dysfunctional families (the pastors, those trained to do counselling – almost all pastors get a training in guidance and counselling)

    b) Christians participation in the political life

    - Christians participate in the political life by advocating for fair distribution of wealth

    - They offer prayers for government, political leaders

    - They exercise their right by voting

    - They also participating in the political life by standing up for elections (Vying for elections)

    c) Christian participation in economic life

    - Christians participate in economic life by paying taxes to the government

    - By contributing in collection of funds for construction of churches, schools, hospitals

    - They invest in business that promotes their own development as well as the development of the country.

    - They provide financial resources in order to assist others to start economic activities or self employment.

    - They discourage business practices such as using faulty scales, hiking of prices cheating in business etc and encourage proper acquisition of wealth.

    d) The Church – State Relationship

    The government and the church interact at various levels and in different areas

    a) Religious leaders give advice to the state

    b) The church speaks against corruption, robbery, rape, abortion, vices which the government is fighting

    c) The church is the conscience of the state

    d) Both educate the citizens on the constitution and their rights

    e) The church preaches peace, love, unity, order

    f) The state needs support of the church in mobilizing citizens to adopt government policies

    g) Both are involved in rehabilitation of prisoners

    h) The church builds schools and other institutions that supplement government institutions.

    i) The church is involved in formulation of educational curriculum.

    However the church differs with government on various issues such as a) Use of condoms (Some churches opposed to this)

    b) Use of live bullets by the law enforces when curbing riots

    c) Fight on corruption a thorn to the church since state leaders are involved

    d) Issue of death penalty – church been fighting against death penalty to convicts

    NB. The government lifted the death penalty as a form of punishment in the year 2009.

    Revision questions

    1.state ways in which Christians can promote peace/unity in the society

    2. Why should Christians take part in voting?

    Topic Seven: Christian Approaches to Selected Issues Related to Modern Science, Technology and Environment

    Learning Outcomes: By the end of the topic, you should b able to:

    1. Explain the Christian view on some issues related to modern science and technology

    2. Explain the Christian view on the effects of modern science and technology on the environment

    Lesson One: Definitions

    Science

    Subject field that deals with a systematic study of our surroundings and behaviour of materials in the universe

    It is based on observation, experimentation and measurement.

    Technology – application of science to achieve desired objectives.

    Environment – our surroundings – both natural and human made i.e.

    mountains, lakes, land, forests, animals, buildings, flowers etc

    Lesson Two: Positive and Negative Effects of Science And Technology

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. State the various ways that science and technology has improved our lives

    2. State the negative effects of science and technology

    Ways science and technology has improved human lives

    1) Improvement of crop production – a quality seeds, fertilizers leading to improved yields

    2) Better nutrition, health care, medical services

    3) Improvement of livestock production through artificial insemination, quality medicine leading to more milk production.

    4) It has led to development of efficient means of transport – land, air, seas.

    5) Work has been made easier and enjoyable. There is use of machines, automation, use of computers.

    6) People’s lives have been spared, saved e.g. through life saving machines (ICU), incubators.

    7) Business transactions are being done through the internet Communication has been made easy – fax, email, short text messages on mobile phones etc.

    9) Research is ongoing for incurable diseases i.e. HIV / AIDS, cancer

    10) There is better management of environment

    11) Technology has made the world a global village

    12) Through family planning methods, its easier to control population growth

    13) There’s a better security system through use of scanners, alarms, electrified fences etc.

    14) Improvement of learning through e–learning

    15) There’s easier movement from one country to another

    Negative effects of science and technology

    1. People use medicine to commit suicide

    2. Increase of crime, fraud and death through modern means of communication

    3. Destruction of family relationships

    4. Breakdown of community names, values morals, breakdown of families

    5. Terrorism

    6. Greed for money / materialism

    7. Unemployment – replacement of personnel by machines 8. Health hazards such as accidents in factories

    9. Pollution, air poisoning

    Lesson Three: Christian View on Issues Related to Science and Technology.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Define the following terms euthanasia, blood transfusion, organ transplant, genetic engineering and plastic surgery

    2. Describe Christians’ view on euthanasia, blood transfusion, organ transplant, human cloning, genetic engineering and plastic surgery.

    3. State the reasons for and against euthanasia, blood transfusion, organ transplant, human cloning, genetic engineering and plastic surgery

    a. Euthanasia

    b. Blood transfusion

    c. Organ transplant

    d. Genetic engineering

    e. Plastic surgery

    Euthanasia

    It’s a Greek word, which means an easy and painless death. It is ‘mercy killing’ ending a person’s life so as to alleviate them from experiencing pain.

  • Its practiced with the sick person’s knowledge

  • It is involuntary when its practiced against or without the sick person’s consent

  • Its done by

    a) Injecting an overdose of sleeping pills to the sick person

    b) Switching off life support machine

    c) Exposing the person with chronic pneumonia to very cold air.

