History and Government Questions and Answers

Online KCSE Revision History and Government Questions and Answers

Form 1. Questions and Answers Emergence of Kenyan Societies

1. a) Give five reasons, which led to the migration of the Cushites into Kenya before 1800

i) Need for pasture for their animals

ii) Population pressure

iii) External attacks

iv) Outbreak of disease

v) Family and clan feuds

vi) Escape from drought and famine

vii) Adventure

viii) Search for fertile land

b) Describe the economic activities of the Cushites in the pre - colonial period

i) The Cushites practiced pastoralism

They kept camels, goats, cattle and donkeys

ii) Some of Cushites who lived in oasis and along the river valleys practiced subsistence agriculture

They grew grain crops, vegetables, dates and bananas

iii) They practiced iron smelting

They made iron eg swords, knives, bangles and arrowheads

iv) They hunted wild game, gathered rots, vegetables and fruits

v) They engaged in craft industry

For example produced leather items such as handbags, belts and clothing

vi) Some of the Cushites who lived near rivers, and along the Indian Ocean practiced fence traps and hooks and line

vii) They traded with their neighbours such as the Samburu and Pokomo

They trade in iron implements and leather products

2. a) State five results of the settlement of the Gikuyu in the Mount Kenya Region during the pre colonial period

i) The settlement of the Agikuyu in the Mt Kenya region led to the intermarriage with their neighbours e.g Akamba and Maasai

ii) It brought about the expansion of trade in the region,

iii) Some communities were displaced by the Agikuyu eg the Okiek

iv) Some communities were assimilated by the Agikuyu eg the Okiek/increase in the population in the area

v) It promoted cultural interaction between communities eg dressing and ceremonies,

vi) It promoted conflicts in the region over land grazing areas and cattle

b) Describe the political organization of the Agikuyu during the precolonial period

i) The Agikuyu were divided into clans

Each clan was made up of several sub-clans (Mbari) with common descent, and usually living in the same ridge

ii) Each ridge was under a Muthamaki (spokesman)

He was the chairman of the council

Muthamaki emerged due to his personally and leadership potential

iii) Each sub

  • clan was ruled by a council of elders/kiama

    The council performed religious, It, “administrative and judicial roles

    iv) There existed two generation sets (Marika) Mwangi and Maina

    The council performed religious administrative and judicial roles

    v) The warrior class was responsible for defence

    A council of war directed them

    vi) Other leaders such as the prophets, priests and diviners played important role in the society

    vii) Some individuals rose to top positions of political importance in the late 19th Century as a result of exemplary contributions to the society and wealth acquired

    3. a) State five economic activities of the Kalenjin during the pre-colonial period

  • The Kalenjin practiced livestock keeping
  • They practiced crop farming/agriculture

  • They were practicing iron making

  • Hunted and gathered wild fruits and rocks

    b) Explain the functions of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi during the recolonial period

  • The Orkoiyot presided over religious functions such as offering sacrifices to God

  • He advised the council on matters pertaining to the day running of the community affairs such as ownership of land

  • He advised and blessed the warriors before they went to war

  • He foretold what was going to happen in the future eg success in war, famine and calamity

  • He had the ability to make rain by communicating with the spirits of the ancestors

  • He was chief medicine man

    4. State three functions of the Laibon in traditional Maasai society

  • The Laibon of the Maasai blessed the warriors before they went to war

  • He presided over religious activities/ceremonies
  • He advised councils of elders

  • He foretold future events

  • They practiced handicrafts/craftwork for instance they made pots, weaved baskets and made leather items such as sandals

  • They hunted wild animals for food and gathered fruits, herbs and honey

  • Cattle raiding was considered an important economic activity

    They raided their neighbours such as Agikuyu for cattle

    5 Give two functions of the council of elders among the Akamba during the pre-colonial period

    i) They had powers to declare war and bring peace

    ii) They presided over religious and other ritual functions

    iii) They were the custodians of the sacred roles of ethics

    iv) They offered advise to the community when need arose

    v) They ruled the community

    6. a) What factors made the Cushites migrate into Kenya during the pre- colonial period?

    i) Hostile neighbours in their homeland

    ii) Succession in disputes/feuds/family conflicts

    iii) Search for pastures for their livestock

    iv) Natural calamities such as drought, v) Search for settlement

    vi) Population pressure

    vii) Spirit of adventure

    b) Explain five results of the migration of the Cushites into Kenya during the pre-colonial period

    i) The Cushites came with their own livestock and so ended livestock farming in areas they where settled

    ii) Their settlement led to increased rivalry and ownership of land

    iii) Some Cushites who had been converted to Islam spread religion in the areas where they settled,

    iv) The Cushites attacked the Eastern Bantu Communities who had settled at Shungwaya, and forced them to move to their present homeland in Kenya

    v) The Cushites intermarried with the communities they found hence increase of population,

    vi) Trade developed between the Cushites and the communities they came into contact with

    For example they exchanged livestock products such as milk and butter with the Bantu in return they obtained grains from Bantu

    vii) The Bantu borrowed some of their cultural practice eg circumcision, iron making,

    viii) Cushites acquired mixed farming from the Bantu

    7. a) Explain the result of the migration and settlement of the Somali into Kenya by 1800

    i) The Somali people intermarried with the people they came into contact with such as Pokomo and Boran

    ii) Their settlement in Kenya led to the expansion of trade in the region,

    iii) Demand for agricultural produce by the Somali led to the expansion of trade in the region

    iv) Their settlement led to the increased conflicts between the communities over resources such as water and pasture

    v) Their migration and settlement led to the displacement and redistribution of people where they settled

    vi) Led to cultural exchange between the Somali and the people they came into contact with

    For example the neighbouring communities adopted Islam from the Somali

    vii) Assimilation of some communities they came into contact with eg Oromo

    viii) Their settlement in high agricultural potential areas eg river valleys encouraged some of them to practice crop farming

    b) Describe the political organization of the Somali in Kenya during the colonial period

    i) The basic political unit of the Somali was the clan

    Each clan had its pre-colonial period

    ii) A council of elders was inn charge of the day to day affairs of the clan eg making major clan decisions and settled disputes

    iii) A council maintained law and orders and was the final court of appeal,

    iv) The age set system was an important institute among the Somali and all male members of the society belonged to the age -set

    Each age set performed specific role/duties,

    v) The Somali had leaders called Sultan whose role was mainly advisory,

    vi) There existed warriors whose main duty was to protect the community against external attacks and acquire possessions for the community,

    vii) There existed people with special responsibilities eg Sheikhs and medicine men

    They were highly regarded in the community and their opinions were sought before important decisions were made

    8. Give TWO factors which led to the migration and settlement of the Iteso into Kenya by 1800

    i) Search of land/pasture/water for their herds

    ii) Family/clan feuds/internal conflicts,

    iii) External attacks/pressure

    iv) Increase in population

    v) Outbreak of diseases/epidemics

    vi) Natural calamities eg drought

    vii) Spirit of adventure

    9. Name two sources of the History of Kenyan communities during the pre

  • colonial period

    i) Oral tradition

    ii) Archaeology/artifacts

    iii) Written sources/records eg books, magazines, diaries and journals

    iv) Linguistic genetics/anthropology

    10. In what ways did the Kenyan communities interacted during the pre-colonial period?

    i) Through trade

    ii) Through warfare

    iii) Through intermarriage

    iv) Through common festivals/ceremonies eg wrestling and cultural exchange eg language

    11.a) Describe the migration and settlement of the Eastern Bantu speaking communities in Kenya up to 1800

    i) They migrated from the original home in the Congo basin and settled in Taita Hills area around Mt

    Kilimanjaro by the 2nd Century AD

    ii) Some of them later migrated northwards along the Coast to Shungwaya in present day Somali

    These were the ancestors of Mijikenda, Pokomo and Taita

    iii) The ancestors of the Mount Kenya groups moved into the interior along the Tana River

    iv) From about 1450 the communities that had settled in Shungwaya were forced to disperse from the are due to external pressure from the Cushites

    v) The ancestors of the Mijikenda and taita moved south and established their settlement along the Coast while those of the Pokomo migrated into the interior and settled along river Tana while the Ameru migrated to the slopes of Mt.Kenya

    b) Discuss the result of the migration and settlement of the eastern Bantu into Kenya by 1900

    i) The incoming Bantu communities had iron weapons which enabled them to displace some of the communities which they came into contact with for example Gumba in the slopes of Mt

    Kenya,

    ii) They intermarried with their neighbours/those people they came into contact with such as the Cushites and Nilotes

    iii) Their settlement led to expansion/development of trade between them and neighbours

    iv) There was cultural exchange between the Bantu and their Cushitic and Nilotic neighbours

    v) Expansion of the Bantu created pressure over land, which led to inter community conflict and wars

    vi) Inter

  • community conflicts led to loss of lives and destruction of property,

    vii) Adoption of some agricultural practices from the Bantu

    12. What was the base of the political organization among the Cushites during the pre colonial period?

  • The clan

    13. Identify the TWO economic activities which the Maasai acquired as a result of interacting with the Agikuyu during their settlement in Kenya

    i) Some Maasai sections eg the kwavi became agriculturalist/farmers/ cultivators

    ii) Some Maasai became traders

    14. What religious functions did the Orkoiyot of the Nandi perform during the pre colonial period?

    i) Mediating between God and the People/acting as a priest

    ii) Offering sacrifices to God on behalf of the people

    iii) Blessing people before they undertook special activities such as going to war/raids

    15. Give two main factors which influenced the Abaluhya to become crop farmers by the beginning of the nineteenth century

    i) Possession of iron and iron working skills,

    ii) Settlement in areas with suitable climate,

    iii) Existence of indigenous crops

    16. Name two Bantu communities in Kenya whose ancestors settled in the Mt.Elgon area before migrating to their present homeland

    i) Abagusii

    ii) Abakuria

    iii) Abaluyha

    17. a) Why did the Bantu migrate from their coastal settlement at Shungwaya in the sixteenth century

    i) Invasion of the settlement by the incoming Cushites

    ii) Internal conflicts/feuds

    iii) Population increase

    iv) Outbreak of diseases/epidemics/natural calamities

    v) Search for more land for settlement and pasture

    b) Describe the political organization of the Mijikenda during pre - colonial period

    i) The Mijikenda were organized into 4 to 6 clans with many sub

  • clans eg Giriama

    ii) Each clan lived in protected villages known as Kayas

    iii) Young men became members of age - sets after going through circumcision

    iv) Senior age - sets members made up the governing council - Kambi

    18. State two ways in which the Akamba interacted with the Agikuyu in the pre - colonial period

    i) Through trade

    ii) Through intermarriages

    iii) Through wars and conflicts over ownership of land, animals

    19. Give two economic reasons why the Cushites migrated from their original homestead into Kenya

    i) Search for pasture/drought

    ii) Outbreak of animal and human disease

    iii) Search for land for cultivation

    iv) Internal conflicts

    v) Invasion by outsiders

    vi) Overpopulation

    20. Identify the main reason why the Mijikenda lived in Kenya

  • To protect themselves against attacks by hostile neighbours

    21. a) Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the plain Nilotes in Kenya

    i) There settlement increased conflicts and insecurity in the area as they rivaled other communities over the control of resources

    ii) They influenced the way of life of other communities they found

    iii) They displaced some of the communities they found in the area such as the Southen, Cushites

    iv) Their settlement 'led to an increase in population in the region therefore forcing some communities to migrate

    v) They promoted commerce in the area as they traded with their neighbours^ practice agriculture

    vi) The plain Nilotes intermarried with their neighl ours such as Meru, Abaluyha and Kalejin

    vii) Some communities borrowed the political systems from the Maasai for example the development of the office of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi was due to their interaction with the Maasai

    viii) It led to the enrichment of the languages spoken in the region as they interacted with other communities

    ix) Some communities/clans were assimilated by the incoming plain Nilotes

    b) Describe the political organization of the Maasai during the pre

  • colonial period

    i) The council of elders ruled the Maasai

    The council consisted of ritual leaders, clan heads and family heads among others

    ii) The council of elders was responsible for maintaining law and order, making decisions about ceremonies, declaring war and settling disputes

    iii) The age set system was an important institution among the Maasai

    There were several age sets and each had leadership roles in turns

    iv) The existed a class of warriors, the Morans, who used to preside over religious functions and advise the community during crises

    v) There were ritual leaders among the Maasai

    Their function was to preside over religious functions and advise the community during crises

    vi) The most important ritual head was the Oloiboni

    By the mid 19th Century the institution of the Oloiboni had become more influential

    Some outstanding were Mbatiani and Lenana

    22. State one way in which the Abagusii and the Kipsigis interacted during the pre

  • colonial period

    i) Intermarriages

    ii) Trade

    iii) Raids/warfare

    23. State two functions of the council of elders (Njuri Ncheke) of the Ameru

    i) Solve land and inheritance disputes

    ii) Acted as the Court of Appeal

    iii) Presided over religious functions

    iv) Organized social functions

    v) Advised warriors on when to go wars/raids

    vi) Negotiated peace settlements

    24. a) What were the results of the settlement of the Luo in Kenya during the pre

  • colonial period? i) Assimilation of some communities they found in the areas eg. Abasuba ii) Intermarriage with the neighbours eg. Abagusii

    iii) Displacement of some communities eg. Abagusii

    iv) Increased conflicts over control of resources between the Luo and their neighbours

    v) Expansion of trade with their neighbours eg. iron tools

    vi) Occupation of fertile land influenced the Luo to adopt farming in a large scale

    b) Describe the socio - political organization of the Luo during the pre - colonial period

    i) The luo were organized into clans, each with a common ancestry

    ii) The clans were organized into larger units (Gwenge) which were self

  • governing

    iii) Each Gwenge was administered by a council of Elders

    iv) The council administered justice and served as a final court of appeal

    v) The council coordinated religious functions

    vi) They had a system of chieftainship (Ruoth) who administered with the help of Council of Elders

    vii) There were ritual experts such as diviners, medicine men and healers

    viii) There existed a class of warriors for the defence of the community standing army

    ix) They believed in the existence of One God (Nyasaye)

    They prayed to God through priests

    x) They evenrated / worshipped the ancestral spirits

    xi) They had sacred places set aside for worship

    xii) They practiced initiation rites Eg removal of lower teeth / front teeth

    xiii) They celebrated important Eg harvest, marriage through drinking, eating, wrestling and dancing