    Christians view on Euthanasia

    Christians are opposed to euthanasia for several reasons such as

    a) Life is sacred, a gift from God and only God can take away human life

    b) Suffering is part of human life

    c) Euthanasia is against medical ethos, which demands that doctors and nurses work for the sustenance of human life and alleviation of suffering but not to terminate it.

    d) Jesus has power over sickness and through his name all sickness are healed.

    e) Accepting euthanasia discourages medical research on vaccines that may cure various diseases.

    f) Euthanasia discourages patients and makes them to lose hope in life. They may feel unwanted and rejected.

    Blood transfusion

    - It’s the process of injecting a person’s blood into another person through his/her veins.

    The giver is a donor the receiver is a recipient.

    Reasons for blood transfusion

    1. When a person is suffering from acute anemia (little blood in the body) low blood level.

    2. To restore blood lost during fatal accidents, wars, or childbirth

    3. To maintain blood levels for patients undergoing major operations

    4. To correct the low haemoglobin level of some patients

    5 Blood has to be screened for any diseases, and then kept in blood bank after determining

    the blood group.

    The transfusion should be in a hygienic way.

    The equipment used should be sterilized

    6. Donors should not be below 16 years or above 65 years

    Alternatives to blood transfusion

    a) Volume expanders – increase fluid levels in the body

    b) Growth factors – intra operative / post operative

    c) Blood salvage – same blood when on surgery is saved then transfused back to the patient

    Christian view on blood transfusion

    a) Some Christian’s believe it is wrong to take blood from a healthy person and transfuse it to another person.

    b) Blood is life and life cannot be taken from one person to another

    c) Blood transfusion is essential as it saves life

    d) Blood transfusion can transmit dangerous diseases like HIV / AIDS and Hepatitis B

    e) God has given Christians the intelligence and capability to make the right decision and choice

    Organ transplant

    - This is the removal of a defective organ and replacing it with a healthy one.

    Body organs transplanted are kidneys, heart and eyes small intestines, pan crease.

    - The purpose is to replace the damaged organ of a recipient

    - Common transplants are the heart, kidney, eyes from living and the dead (heart) within a span of hours. Eyes can be transplanted from animals.

    Christian view on organ transplant

    a) It saves life hence acceptable to some

    b) Its transferring human life from one person to another

    c) Its wrong to transplant from animals – view by some Christians

    d) Some support organ transplant by referring to the story of creation of Eve from parts of Adam

    e) It is part of human beings continuing with the creation work of God.

    f) It is an expression of love and concern for those suffering as taught by Jesus Christ.

    Genetic engineering

    - It’s a scientific technique used by scientists to change the biological characteristics of living organisms by deliberately altering the structure of individual genes.

    - There are genetically modified foods, genetically engineered seeds, test tube babies, human clones, and genes of human insulin.

    Human cloning

    This is a form of genetic engineering. It’s a creation of genetically identical copy of a human being, human cell.

  • Twins are a form of natural cloning

  • There’s therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning (human cloning)

  • Therapeutic cloning is when cells from an adult are used in creating medicine or for research

  • Reproduction cloning is the making of human beings

  • More than 90% of cloning has failed.

  • Animals cloned have died young, had cancers or arthritis.

  • Human cloning is illegal worldwide

  • Genetic cells are used to treat Alzheimer, heart attack, cancer

  • Test tube babies are different from human cloning. Test tube babies are where the egg and sperm is fused together outside the body.

  • In cloning, a needle like device is used to draw out the cells from an embryo, then preserved using chemicals, then put in a womb/uterus to grow.

    Some do not need a sperm cell, they use other body cells for fertilization.

    Reasons for advocating human cloning

  • Can clone people whose genetic composition is of a genius, people with special abilities or talents

  • Can be able to bring, revive back great extinct characteristics.

  • Those who support it believes it can reduce immorality.

    Reasons against human cloning

    1. God is the sole creator. Cloning takes the place of God.

    2. It de –humanizes human beings purpose of human reproduction

    3. It destroys uniqueness of each individual (Cloning is an exact copy)

    4. It can be abused and used to create antisocial people (rapists, thieves)

    5. May create deformed people

    6. It’s un-ethical, immoral experiment. Its destruction of the embryo hence abortion

    7. 95% of clones have failed (animal) most animals died

    8. Its illegal

    9. Closed animals died of cancer, had arthritis, deformities and an early death

    10. Cloning may bring a destructive copy of humans

    Advantages of genetic engineering

    1. Implanting genes that are diseases free in people, plant and animals could prevent diseases.

    2. Genetic crops yield more

    3. Helps to determine the biological parent in case of dispute on babies (DNA)

    4. Helps to increase disease resistance in crops and altering animal traits in plants and animals

    5. Assists in classifying blood during screening before it’s transfused to another person.

    Christian view of genetic engineering

    1. Christians support genetic engineering that is beneficial to human beings e.g. Cure of genetic diseases, production of drugs, plant and animals

    2. Human beings are made in God’s image and are loved by God with or without defects.

    3. The dignity of the human being is eroded or disregarded and should be upheld.

    4. Christians oppose cloning and test tube babies

    5. Its against God’s will or teaching

    Plastic surgery

    - It’s to change or mould the shape of something, to enhance or restore an area of the body

    - It’s repairing or improving of damaged, diseased or unsatisfactory shaped parts of the body with pieces of skin or bone taken from other parts of the body.