    25. a) Give five reasons which led to the migration of the Cushites into Kenya before 1800

    i) Need for pasture for their animals

    ii) Population pressures

    iii) External attacks

    iv) Outbreak of diseases

    v) Family and clan feuds

    vi) Escape from drought and famine

    vii) Adventure

    viii) Search for fertile land

    b) Describe the economic activities of the Cushites in the pre - colonial period

    i) The Cushites practised pastoralism

    They kept camels, goats, cattle and donkeys

    ii) Some Cushites who lived in oasis and along the river valleys, practiced subsistence agriculture

    They grew grain crops vegetables, dates and bananas

    iii) They practiced iron smelting

    They made iron tools eg.swords, knives, bangles and arrowheads

    iv) They hunted wild game and gathered roots, vegetables and fruits

    v) They engaged in craft industry

    For example they produced leather items such as handbags, belts and clothing

    vi) Some of the Cushites who lived near rivers and along the Indian Ocean practiced fishing using fence traps, hooks and line

    vii) They traded with their neighbours such as the Samburu and Pokomo - They traded in iron implements and leather products

    Sources of History and Government

    1. a) Give five reasons for studying history

    i) Assumption of knowledge about the past

    ii) Using it to develop a sense of time

    iii) To develop a sense of belonging/culture

    iv) To learn from past mistakes and achievement

    v) Provide intellectual fulfilment

    vi) To develop critical thinking/reasoning

    vii) Helps us appreciate why we need a government

    viii) Instill a sense of patriotism and national pride

    ix) Helps us in attainment of a profession

    b) Explain three limitations of using the following:

    i) Oral tradition

  • Information may be exaggerated and this may distort history
  • Some information may be forgotten/omitted due to loss of memory

  • Some information is based on dominant groups such as leaders/heroes; this may not correct bias

  • It is difficult to give correct dates and chronology of events/wrong dates

  • Some information may be deliberately concealed by informants

  • Information given may be false

  • It is an expensive and time consuming method

    ii) Archaeology

  • It is an expensive method because one has to hire labourers to excavate the sites and take artifacts and fossils to the laboratory

  • It is time consuming to organize visits to museums and archaeological sites where information can be obtained

  • It is difficult to locate archeological sites

  • Some of the fragile artifacts and fossils are destroyed by weather or by man during the process of excavation

  • It is limited to the study of ancient period

  • It is not easy to determine the date when events took place; it can only be estimated through carbon dating system/carbon 14 dating

  • Sometimes the information is inaccurate as it is based on inferences/scanty information

    2. Identify two sources of information which Historians use tow rite the History of Africa

    i) Archaeology/palaeontology

    ii) Oral tradition

    iii) Linguistics

    iv) Anthropology

    v) Botany/zoology/biology/genetics

    vi) written records

    vii) Rock painting/sculpture/engravings

    viii) Geology

    3. Give two limitations of using written records as a source of African History

    i) Most of the written records on Africa History were written by foreigners who put their biases in the records

    ii) Some written records on African History contain inaccurate information

    iii) Information may be exaggerated,

    iv) It is difficult to correct dates/chronology of events

    4. State two shortcomings of oral tradition as a source of history

    i) They may contain biases

    ii) They maybe inconsistent/inaccurate/false

    iii) Some of the records are not readily available with ease for reference

    iv) Written records are limited only to those who can read and write

    5. What is oral traditional as a Source of History?

    Oral traditional as a source of Hisory involves the study of historical information based on what has been handed down from one generation to another by words of mouth/verbally

    6. State one advantage of written materials as a source of History

    i) Written materials ensure relatively permanent storage of Historical events for future reference,

    ii) Written materials can be easily translated to different languages relatively accurate storage of historical events

    iii) They relatively provide accurate storage of historical events,

    iv) Written materials cannot be easily distorted/infected with/not easily changed

    The Early Man

    1. List economic activities of early man during the Stone Age period

    i) Hunting wild animals

    ii) Gathering wild fruits, roots and vegetables, insects and eggs

    iii) Fishing

    iv) Crop farming

    v) Livestock keeping

    vi) Trading

    vii) Weaving/basketry

    viii) Making stone implements and bone implements

    ix) Pottery

    2. Identify two aspects of the culture of the early man that had their origins in the late Stone Age

    i) Growing crops/agriculture

    ii) Establishing permanent settlements

    iii) Making microlitic composite tools

    iv) Domesticating animals

    v) Beginning of religion and government

    vi) Pottery and basketry

    3. a) Describe two theories about the origin of human beings

    i) Scientific theory maintains that human beings evolved from ape

  • like creatures and developed through adoption over a long period of time

    ii) The creation theory

  • according to many world religions Eg Christianity, Islam and Judaism, the human race was created by God at a specific time in history to fulfill God's purpose

    iii) Mythical or traditional theories/traditional legends

    b) Discuss the benefits of the discovery of fire to early man

    i) The discovery and use of fire made it possible for early man to keep warm during cold nights and seasons

    ii) Fire enhanced the security of early man as it was kept burning to keep away wild animals and other possible sources of danger

    iii) It was a source of lighting at night which facilitated other productive activities at night

    iv) Fire improved hunting activities of the early man as it was used to harden the tips of the tools for hunting

    v) Early man used fire to extract poison from plants which they used for hunting

    vi) Fire was used as a source of food preservation method

    For example drying meat or fish

    vii) Fire was used to attract animals towards set traps so that they were easily trapped

    viii) Fire was used to cook food and make it palatable and more nutritious/tasty

    ix) Fire was used to bake and harden wood for special use Eg stools and hoe

  • sticks

    x) It was used for communication

    4. Name two factors which influenced early man to begin domestic animals

    i) Changes in climatic conditions resulted into aridity which forced animals to migrate,

    ii) Over hunting by early man led to the reduction of animal population

    iii) Increase in human population forced the animals to migrate further away

    iv) Adoption of settled life necessitated domestication of animals

    5. State two distinct characteristics of Homo erectus

    i) Homo erectus had a big brain capacity / higher thinking capacity

    , ii) Homo erectus walked upright/had an upright posture/bipedal

    iii) Homo erectus had the ability to grasp objects

    6. a) What things do archaeologists use to reconstruct the activities of people who lived in prehistoric times?

    i) The remains of the weapons that they used

    ii) The remains of the tools that they used

    iii) The remains of animals found at the prehistoric sites

    iv) The remains of plants they lived on

    v) The remains of their dwelling places

    vi) The remains of their artwork eg rock paintings

    vii) The remains of traditional craft

    viii) The remains of beads

    ix) The remains of coins

    x) The remains of garments

    xi) The remains of charcoal

    b) Explain five ways in which Homo erectus attempted to improve his way of life

    i) Improved stone tools through the use of Levallois method

    ii) Invented fire which was used for cooking, lighting, warming and protection against wild animals

    iii) Made and lived in caves for more permanent settlement and security

    iv) Made clothes out of animal’s skins by scrapping them clean, using efficient stone tools

    v) Had thick skull

    vi) Had well developed thumb for grasping

    vii) Had small jaws compared to earlier forms

    7 State one characteristic of Homo sapiens

    i) Was thick and heavily built

    ii) Homo Sapiens had a large brain

    iii) Walked upright/had an upright posture/bipedal

    iv) Had refined speech

    v) Had thick skull

    vi) Had well developed thumb for grasping

    vii) Had small jaws compared to earlier forms

    8 Give one characteristics of Homo Erectus

    i) Homo erectus was upright/bipedal/walked with two legs

    ii) Homo erectus was more intelligent than earlier apes/higher thinking capacity

    iii) Homo erectus had a bigger brain capacity

    iv) Homo erectus had a more developed speech then the earlier apes

    v) Homo erectus had a more developed hand for grasping tools

    vi) Homo erectus had a long skull

    vii) Homo erectus had a long protruding jaw

    Agrarian Revolution

    1. a) State three factors which contributed to the development of agriculture in ancient Egypt