    - Skin grafting is the most common type of plastic surgery

    - Plastic surgery is done on cleft lips i.e. cosmetic surgery, breast surgery

    – reduction or enlargement, surgery done to look younger.

    Reasons for plastic surgery

    - It can help restore ones confidence or self – esteem

    - It enhances beauty, attractiveness or youthfulness

    - It enhances a person’s life and can be a life changing procedure

    - It may help a person to get a new job

    Disadvantages

    - Its expensive

    - Can lead to transmission of diseases

    Christian views on plastic surgery

    - Some support it, as it has some benefits

    - Some Christian oppose plastic surgery in order to look younger

    - Some argue that some people do it because of a lack of self – acceptance, low self esteem hence should work on such issues first.

    Lesson Four: the Christian View on the Effects of Modern Science and Technology on the Environment (Pollution, Desertification)

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. State the various ways of caring for the environment

    In Genesis 1, man was given the responsibility of taking care of the environment

    Ways of taking care of the environment

    1. Cleaning up the environment, clean up rivers

    2. Educating people on the importance of conservation

    3. Dispose industrial wastes properly

    4. Enforce use of environment – friendly fuel (unleaded fuel)

    5. Factory owners to supply protective wear to factory workers

    6. Planting of trees and flowers

    7. Establishing airports, industries, and disco clubs away from residential areas.

    8. Advocate for laws to be passed to minimize noise from vehicles, aircrafts, entertainment centres.

    9. Waste to be managed through

  • Reuse e.g. bottles

  • Recycle – plastic bottles to be recycled to plastic bins, old newspapers to be recycled to tissue papers.

  • Recover – burning waste products to produce electricity

    Waste can be managed to reduce use of ‘Throw away’ goods e.g. batteries to use of electricity.

    Lesson Five: Pollution and Its Effects.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Define the terms pollutant and pollution

    2. Give examples of pollutants

    3. State and explain the types of pollution

    4. State the effects of the various types of pollution.

    It’s introduction into the environment of substances or energy that is liable to cause hazards to human health, harm to living resources and ecological systems In simple terms pollution is the contamination of the environment.

    Substances that cause pollution are called pollutants.

    Some of the pollutants include;

  • Industrial affluent

  • Pesticides

  • Insecticides

  • Fertilizers

  • Ultra – violent rays from nuclear plants

  • Dust

  • Smoke

  • Noise

  • Waste heat

  • Exhaust gases from automobiles

    Types of pollution

    a) Water pollution

    p) Air pollution

    q) Land pollution

    r) Radiation pollution

    s) Sound pollution (noise)

    Water pollution

    This is the increase of substances in water in excess of its rightful chemical components thus making it unsuitable for human, animal or plant use.

    - Disposing domestic and industrial waste into rivers, lakes, seas etc pollutes water.

    - Disposing agricultural chemicals pesticides into water bodies.

    - Oil spilling into waters.

    - Poor sanitation bathing or washing clothes in rivers or dams

    Effects of water pollution.

    a. Causes diseases, which are communicable such as cholera, typhoid, and dysentery.

    b. Leads to death of marine life – birds (Flamingo) fish by oil spills

    c. Mercury (metal) leads, silver is poisonous. They kill organisms.

    d. Water becomes unfit for human consumption.

    Air pollution

    - Presence of contaminants in the atmosphere caused by

    a. Smoke

    b. Fumes

    c. Dust – from mines, quarries

    - When there is an increased level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that’s pollution - Other major atmospheric pollutants include gases such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), and sulphur dioxide (SO2)

    - Nitrogen Oxide (NO) i.e. fumes from vehicles, aircrafts, industries

    Effects

    (i) Leads to diseases such as bronchitis, asthma

    (ii) Leads to depletion of the Ozone layer leading to ultra – violent rays of the sun penetrating to the earth causing skin cancer, cataracts (eye problems), low plant yields.

    (iii) Causes rusting of roofs

    (iv) Causes acid rains

    (v) Carbon dioxide (02) in the atmosphere has led to global warming.

    (vi) Formation of smog (thick fog), which can lead to accidents.

    (vii) Colored rain due to large amounts of dust in the atmosphere.

    (viii) Eyesight loss due to gas leakages from industrial plants.

    Land pollution

    Land pollution is any physical or chemical alteration to land, which causes change in its use and renders it incapable of beneficial use without treatment.

    - Improper or excessive use of insecticides, pesticides makes land acidic

    - Land is also polluted by improper disposal of waste / garbage, broken glasses.

    Effects

    (i) Waste is an eye sore spoiling the beauty of the environment

    (ii) Broken glass can lead to injuries

    (iii) Open mining leaves pits, which are a danger to people and animals.

    Noise pollution

    - Experienced especially in urban centres, near roads, running water, mining areas, airports, music from bars, nightclubs etc.

    - An instrument called sound meter measures noise. The lowest unit is O Decitel, which is okay.

    More than 80 decibels is harmful to the ear.