    i) Availability of water for irrigation/presence of flood water

    ii) Existence of good soils deposited by the Nile during annual floods

    iii) Foreign influence from South West Asia where crop farming was first practiced

    iv) Invention and use of farming tools/ploughs/iron tools

    v) Favourable topographic factors enabled Egyptians to use canal irrigation

    vi) Invention of the shadoof and other methods of irrigation by the Egyptians

    vii) Contribution of the Egyptian rulers Eg Menes who dominated the Nile

    viii) Storage tanks and knowledge of weather forecast

    b) Explain six factors which have led to inadequate food supply in Africa

    i) Rapid population growth has put a lot of pressure on the available food resources, leading to shortages

    ii) Poor transport network has led to uneven distribution of food supplies in some African countries,

    iii) Poor and inadequate storage facilities have led to wastage of a lot of food

    iv) Most African countries lack adequate capital for agriculture development/financial problems,

    v) Poor farming methods have led to low agricultural yields,

    vi) The eating habits have created artificial food shortages in Africa as some people prefer certain types of the drought resistance crops

    vii) Political stability in some African countries has undermined food production due to insecurity,

    viii) Infertile soils

    ix) Conservative attitude of Africans in adopting modern farming methods

    x) Decline in growing of the drought resistance crops

    xi) Poor economic planning/no motivation to farmers/poor marketing facilities

    xii) Low income/poverty

    xiii) Land tenure systems in some African countries

    xiv) Food production has been affected by rural - urban migration, which has created shortage of labour in the agricultural sectors

    xv) Overdependence on donations and foreign aid has made it difficult for African countries to find solutions to their problems of food shortage/importation,

    xvi) Over - emphasis of cash crops has led to the decline of food production,

    xvii) Destructive human activities such as cutting down of trees have turned productive land into wasteland thus leading to low food production

    2. a) State three agricultural practices used in Europe before the Agrarian Revolution

    i) Small- scale farming

    ii) Shifting agriculture / cultivation

    iii) Subsistence farming / peasant farming

    iv) The use of simple agricultural implements eg hoes, sticks

    b) Explain the impact of the Agrarian revolution in Europe

    i) The use of new and improved farming methods led to the high yields, leading to the security

    ii) Introduction of new crops such as wheat, beans and maize, turnips, clove led to the diversification of agriculture

    iii) Establishment of large - scale farms and plantations farming replaced subsistence farming,

    iv) Agricultural research finding led to the development of exotic livestock breeds and better quality crops

    v) Production of sufficient food led to improved standards of living and high life expectancy,

    vi) Abundance of food led to increase in population,

    vii) Mechanization of farming methods led to the redundancy of manual worker/unemployment

    viii) Establishment of large farms encouraged the rich landlords to buy off poor farmers' land – thus creating a class of landless people/some became hired labourers on the farms,

    ix) Displacement of the poor led to rural - urban migration

    x) The price of land went up

    xi) Provided industries with raw materials Eg wool and labour which led to growth of industries

    xii) Those who could migrate to abroad Eg Canada, USA, South Asia Stages,

    xiii) Improvement of transport network eg roads, railways etc

    xiv) Led to expansion of trade

    3. a) State three factors which contributed to the development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia

    i) Availability of indigenous crops eg barely, wheat, grapes and onions/animals eg sheep, goats, pigs, cattle etc

    ii) Existence of fertile land along rivers Tigris and Euphrates

    iii) Availability of water for irrigation/presence of rivers Tigris and Euphrates

    iv) Invention of farming tools such as hoes, ploughs, sickles and seed drill

    v) Existence of transport system in form of donkeys, canoes, river transport

    vi) Availability of slave labourers

    vii) Settlement of Sumerians people who had that knowledge of agriculture from Iranian plateau (from outside Persia)

    viii) Demand for food to fed the growing populations/increase in population

    ix) Political stability which enabled the people to practice agriculture

    x) Construction of dykes to control floods

    b) What was the result of the development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia

    i) The development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia led to the production of enough food for the population,

    ii) The production of food enabled people to establish permanent settlements/people became sedentary

    iii) Places where people met to exchange food surpluses developed into urban centres,

    iv) Food production allowed some people time to engage in other productive trades Eg Basket weaving

    This led to job specialization/social classes/stratification,

    v) Surplus agricultural products led to the development of trade between communities,

    vi) Food production led to an increase in population,

    vii) Settled life led to the development of a centralized system of government to cater for the protection of the people and their property,

    viii) Need to transport agricultural products led to invention of the wheel

    The wheel was used to transport grains to markets and stores

    ix) Promoted religion

    x) Need to keep records on agricultural activities led to the development of writing

    xi) The standards of living were improved

    4. Name two main cash crops that were grown in North America during the Agrarian Revolution

    i) Tobacco

    ii) Cotton

    iii) Corn/maize iv) Wheat

    5. Identify two factors which favoured the development of crop growing in ancient Egypt

    i) Availability of reliable sources of water

    ii) Existence of indigenous type of grains eg barley, wheat

    iii) Existence of fertile Soils along river Nile

    iv) The invention and use of the Shadoof for irrigation and other farm implements

    v) Existence of a stable government under Pharaoh

    vi) Availability of labour

    vii) Existence of writing helped them to keep accurate records of seasons and volume of food

    6. Name two ways in which railway transport contributed to the Agrarian Revolution in Western Europe

    i) Railway provided efficient and reliable means of transport for agricultural products,

    ii) Provided efficient transport for farm machinery and labour

    7. State one way in which the Agrarian Revolution contributed to rural urban migration in Europe

    i) Mechanization of farming rendered peasants jobless so they migrated to urban centers in search of job opportunities,

    ii) The enclosing system made many people landless

    8. a) State one main way in which the Agrarian Revolution contributed to the development of urban centers in Europe

    i) Availability of water from river Ganges and Indus for irrigating farmlands, ii) Existence of fertile soils which were deposited along the river Valleys,

    iii) Existence of fertile indigenous crops in the area

    iv) Changes in climatic conditions decreased the supply of food from the natural environment thus cultivation

    v) Use of improved methods of irrigation Eg earth dams and dykes,

    vi) Availability of adequate rainfall during certain times of the year promoted farming

    b) What were the effects of the Agrarian Revolution?

    i) It led to increase food production which enhanced food security for the people

    ii) Led to a more settled life as food was easily available

    iii) Led to the development of urban centers/towns in agricultural collection centers along the river valleys,

    iv) Some of the agricultural products were exchanged for those commodities which people lacked leading to expansion of trade,

    v) Availability of food led to population increase,

    vi) Since people did not spend too much time looking for food, they found themselves with time for leisure Eg sports

    9. What factors led to the development of early agricultural in India?

    The enclosure systems/the consolidation of farms forced people to migrate from the rural areas to urban centers

    10. a) What factors favoured the beginning of agriculture during the New Stone Age?