    Noise over 80 decibels can cause (effects)

    - Deafness, hearing problems

    - Psychological disorders – frustrations, irritation

    - Insomnia

    - Shock due to sudden noise

    - Cracking of walls

    Noise can be minimized by

  • Construction of sound proof buildings.

  • Location of residential areas away from industries, airports, bars, main roads.

  • Banning of unnecessary hooting, playing of loud music in public vehicles.

  • Installing silencers in generators.

  • Education people on the effects of noise pollution.

    Pollution caused by radiation

  • Mainly in developed countries

    Atomic explosions e.g. Hiroshima / Nagasaki in Japan in 1945.

    The side effects of mutations of born children.

    Some children born with deformities. The radiation caused chromosome mutations.

    Some mutations on the cells of the parent / grandparents.

  • Nuclear power stations also a danger

  • Medical equipment e.g. X ray machines when one is over exposed to these radiations (x – rays) it can lead to development of cancer.

    Lesson Six: Desertification

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1. Define the term desertification

    2. Describe the causes of desertification

    This is slow encroachment of desert – like a condition to land that was previously productive making it desolate, uncultivatable and uninhabitable.

    Human activity accelerates creation of deserts.

    Causes of deserts

    1. Natural

    a) Persistent rains in a semi – arid area

    b) Exposure of an area to very high, very cold temperatures

    c) Inadequate rainfall for a long period of time

    2. Human

    Human activities that lead to desertification are

    (i) Cutting down of trees (deforestation) for land use such as building, industries, and not replacing them.

    (ii) Use of water from wells to irrigate land. Its harmful especially salty water – salt on soil salination is toxic to soils.

    (iii) Incorrect use of pesticides and fertilizers destroy soil nutrients.

    (iv) Industrialization – industries emit carbon dioxide (CO2) leading to formation of acid rain, which leads to unproductive land hence desertification.

    (v) Overgrazing especially among the pastoralist communities.

    (vi) Poor farming methods like cultivation on riverbanks and slopes, which causes soil erosion, leading to desertification.

    Lesson Seven: Solutions to Desertification Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: -

    1.state the solutions to desertification

    Land can be restored through the following ways;

    (i) Removal of people, livestock from certain areas e.g. forests

    (ii) Installation of good drainage systems

    (iii) Reduction of water logging / salination

    (iv) Use of alternative sources of fuel such as wind, solar, biogas instead of cutting down trees to use as fuel (charcoal)

    (v) Advocate for penalties to those who pollute the environment – factories

    (vi) Replace trees that are cut down

    (vii) Build water storage facilities to store rain water then use it for irrigation

    (viii) Educate people on the importance of the environment

    (ix) Use of manure instead of harmful fertilizers

    Emulate Prof.

    Wangari Maathai implanting trees – 8th October 2004 she was awarded the Nobel peace prize, an international award, for her efforts in preserving the environment.

    Revision questions.

    1. How can modern Christians evaluate scientific and technological discoveries

    2. Why is the church in Kenya opposed to plastic surgery?

    3. How has science and technology improved human life?

    4. What are the consequences of science and technology in our society?

    C.r.e. – Questions and Answers

    Topic One

    Christian Ethics

    Q1. What is the meaning of Christian Ethics?

  • This is the study of human conduct or behavior.
  • It is about how Christians make choices in their daily lives guided by Christian principles and value.

    Q2. What is the basis or sources or foundation of Christian Ethics?

  • The Bible/Biblical scripture (holy)

  • The natural law

  • Human experience and reason

  • The Christian community – preachers

  • Situation Ethics

  • Secular/Civil Law

    Q3. List the basic life skills that one needs to be able to lead a better life

    (a) Critical thinking

    (b) Creative thinking

    (c) Decision – making

    (d) Self-esteem

    (e) Assertiveness

    Topic Two Male/female Relationships

    Q1. Explain seven Christian teachings on male/female relationships

  • Male/female were created as equal human beings: created in the image and likeness of God.

  • Male/female created for companionship, help/ partners/ compliment each other.

  • Both are co-creator with God – done through procreation.

  • Union between both is consummated in marriage.

  • Relationship is based on love and respect/chastity.

  • Man/husband is the head of the family.

  • Each man to have his own wife and wife own husband.

  • Husband and wife should not deny each other conjugal rights.

  • Youth should abstain from sex until marriage.

  • Male/female body is temple of the Lord.

  • Short periods of abstinence are allowed among married people but with consent from each other.

  • Christians appreciate different roles of men and women in the church e.g. leadership in choir for women and men.

    Topic Three. Human Sexuality

    Q1. Explain the Traditional African understanding of human sexuality

  • Human sexuality is regarded as sacred and secret in many African communities.

  • The sacredness of sex is related to the power to transmit life – procreation.

  • It is taboo to discuss sex matters freely especially in the presence of children.

  • Grandparents who are free from any tying job teach sex education.

  • Young people are prepared for adult life in the context of age group e.g. games of sexual nature take place within an age group.

    The age group has control of each other and there is no sex whatsoever.

  • During initiation ceremonies, vigorous sex education is provided to the initiates.

  • They are taught about sex, its secrets and the mystery of manhood and womanhood.

  • Girls are expected to remain virgins.

  • Rape offenders are severely punished.

  • Boys and girls are not allowed to mix.

  • Division of labour is on the basis of sex.

  • Roles of boys and girls are taught from childhood e.g. by copying their parents.

    Q2. Explain Christian attitude towards human sexuality

  • Sex is sacred.

  • Man and woman are equal before God.

  • It is for procreation.

  • Man and woman are complimentary.

  • Both were created in the image of God.

  • They became one in marriage.

  • Sex is only allowed in marriage.

  • Virginity is valued.

  • Human beings have the ability to control sexual desires.

  • Chastity is a virtue.

  • All forms of irresponsible sexual behavior are condemned.

    Q3. In what ways is sex abused in Kenya?

  • By practicing fornication/sex before marriage.

  • Adultery – sex outside marriage

  • Through prostitution

  • By practicing bestiality

  • Through homosexuality/lesbianism/gayism

  • Incest

  • Rape/defilement of minors

  • Masturbation

  • Pornographic literature – using of technological devices in sex

    Q4. Why do you think minors are defiled or sexually abused in Kenya daily?

  • Lack of self-control among some men.

  • Drugs and drug abuse.

  • Permissiveness in society.

  • Influence from the mass media.

  • Mental illness – mad people.

  • Erosion of the African culture/moral values.

  • Devil worship/strange cults/false religion.

  • Breakdown of religion values.

  • Irresponsible parenthood.

  • Indecent dressing.

  • Leniency of the Law/no punishment for criminal.

  • Idleness.

  • Poverty.

    Responsible Sexual Behaviour

    Q 5. What is the Christian teaching on responsible sexual behavior?

  • Responsible sex is between male and female.

  • Sexual intercourse is allowed between married people.

  • Faithfulness is a virtue in this: Both partners must avoid adultery.

  • Responsible sexual behavior means exercising self-control.

  • It entails obedience to God’s commands hence a Christian has to shun forbidden sexual behavior e.g. fornication.

  • Body temple of the Lord. Our sexual relationships should uphold human dignity and respect for our bodies.

  • The Bible teaches that whatever we do with our bodies should be for the glory of God (1 Cor. 7:19-20).

    Q6. List the difference types of irresponsible sexual behavior

    • Homosexuality (lesbianism, sodomy)

    • Bestiality

    • Masturbation

    • Rape

    • Incest

    • Prostitution

    • Fornication

    • Abortion

    Q7. Explain the Christian teaching on responsible sexual behavior

  • It defiles the body, which is the temple of God.

  • It is wickedness.

  • It is unholy and dirty before God.

  • It is spiritually unclean.

  • Those involved break the commandment of God.

  • It involves coveting – a sin.

  • Polygamy is condemned and considered irresponsible.

    Q8. State the effects of irresponsible sexual behavior

  • It can lead to sexually transmitted diseases (AIDS).

  • Can lead to pregnancy and then abortion.

  • If married people are involved (adultery) divorce may occur.

  • Separation

  • Children suffer lack of parental care due to divorce as a result of adultery.

  • It may lead to street children.

  • It discourages young people from marrying.

  • It can lead to fights, quarrels, misunderstanding and friction.

  • Young people can chop out of school due to pregnancy/AIDS.

  • Can lead to single parenthood.

  • Withdrawing from family and society.

  • Self-pity and loneliness.

  • Psychological problems e.g. depression.

  • Stress.

  • Suicide and death.

  • Unwanted/unexpected pregnancies.

  • Aggressiveness and violence.

    Lesson Three: the Family Q5. State the different types of families

  • Nuclear family

  • Single parent family

  • Polygamous

  • Extended

    Lesson Two: Marriage Q1. Explain the Traditional African understanding of marriage

  • Marriage is viewed as the focus of existence, i.e. the point where the three members of the community meet (i.e. living, departed and the unborn).

  • A rhythm of life through which everybody must participate.

  • Marriage is a duty/a must/compulsory.

  • Failure to marry means the person has rejected society and the society rejects him in turn.

  • Those who do not marry are considered as sub-human or lawbreakers.
  • Marriage is God ordained.

  • Young boys and girls are prepared for this sacred institution during initiation.

  • They are taught everything pertaining to marriage e.g. sex.

  • Children cement the marriage.

    Q2. What is the importance of children in Traditional African Society

  • They help their parents at old age.

  • Cement a marriage: One without children is considered incomplete.

  • Children (boys) provide security at home and the community.

  • They help in the perpetuation of the family and community name.

  • The departed are reborn through naming of children.

  • Provide labour.

  • It is through children that (new) members meet and get to know each other.

    Young children are introduced to their relatives e.g. during initiation, marriage etc.

  • Children uphold the statue of parents.

    Q3. What is the Christian teaching about marriage?

  • The church defines marriage as a covenant.

  • The Bible teaches that marriage is a divine institution.

  • Marriage is for procreation.

  • Marriage is for companionship.

  • It is for fulfillment of mutual love.

  • Marriage is a remedy against sin – fornication.