    i) Development of tools (microlithic, wooden plough e.t.c ii) Settled life/development of settlement

    iii) Increase in population leading to high demand of food

    iv) Climatic changes which made natural food scarce

    v) Hunting and gathering was becoming tiresome

    vi) Availability of a variety of seeds/cereals eg wheat, barley vii) The remains of their dwelling places

    b) Explain six factors which promoted plantation farming in Europe during the Agrarian Revolution

    i) The invention of machines for extensive farming Eg seed drill, iron plough ii) Discovery of fertilizers which led to high yields/manure

    iii) Discovery of pesticides and fungicides which facilitates control of crops diseases

    iv) Improvement in transport especially the railway which facilitated transportation of bulky goods/farm products and farm workers

    v) High demand for food at rapidly growing urban population

    vi) Demand for agricultural and industrial raw materials

    vii) Reclamation of wasteland - which gave rise to more arable land

    viii) Development of new breeds of crops as a result of research in agriculture

    ix) Migration of people to towns created room for plantation farming in the rural areas,

    x) The enclosure acts/systems pushed people out of the rural areas and created room for plantation agriculture

    11. Identify two similarities between early agriculture and Mesopotamia and Egypt

    i) Developed a system of storage and preservation of farm products/fertile soil/silt

    ii) Availability of water and transport

    iii) Farmers depended on flood water for farming,

    iv) They developed a system of irrigation

    v) They used farm implements made of stone, wood and later metal Eg ex, plough

    vi) They traded in farm produce

    vii) They reared animals, cattle, sheep, chicken

    viii) Planted indigenous crops

  • wheat, barley, oat etc

    ix) Used both human and animal labour

    x) Developed arithmetic/writing to keep farm records

    12. Explain 4 advantages of the land tenure system in Britain

    i) It led to the development of large scale farming thus bringing more land under production

    ii) It led to increased food production since more land was brought under cultivation

    iii) Increased food production led to an increase in population

    iv) It facilitated the mechanization of agriculture Eg the use of the seed drill, mechanical thresher and combine harvester,

    v) Increased agricultural production led to the establishment of industries which provided employment opportunities to the displaced people,

    vi) It enhanced control of the spread of pests and diseases and led to production of high quality produce

    vii) It led to the appreciation of value of land

    viii) Improved transport system to transport agricultural produce to the market,

    ix) Invention of new methods of maintaining soil fertility Eg use of manure, crop rotation and use of fertilizer,

    x) Led to the establishment of organization that disseminated information about the agricultural inventions

    For example the Royal Agricultural Society

    xi) New methods of animal husbandry were practiced for example selective breeding of livestock,

    xii) Mechanization of Agriculture led to the growth of local and international trade

    13. a) Describe three factors that facilitated the development of agriculture in America before 1800

    i) European immigration into the region led to population increase and demand for food,

    ii) European immigrants introduced new methods of farming,

    iii) Introduction of new crops

    iv) Availability of slave labour led to clearing of forests for farm

    v) Suitability of climate for agriculture

    vi) Presence of suitable soils for different types of crops

    vii) Settlement of enterprising European emigrants who wished to make a living through agriculture,

    viii) Accountability of indigenous crops

    b) Discuss the factors that led to the Agrarian Revolution in North America

    i) The introduction of the enclosure system in Britain forced landless to migrate r

    o North America where they introduced new farming methods,

    ii) Availability of land for farming of different crop varieties such as tobacco, cotton and wheat,

    iii) Government recognition of individual land ownership (The homestead Act 1860) encouraged settlers to farm

    iv) The granting of financial aid to farmers to buy and develop land/credit facilities

    v) The introduction of slave labour ensured adequate supply of labour for farming

    vi) Determination by the European immigrants to succeed in agriculture as there was no other source of livelihood,

    vii) The increase in demand of agricultural raw materials by European industrialists encouraged expansion in agriculture

    viii) The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 by Eli Whitney Marke led to increase cotton acreage,

    ix) The mechanization of agriculture stimulated agricultural productivity Eg the steel plough and the mechanical reaper

    x) The development of food preservation methods of canning and refrigeration encouraged farmers to produce more

    xi) The development of good transport and communication network led to increased agricultural productivity as products reached markets on time,

    xii) The application of science and research of agricultural (Eg biotechnology development of new foods from existing crops, use of fertilizers and genetic engineering in livestock production) facilitated the Agrarian Revolution,

    xiii) Increase in population created demand for food which led to expansion of agriculture

    Use of Metals and Industrial Revolution

    1. a) Give four inventions that improved textile manufacturing it Britain during the industrial revolution

    i) Population growth from the mid 18th Century expanded the internal market for manufactured goods

    ii) The agricultural revolution in Britain meant that more food could be produced for main centres, the rising population could be fed and many peasant thrown off toe land could become industrial workers/labour

    iii) Britain was the leading trading nation because of her large merchants/navy that guarded ships,

    iv) Empire provided Britain with raw materials and captive markets necessary for industrialization,

    v) Britain's network consisting of roads, railways, canals, bridges and harbours was extended and this helped industrialization

    vi) The merchant and middle class who favoured industrialization increased their influence and pressured the government to adopt measures for favourable industrialization/enterprising merchant's courage

    vii) The existence of well

  • established cottage industry provided a base for industrialization

    viii) Availability of coal and iron, which served as the basis of industrialization,

    ix) Some of the inventions that stimulated the industrial revolution such as steam engine were made in Britain

    x) Britain enjoyed relative peace compared to other European countries/political stability,

    xi) No internal custom barriers eg tariffs

    xii) Scientific invention/knowledge/skill

    xiii) Availability of capital

    xiv) Banking plus insurance system

    b) State six reasons why the industrialization revolution first took place in Britain

    i) Availability of new machines and methods of production

    ii) Masses of manufactured goods were produced on a scale unprecedented in history

    iii) It improved transport and communication

    iv) It led to an enormous expansion of local and international trade

    v) It created new employment opportunities

    vi) It led to the expansion of urbanization

    vii) It intensified economic rivalries among nations

    viii) It revolutionized agricultural production

    ix) It raised the standards of living of the people

    x) It sharpened social stratification

    xi) It led to the expansion of the banking industry

    xii) Full utilization or exploitation of natural resources

    xiii) Specialization in jobs

    c) State six economic effects of the industrial revolutions in Europe

    i) Overcrowding in urban centres/rural-urban migration,

    ii) Child labour/women/exploitation of labour

    iii) Poor working conditions, low wages/long working hours

    iv) Spread of diseases/poor sanitation,

    v) Increase in crime,

    vi) Unemployment

    vii) Class struggle

    viii) Pollution

    ix) Poor/lack of housing/slums/shanties

    2. Identify three uses of bronze in the Kingdom of Lerlin

    i) It was used to make weapons

    ii) It was used to make decorations/ornaments

    iii) It was used as item of trade

    iv) It was used for plaques for kings and figurines

    Form 2

    Kenya and the World Up to Kenya 19th Century

    1. a) Why were the Portuguese interested in establishing their control over the Kenya coast during 16th century AD

    i) To control trade with coastal towns

    ii) To spread Christianity/revenge on the Muslims who had conquered and rolled their homeland for over 700 years/look for Pastor John,

    iii) The Kenyan Coast was strategically located on the way to the east and could act as a base for their trading and navy ships

    iv) To control the Indian Ocean

    b) Explain six effects of Portuguese rule on the Kenyan Coast

    i) It led to the decline of the Indian Ocean trade/decline of gold trade

    ii) It led to the decline and ruin of towns

    iii) It led to the loss of lives during their constant raids on coastal towns

    iv) The heavy taxes that were imposed on the coastal people hindered the development of commercial and agricultural resources at the coast

    v) Thy built Fort Jesus, which became a historic monument in the subsequent years

    vi) They brought new crops to the Coast eg maize, groundnuts and pineapples

    vii) They introduced the use farmyard manure

    viii) Their language enriched the Kiswahili language

    ix) The introduction of guns and other advanced weapons by the Portuguese contributed to insecurity in the region

    x) Commercial links between the Kenyan Coast and the Arabian peninsular were almost completely cut off

    xi) Some Africans were converted to Christianity

    xii) Close links between the Kenyan Coast and India developed

    xiii) Their conquest of the Kenyan Coast exposed the area to other European powers