  • It should be monogamous.

  • Marriage should be permanent – no divorce.

  • Without or with children marriage is complete.

  • Sex outside marriage is forbidden.

    Q4. What is the importance of courtship period in Traditional African Societies?

  • It helped in identifying a suitable marriage partner.

  • The two families involved established a firm relationship.

  • The boy and the girl had a chance to learn each other’s character.

  • It gives an opportunity to know whether the boy and girl are related.

  • Allows time for exchange of gifts between the two families, thus a firm relationship is established.

  • Time to negotiate the bride-wealth.

  • Boy and girl are instructed about their duties and responsibilities.

    Q5. Why are many people opting for celibacy instead of marriage today?

  • Celibacy is used to refer to the unmarried.

  • Many remain single today because of Christianity – to serve God.

  • Some are born Eunuchs – cannot father children.

  • Education – one may want to pursue education.

  • Career demands – too demanding to allow one get time for a family.

  • Lack of guidance and counseling on marriage and family.

  • Discouragement from failing marriages.

  • Economic reasons – one may not have money for a big house, wedding and bringing up a family.

  • Poor health e.g. epilepsy
  • Economic independence – whereby young people feel satisfied when they have enough money.

  • Parental interference – or whom their son should marry.

  • Disappointing relationships.

    Chapter Six Christian Approaches to Work

    Q1. What is work?

    Answer

  • Work means any human activity, be it manual, intellectual or both.

    Q2. List any six reasons why people work

  • People work for self-satisfaction and fulfillment.

  • For personal development.

  • In order to acquire basic needs of life.

  • To give life meaning, direction and dignity.

  • To provide service for the community.

  • To acquire wealth and status in the community.

  • In order to socialize and grow as a member of a community.

  • To attain independence and stop depending on others.

  • In order to help others e.g. beggars.

    Q3. Explain the Traditional African attitude towards work

  • Work was understood as a fundamental dimension of human existence here on earth.

  • It is through work that human beings were able to change, reorganize and restructure their society.

  • It was regarded as a recreational activity as through it, people built their houses, places of worship, produced art like sculpture and carving.

  • Work was highly valued and the dignity of work was taught early in life.

  • Each member had his own role to play e.g. men went out to hunt, herd etc accompanied with boys while mother did house work with the help of daughters.

  • Grandparents taught the youth how to behave and baby seated.

  • They believed work was God’s will and so they invoked God’s name through prayer, sacrifice to bless their work.

  • They had freedom over their work. No supervision. They decided when to work, when to rest but rest came after work.

  • Work was related to leisure, for people sang, danced and told stories as they worked.
  • Through work, many people exploited talents or learned e.g. building houses, song etc.

  • All were workers – work was compulsory.

  • Work brought people together – solidarity. This is because they shared work (communal work).

    Q3. List some of the factors that have changed the attitude towards work in the modern society

  • Level of education – determine the type of work.

  • Availability of job opportunities.

  • Stiff competition

  • Work is personal unlike in Traditional African Communities where it was social.

  • Negative attitude to work. This is where some people hate manual work.

  • People work for personal gain and gratification.

  • Work is a commodity to be sold to the highest bidder.

    Q4. What are the rights of employers?

  • They have a right to a fair taxation in their business.

  • Get profits from their business.

  • Have association with other employers.

  • Expect loyalty form their employees.

  • Receive from their employees work input as agreed upon on the employment contract.

  • Operate without being black mailed by trade unions.

  • Open business ventures without Government restrictions.

    Q5. State the duties of employees

  • To carry out their duties to the best of their ability without supervision e.g. be punctual, present etc.

  • To respect and protect the property of the employer.

  • To resort to peaceful means of solving problems, and not destructive ways e.g. strike.

  • To work diligently for self – fulfillment and development.

  • To respect the employer and fellow employees.

    Q6. Why has child labour become common in Kenya?

    Definition: – This is the employment of children on a full time basis.

    Reasons:

  • Their labour is cheap.

  • They are not unionisable and can therefore not fight for proper terms and conditions of service.

  • They can easily be lured and fired.

  • They do no have qualifications in any skill so as to negotiate for their terms.

  • They are looked at as a source of income by their parents or guardians.

    Q7. What are the causes of unemployment in Kenya?

  • High population – There are too few job opportunities as compared to the many young people.

  • Hatred for manual work – many youth are looking for white-collar jobs despising the available “blue jobs.”

  • Bribery and corruption – In the job market whereby the rich are able to give while the poor though with good qualifications cannot secure a job.

  • Lack of skills and capital to start self-employment.

  • Bad governance and poor economic policies from the government.

  • SAPS – Structural Adjustment of Programmes i.e. Policy – not giving funds has led to poverty.

  • International policies of globalization that have affected the agric sector that has been the greatest employer in Kenya.

  • Retrenchment of workers in the Civil Service and Private Sectors.

  • Increase in crime that has aggravated insecurity in the country. This has discouraged local and international investors.

    Q8. What can the Government do to reduce unemployment in Kenya?

  • By creating more job opportunities.

  • By starting more industries.

  • Increase of workers by 10% after every 10 years.