    2. a) Apart from trade, give three reasons why Arabs came to the Kenyan Coast by 1500

    i) Some Arabs fled to the Kenyan Coast as a result of religious and political Persecution at home,

    ii) Some Arab Muslims came to the Kenyan Coast to spread Islam,

    iii) Others came to explore the region

    b) State five factors, which promoted the growth of trade between Hit* Kenyan Coast and Arabia

    i) Availability of items of trade

    ii) Demand for goods from the Kenyan Coast and Arabia

    iii) Existence of enterprising merchants in Arabia and the Kenyan Coast

    iv) Accessibility of the Kenyan Coast by sea

    v) The monsoon winds facilitated movement of traders

    vi) Relative political stability of he Kenyan Coastal city - states

    c) State six result of this trade on the Kenyan Coast

    i) The Muslim traders who settled among the African communities along Kenyan Coast converted them to Muslim

    ii) Trading towns developed along the Kenyan Coast

    iii) Arab - Muslim culture spread along the Kenyan Coastal city - states

    iv) The Arab immigrants intermarried with indigenous communities giving rise to the Swahili community

    v) Muslim system of government (Sheria) was introduced at the Coast

    vi) Arab traders introduced new crops along the Kenyan Coast

    vii) The slave trade brought about wars among the communities

    viii) Slave trade led to depopulation of the region

    3. State two factors which made it possible for the Arabs traders to come to Kenyan Coast.

    i) Accessibility of the Kenyan Coast via the sea

    ii) Availability of funds to finance their journey

    iii) Availability of dhows

    iv) The monsoon winds which powered their dhows to the coast

    4. Identify one contribution of Johann Kraft to the spread of Christianity in Kenya during the 19th Century

    i) He built a church at Rabai

    ii) Converted people to Christianity

    iii) Translated the Bible into Kiswahili

    iv) Trained the first catechist who later spread the gospel

    v) Encouraged other European missionaries to come to Kenya

    vi) The exploration of Kenya led to the opening up of the interior for more missionary activities

    5. a) Why were the Portuguese able to conquer the Kenyan Coast during the sixteenth Century

    i) The Portuguese used superior weapons

    ii) Lack of unity among the coastal communities eg between Malindi and Mombasa

    iii) The Portuguese launched superior attacks

    iv) The Portuguese fought as one united group of people

    v) The Portuguese knew the geography of the East Africa Coast very well after obtaining information from Vasco Da Gama's visit of 1498.

    vi) Portuguese had well trained soldiers

    b) Explain six factors, which led to the collapse of the Portuguese rule on the Kenya Coast by the end of the Seventh Century

    i) The harsh Portuguese rule provoked resentment from the communities

    ii) Coastal communities organized a series of revolt against the Portuguese in order to regain their independence,

    iii) The corrupt Portuguese colon administrators embezzled revenue and so they made it difficult for Portugal to run their possessions on the Kenyan Coast,

    iv) Trade along the Kenyan Coast declined; therefore the Portuguese found retaining their control over the east Africa Coast liability,

    v) The Portuguese settlements were attacked by the Zambia terrorist from the lower Zambezi valley who looted property and killed people

    This made life of Portuguese difficult,

    vi) The Portuguese were constantly attacked by tropical diseases such as Malaria which killed African coasts,

    vii) The coastal Arabs and the Swahili obtained support from the Turks and Amni Arabs (their fellow Muslims who helped them to drive away the Christian Portuguese colonialists,

    viii) Delayed re

  • enforcement due to distance

    6. Identify TWO factors, which encouraged the spread of Islam in Kenya by 1500 A.D. 1

    i) Commercial activities between the Arabs and African

    ii) Arabs settlement along the coast

    iii) Intermarriage between the Arabs and other communities

    iv) Islam was more accommodative to African traditional practices

    v) Development of Kiswahili language

    7. State TWO main reasons why the Omani rulers were interested in establishing their control over the Kenyan Coast

    i) To expand their commercial empire

    ii) To establish political control over the Kenyan Coast

    iii) To assist in ending the Portuguese rule

    8. a) Explain why Christian Missionaries established mission stations in Kenya during the colonial period

    i) Missions stations were established by Christian missionaries to serve centers for converting Africans,

    ii) To serve as centers where African would be taught basic literacy to enable them to read their Bible

    iii) To teach Africans new methods of carpentry, farming and masonry

    iv) To train African catechists who would in turn facilitate the spread of Christianity

    v) To use them as centers for the spread of Western European culture

    vi) To serve as settlement for freed slaves and other displaced people

    vii) Serve as centers for pacification of Africans/centers to promote Europe in colonization

    b) What factors undermined Christian Missionary activities in Kenya during the 19th Century?

    i) Hostility by believers of traditional religion who saw missionaries as threat to their beliefs and cultural practices

    ii) Opposition by leaders of Islamic faith and other believers whose interest wore to advance religion in the region

    iii) Harsh tropical climate coupled with tropical diseases Eg Malaria

    iv) Inadequate personnel to carry out missionary activities

    v) Rivalry among different Christian groups

    vi) Communication barrier/lack of common language of communication to facilitate interaction with and conversion of Africans

    vii) Strict Christians doctrines, which were not compatible with traditional beliefs and practices,

    vii) Limited transport and communication facilities

    9. Give the main reason why earlier visitors from Arabia came to Kenya const before 1500 AD

    To trade/commerce

    10. State two reasons why the Portuguese built Fort Jesus

    i) To act as hiding place against/attacks by their enemies

    ii) To use it as a base of sensing expeditions against resisting communities of the coast/administration base

    iii) Use it for storing ornaments/storage of items before transportation

    iv) Use as a watch tower

    . Give one reason for the establishment of the independent churches on Kenya during the colonial period

    i) To develop worship pattern that are relevant to their needs

    ii) To avoid being discriminated against in the missionary churches

    iii) To preserve their cultural heritage, that was being threatened by European missionaries

    iv) To provide a forum for cultural activities

    12. a) Why were the Portuguese able to control the Kenyan Coast between 1500 and 1700 AD

    i) Disunity/rivalry among the coastal towns enabled the Portuguese to play one against the other eg Mombasa and Malindi

    ii) Military superiority

  • the Portuguese had better weapons and their soldiers were better trained and organized (superior attacks),

    iii) The construction efforts by the Portuguese Fort Jesus made them able 10 sustain their control over the area

    iv) The harshness of the Portuguese administration made African communities submit to their rule, v) The Portuguese established alliance with some coastal rulers eg Malindi

    b) Describe the results of the Portuguese rule of the Kenyan Coast

    i) Introduction of new crops such as maize, sweet potatoes and banana/manure

    ii) Introduction of new architectural designs/Fort Jesus

    iii) Absorption of Portuguese words into the Kiswahili language

    iv) Disruption of the Indian Ocean trade/gold trade

    v) Decay of many coastal towns eg Gedi

    vi) Establishment of a close link between Kenya and India

    vii) Introduction of guns and other weapons along the Coast leading to slave trade and insecurity in the area

    viii) Decline in trade between Arabia and the Kenyan Coast,

    ix) Their harshness made Africans and Arabs have a impression of Christianity and Europeans