  • Encouraging self-employment whereby loans and space are given.

  • Starting of a school curriculum (8.4.4.) – starting that gears students into blue-collar jobs.

  • Starting the District Funds for Rural Development = C.D.F.

  • Stopping rural –urban migration.

  • By Africanisation of jobs – sending away foreign workers.

    Chapter Seven Christian Approaches to Leisure: and the Use and Abuse of Drugs

    Q1. Identify five (5) reasons why the taking of alcohol as a way of spending leisure is condemned

  • It leads to conflicts/quarrels within the family.

  • Misuse of family resources.

  • May lead to addiction.

  • Leads to irresponsible sexual behaviours e.g. prostitution, adultery, and fornication.

  • Could lead to loss of income.

  • May lead to irresponsibility, which leads to accidents such as motor accidents.

    Q2. Write down 5 ways in which modern Christian use their leisure time

  • Organize/attend religious seminars.

  • Participate in church choir/concerts.

  • Offers services to the aged.

  • Read religious literature e.g. Bible.

  • Keep the church and its environment clean.

  • Have fellowship with other Christians.

  • Initiate self-help projects to assist the needy.

  • Provide guidance and counseling to the community.

  • Preach the word of God.

  • Visit relatives and friends.

  • Be with family members.

  • Listen to Christian preaching/songs on radio.

    Q3. Give 5 ways in which drug abuse could affect a Christian family

  • Drains family resources.

  • Fights in families may occur.

  • Leads to diseases.

  • Leads to family break-ups/separation/divorce.

  • It reduces one’s capacity to be productive in the family.

  • Results in making wrong decisions/judgement.

  • Leads to denial of conjugal rights.

  • Leads to loss of religious values.

  • Leads to poor role models for children.

  • Leads to crime/imprisonment.

    Q4. Identify ways in which Christians can overcome temptations to drug abuse

  • Practicing self-control.

  • Praying against being tempted.

  • Seeking guidance and counseling.

  • Avoiding the company of those who misuse drugs.

  • Reading literature on the correct use of drugs.

  • Participating in activities that promote proper use of drugs/healthy activities.

    Q5. Why is leisure important in the life of Christians?

  • Gives one time to visit the sick/needy.

  • For dedicating oneself to God/worshiping God.

  • Provide an opportunity to fellowship with others.

  • It allows one to develop the different talents given by God.

  • It gives one an opportunity to meet new friends/family.

  • One is able to read the word of God.

  • Provides an opportunity for one to preach/evangelize.

  • Provides an opportunity to take care of the environment.

  • Provides an opportunity to guide and counsel others and be guided.

  • Provides time to rest to gain lost energy.

    Q6. What factors have contributed to the misuse or leisure in Kenya today?

  • Too much money/wealth/availability of drugs/contraceptives.

  • Inadequate facilities.

  • Lack of proper guidance/education on how to use leisure.

  • Poverty

  • Inability to make right decisions.

  • Bad company/peer pressure.

  • Watching/reading phonographic materials/negative media.

  • Misunderstanding in families/frustrations.

  • Inability to balance between different activities.

  • Permissiveness

  • Lack of role models

  • Idleness/boredom/unemployment

    Q7. State the factors that have led to the misuse of drugs in Kenya today

  • Poor role models.

  • Stress/depression/rebellion.

  • Peer pressure/curiosity.

  • Irresponsible parenthood.

  • Influence of mass media.

  • Availability of drugs/wealth.

  • Lack of guidance and counseling.

  • Corruption/greed.

  • Poverty.

  • Moral decay/permissiveness in the society.

  • Lack of knowledge/ignorance on use of drugs.

  • Idleness.

  • Urbanization/west culture.

    Chapter Eight

    Christian Response to Issues Related to Wealth, Money and Poverty

    Q1. Explain the biblical teaching on wealth

  • It is a blessing from God.

  • When wealth come with responsibility.

  • Wealth can create a sense of false independence.

  • It should be acquired in just and honest way.

  • Wrong attitude to wealth leads to idolatry.

  • One should seek spiritual wealth, which is permanent and more fulfilling.

  • It is wrong to discriminate others on basis of material possessions.

  • Christians should share whatever wealth they have.

  • Wealth is not supreme good.

  • Wealth gives people independence so that they do not beg.

  • Wealth may bring suffering and insecurity.

  • God is the owner of wealth and people should realize that they are only stewards.

    Q2. Discuss the biblical teaching on acquisition and use of wealth

  • Riches acquired through just and fair means are not condemned.

  • Even if wealth is acquired through just means it should not be idolized.

  • Failing to use wealth to glorify God.

  • God is the source of all riches.

  • Wealth is acquired through obedience to God’s laws.

  • People ought to take care of their wealth not misuse.

  • Wealth should be equally distributed and not concentrated in the hands of a few.

  • Wealth should be used to develop the nation’s infrastructure.

    Q3. Explain ways in which people misuse wealth in Kenya today

  • Indulge in alcohol and drugs.

  • Engaging in immoral practices e.g. prostitution.

  • Gambling which might lead to loss of wealth.