    13. State two benefits of Portuguese rule over the coastal settlements

    i) Some Portuguese words were added to Kiswahili

    ii) Portuguese architecture was introduced at the Coast

    iii) The Portuguese introduced new crops such as maize and cassava/farming methods at the coast

    iv) The Portuguese built Fort Jesus and Vasco Da Gama Pillar, which have become historic sites

    v) Links between coastal settlement and India were strengthened

    14.a) Describe the characteristics of the coastal towns by 1500 A.D.

    i) Kiswahili was used as the main medium of communication in the coastal towns

    ii) Islam was the main religion practiced in towns

    iii) Islamic Law (Sharia) was used in administration

    iv) Houses were constructed using Arabic architecture

    v) Traders was the main economic activity in the town

    vi) In the city - states were generally divided into two sections, one Muslim and the other African class of merchants/Sultan and Sheik

    vii) Imams ruled in the city state

    viii) The city

  • states were independent political entities

    ix) Town minted and used their own coin

  • money

    x) People wore woven and silk clothes

    b) Explain five factors which led to the decline of the coastal towns after 1500 AD

    i) Disruption of trade by the Portuguese resulted in loss of revenue

    ii) Constant warfare and conflict between the Portuguese and the coastal towns led to total destruction of some coastal settlements,

    iii) Invasion of coastal settlements by the Zambia led to the disruption of economic activities of the coastal settlements

    iv) Increased conflict between the city state discouraged traders from the interior to bring trade good to the coast

    v) The drought spell hindered farming activities/lack of water

    vi) Conflicts between the Mazrui family and the Al Busaidi family over the control of the coastal settlement

    vii) Taxes levied on the coastal settlement by corrupt Portuguese administrator weakened the economic base of the settlement,

    viii) Rivalry between European nations for the control of the trade

    15.a) What factors encouraged the Akamba to participate in the long distance trade during the 19th Century

    i) Demand for their commodities

    ii) Availability of trade good

    iii) Unsuitable climatic conditions for farming

    iv) Proximity to the coast

    v) Existence of entrepreneur like Chief Kivoi

    vi) Existence of a well organized trade

    b) Explain the effects of slave trade on the African communities in Kenya

    i) The raids of slaves by traders led to insecurity and fear making people abandon their economic activities

    ii) Able bodied people were taken away as slaves in the weak who could not work effectively,

    iii) It led to the death of family members denying the family the much needed work

  • force,

    iv) Led to loss of skilled labour force Eg Iron smiths,

    v) Methods used in acquiring slaves such as burning of houses led to destruction of the environment and human suffering/misery

    vi) Slave raids and sale of people led to depopulation

    vii) Promoted interaction between African communities eg the Akamba and Agikuyu

    viii) Led to the spread and use of Kiswahili in the interior of Kenya

    ix) Led to the spread of Islam and Islamic culture

    x) Opened up the interior of Kenya for European penetration

    16. State two main factors which enabled traders from Arabia to come to the Kenya Coast before 1500 A.D.

    i) The monsoon winds which facilitated transport to and from Arabia

    ii) Possession of advanced marine technology at the time - for example making dhows

    17. Give the main reasons why most of the early urban centers along the Kenya Coast were built on Island

    To provide security against invaders

    18. State two reasons why most of the Portuguese were able to conquer the Coastal settlement by 1500 A.D.

    i) The Portuguese had modern weapons

    ii) The Portuguese were ruthless in their attack

    iii) The coastal settlement were disunited

    19. State two ways in which the introduction of Christianity undermined African culture

    i) Conversion of African to the abandonment of African traditional belief and practice

    ii) By encouraging African to settle at the mission station, the Africans were uprooted from their traditional set up

    iii) Outright condemnation of some African cultural practice as primitive and backward

    iv) Introduction of western education by missionaries and its glitters made African abandon their culture

    20 Identify two methods which long distance traders used to acquire slaves during the nineteenth century

    i) Exchanging slave with other goods/buying slaves from African,

    ii) Raiding other communities for slaves,

    iii) Enticement and gifts

    21. a) Describe the way of life of the people who lived in the coastal city states by 1500 A.D.

    i) The people lived in settlements that were politically independent of each other

    The settlements were ruled by Muslim leaders/the sultans,

    ii) The majority of the city - state were Muslims,

    iii) The people who lived in the city states spoke Kiswahili

    iv) They participated in the Indian Ocean trade

    v) The architectural designs of their houses were influenced by Arabian and Persian design,

    vi) They practiced mixed farming

    They grew banana, yam and coconut,

    vii) They practiced fishing, spinning and weaving,

    viii) The city states were ruled according to the Islamic laws/sheria

    ix) Their way of dressing was influenced by Arabian way of dressing/buibui

    x) Oriental diet

    b) Explain four factors which led to the decline of the coastal settlements between 1500 and 1700 A.D.

    i) Rivalry for the control of the Indian Ocean trade weakened the coastal settlements

    Each one of them wanted to dominate trade, ii) Wars of conquest by the Portuguese against the coastal settlements destroyed and weakened many of them,

    iii) Establishment of Portuguese rule at the coast led to disruption of the Indian Ocean trade – the main economic base of the towns

    The Portuguese also diverted trade to Portugal leaving them with little revenue

    iv) Invasion of the settlement by the Zambia a warrior community from me Zambezi valley – they caused widespread destruction

    v) Occasional unfavourable climatic conditions which characterized the period led to inadequate rainfall and shortage of water in some coastal settlement for example Gedi which subsequently declined

    vi) Conflicts/wars between Oman Arabs and the Portuguese over the control of the coastal settlements affected economic activities in the sea

    vii) Conflicts/wars between Oman Arabs and the Portuguese over the control the coastal settlements affected economic activities in the area

    viii) Some Africa middlemen diverted trade goods to Northern routes by passing the town that were under Portuguese control

    Economic and Social Development During

    The Colonial Period

    1. a) Give five factors which contributed to the development of trade

    between different Africans communities in the interior of Kenya by 1800 A.D. i) Uneven distribution of resources such as iron are and salt created a demand for some goods by communities that did not produce them

    ii) Production of surplus commodities by some communities encouraged them to look for markets,

    iii) External demand for goods found in the interior such as ivory and leopard skin stimulated trade between different African communities

    iv) Existence of well developed local trade provided a base for the development of intercommunity trade

    v) Demand for foreign goods in the interior eg cloth and beads led to the development of intercommunity trade,

    vi) Existence of cordial relations between communities contributed to the development of trade

    b) Explain five result of this trade

    i) Intercommunity trade led to the development of markets where buyers and sellers met regularly to transact business

    These markets were normally situated in the boundary between two communities

    ii) Some traders got a lot wealth from trade

    Such people became very powerful and rose to positions of importance

    iii) Foreign crops such as maize, pineapples, sweet potatoes and bananas were introduced to the interior of Kenya

    iv) Intercommunity trade led to intermarriage between Kenyan communities eg Mijikenda and Akamba

    v) Lines of communication linking different communities developed in the interior of Kenya