  • Being luxurious/extravagant.

  • Unfair class competition among the wealthy.

  • Using wealth to undermine others e.g. assassination.

  • Using wealth to promote crime.

  • Engaging in risky/dangerous sports or projects e.g. motor racing, wrestling.

  • Using wealth selfishly/lack of social concern.

  • Using wealth to engage young people into immoral practices e.g. sex tourism.

    Q4. Show how misuse of wealth leads to family instability

  • One may indulge in alcohol/drug abuse at the expense of family needs.

  • Engage in immorality/extra-marital sexual relations/prostitution.

  • Leads to misunderstanding on how to use wealth/invest.

  • One uses wealth to engage in gambling.

  • Spoils children/encourages laziness.

  • Arrogance/pride/showing off.

  • One becomes obsessed with wealth and fails to care for the family love – has no time for the family.

  • Inheritance squabbles in case of death.

  • One fails to meet the basic needs for the family.

    Q5. Give ways in which Kenyan Government is alleviating levels of poverty

  • Offering free education.

  • Provision of C.D.F.

  • Allocation of bursary to the needy.

  • Creating and enabling environmental employment in formal and informal sectors (easy access to loans).

  • Providing market for agricultural products e.g. K.C.C, Cereal Board.

  • Provision of low cost health services.

  • Improving infrastructure e.g. roads, electricity.

  • Providing youth fund through the Ministry of Youth Affairs.

    Q6. State the factors that have contributed to high levels of poverty in Kenya today

  • Geographical factors e.g. adverse climate conditions.

  • Historical/colonialism and social factors e.g. poor family background.

  • Political instability, which may lead to civil wars.

  • Poor governance.

  • Regional imbalance of natural resources.

  • Low level of technology.

  • Unemployment.

  • Laziness.

  • Over dependence on foreign aid.

  • Abuse of alcohol and other drugs.

  • Lack of formal education hence no employment.

    Chapter Nine Christian Approaches to Law, Order and Justice Q1. State ways in which Christians can promote unity/peach in the society

  • By reporting criminals to the police.

  • By being good example to others as peacekeepers.

  • Praying for criminals.

  • Building and counseling criminals.

  • Teaching the society the importance of keeping peace.

  • Condemning evil and evildoers.

    Q2. Why should Christians take part in voting?

  • They belong to the society and leadership affects them.

  • It is a God-given duty.

  • In order to choose righteous leaders who will encourage values/virtues.

  • In order to help reduce bribery and corruption and other vices in the society.

    Chapter 10

    Christian Approaches to Selected Issues Related to Modern Science, Technology and the Environment

    Q1. How can modern Christians evaluate scientific and technological discoveries?

  • They should keep in mind that God gave them high-level power of thinking.

  • Discoveries must be used intelligently to solve man’s problems.
  • They should not be used as an insult to God who created all things e.g. in things like plastic surgery, test tube babies etc.

  • Discoveries must be used intelligently to solve man’s problems.

  • Discoveries should not erode Christian values by increasing man’s trust in scientific and technological production.

  • Acknowledge God as the source of all truth including science.

  • Should help man make moral decision and judgments e.g. effect of alcohol, smoking, etc.

  • Man should not be a slave to scientific discoveries instead he should control it.

    Q2. Why is the church in Kenya opposed to plastic surgery?

  • It is against God’s plan of old age and death.

  • It is a sign of lack of appreciation to God’s work of creation.

  • It can lead to death if the operation fails.

  • It interferes with God’s image given at birth.

  • May be very expensive.

  • Emphasis on beauty and pleasing which are seen as idolatry.

  • Certain diseases can be transmitted especially where tissues may be detached from a donor with an infectious disease.

  • Can bring about other operations like diseases.

  • Scientists use it to compete with God’s creation.

  • Leads to vices such as pride.

  • It may lead to criminal activities by the victim due to different appearances.

  • It is a sign of lack of faith in God’s power of creation/healing.

  • It is against human dignity.

    Q3. How have science and technology improved human life?

  • Modern methods of transport and communication have improved social interaction and faster movements.

  • It has improved efficiency at work where machines are used.

  • Has improved agricultural development hence increasing food production.

  • Irrigation and wealth forecasting have too increased in food production.

  • It has brought better health care through modern medical technology.

  • Human beings are now better placed in terms of security matters by use of radar, alarms and electrical fencing.

  • It has led to the creation of job opportunities through industrial development.

  • Formal education and training has equipped human beings with new skills for survival.

  • Trade has been promoted through the use of computers and the Internet.

    Q4. What are the consequences of science and technology in our society today?

  • Unemployment is acute in our society today because computers have taken over.

  • There is exploitation of workers by the employers because they want maximum profits.

  • It has caused pollution and air poisoning.

  • It has caused health hazards and accidents in factories, roads etc.

  • Machines have replaced human labour.

  • Families are separated due to employment whereby a mother lives in the rural with children while the father goes to town to work.

  • It has destroyed family relationships and replaced it with individualism

    2. How Jesus followed the customs and traditions of the Jewish people

  • Betrayal in the City by Francis Imbuga
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