    Other lines of communication linked the interior with the Coast

    vi) Trade stimulated production of goods and other economic activities eg hunting

    vii) Existence of community trade led to direct participation of Arabs in the trade with the interior

    viii) The importance of luxury articles and new crops influenced the way of life of the people

    ix) Intercommunity trade promoted cultural interactions eg language and dances

    2. Why did Africans start independent schools in Kenya during the colonial period?

    i) To provide more educational opportunities for Africans

    ii) To have a say/control of what was taught in their schools

    iii) To keep away Europeans missionary influence from their schools,

    iv) To preserve their cultural heritage/values

    v) To create job opportunities fro educated Africans

    vi) To sensitize African on the evils of colonialism

    3. Give two ways through which colonial government controlled the migration of the Africans to urban centers

    i) Taking head count of those who were supposed to live in urban centers

    ii) Enhancing strict rules about migration into urban centers/creation of African reform,

    iii) Ensuring that only those who had specific activities to undertake in the urban centers lived there,

    iv) Introducing Kipande system

    4. State two objectives of education offered by Christian missionaries in Kenya during the colonial period

    i) To teach Africans basic literacy and numeral skills

    ii) To teach Africans better farming methods

    iii) To train Africans catechists

    iv) To teach Africans basic technical skills

    v) Civilize/better methods of hygiene

    5. Identify one problem which independent schools faced during the colonial period

    i) Hostility from the government and missionaries

    ii) Inadequate teachers,

    iii) Inadequate funds and facilities

    6. Identify one reason why Africans were not allowed to grow some cash crops before 1954.

    i) Europeans wanted to continue getting cheap African labour for their farms

    ii) To avoid competition by African farmers

    iii) To control the spread of disease and pests from African farms

    7. State one result of the establishment of independent churches in Kenya during the colonial period

    i) African cultural practices and beliefs were incorporated into the Christian church,

    ii) Give African clergy leadership opportunities in the church

    iii) More African were trained as clergy

    iv) Accelerated the spread of Christianity

    v) Led to the establishment of independent schools

    vi) Led to the formation of Nationalisms

    8. Identify two negative consequences of urbanization in Kenya during the colonial period?

    i) Unemployment led to poverty

    ii) Low morality eg prostitution

    iii) Increase in crime

    iv) Development of shanties/slums Congestion leading to epidemics

    vi) Break up of family set - up

    vii) Development of the Kipande system

    viii) Deprived rural areas of manpower/negligence of agriculture

    Use of Metals and Industrial Revolution

    1. a) State five uses of copper in pre -colonial Africa

    i) It was used to make ornaments ie chains

    ii) It was used to make utensils/spoons

    iii) It was used to make weapons

    iv) It was used to make tools/needles/chisel/axes

    v) It was used as currency/medium of exchange/money

    vi) Used as a trading commodity

    vii) It was used to make the King's plagues

    b) Explain impact of iron technology on the people of Africa

    i) The discovery of iron technology led to the manufacture of better and efficient tools for farming

    For example, iron hoes and panga

    ii) The use of iron tools enabled people to clear natural vegetation and bring more land under cultivation hence more food

    iii) The demand for iron - ore and iron tools led to the development of trade between communities,

    iv) The development of iron technology led to job specialization

    vii) Iron smiths became very respectable members of the society

    v) The possession of iron weapons in warfare intensified intercommunity conflicts

    The stronger communities conquered and absorbed weaker ones

    vi) The possession of iron weapons made it possible for communities to improve their system of defense, Possession of iron weapons led to the emergencies of states through conquests while other fell,

    viii) Possession of iron weapons and implements facilitated immigration of people

  • they were better armed and could face the danger on the way

    2. Explain six factors which have contributed to the rise of China as a powerful nation

    i) Strong leadership under chairman Mao and Chou-en-lai united the country/unity/stability

    ii) Collectivization of agriculture and land reforms led to food sufficiency/land tenure system leading to food sufficiency

    iii) The establishment of heavy industries enabled China to produce capital goods and consumer goods for export which enabled her earn foreign exchange/external market

    iv) Establishment of strong army equipped with modern weapons including nuclear weapons

    v) Possession of natural resources such as minerals has enabled China to establish and sustain heavy industries

    vi) The vast Chinese population has made it possible for China to expand her industries and agricultural output (through the supply of labour)

    Hardworking and dedicated

    vii) Expansion and modernization of education led to the production of skilled manpower that spearheaded impetiginization programmes

    ix) Modernization of China through the 5 years plans

    ix) Development of transport and communication to exploit the economic resources

    x) Foreign investment in China accelerated the modernization of the economy

    xi) Political stability

    xii) Existence of an internal market/market for her agricultural and industrial output

    xiii) Development of H.E.P stimulated industrial growth

    3. a) State five factors which have facilitated industrialization in the third world countries

    i) Availability of raw materials

    ii) Availability of cheap labour (both skilled and unskilled)

    iii) Acquisition of relevant technological knows how

    iv) Existence of some indigenous industries which provide the foundation for the process of industrialization

    v) Facilitated diversifications of the economy of the third world countries/banking/insurance

    vi) Promoted urbanization in the third world countries

    vii) Led to the degeneration in the third world countries

    viii) Led to the development of transport and communication eg roads and telecommunication systems

    Increased agricultural production because farmers are aspired of a ready market in the agro based industries

    x) Has led to the provision of social amenities such a§ schools and hospitals

    4. a) State three ways in which the industrial revolution contributed to urbanization

    i) The establishment of industrial centers created new jobs opportunities where many were attracted to work,

    ii) The industrial revolution brought in new discoveries which changed/improved transport communication systems thus facilitating the movement of people to towns,

    iii) The emergence of industrial centers opened other commercial activities which attracted many people,

    iv) Use of machines in production made many people lose their jobs in the cottage industry

    xi) They moved/migrated to urban centers to look for jobs, v) Industrial revolution led to enormous expansion trade

  • many people were attracted to the centers of trade

    b) Explain six factors which led to the emergency of USA as an industrial power

    i) Existence of large mineral deposits for example coal, iron and tin for use in industries,

    ii) Use of the skilled and unskilled labour led to the establishment of American industries,

    iii) The development of efficient transport and communication network enhanced economic growth,

    iv) Existence of enterprising entrepreneurs who have invested in the country had enabled the United States of America to enjoy a monopoly of the world's economic systems

    v) Existence of ready market at home and abroad for American products stimulated industrial growth

    vi) The USA has experience relatively fewer strikers and industrial growth

    vii) The aggressive foreign investments policies have enabled her to dominate world economic system and also attracted foreign investment,

    viii) The collapse of European economic during the 2nd World War enabled the USA to extend here influence to Europe and other parts of the world

    ix) Technological advancement has enabled the USA to dominate world economy/machines

    x) Political stability

    xi) Availability of energy eg coal, oil, gas etc

    xii) Banking and insurance services/financial institutions

    5. Give one use of bronze in ancient Benin

    i) Making royal regalia

    ii) Making statues of rulers, noblemen

    iii) Making ornaments

    ; iv) Making weapons

    v) Making religious figurines eg gods

    6. Explain six factors which led to the emergency of Japan as an industrial power after the Second World War

    i) Provision of education which emphasized on technical training

    ii) Japanese work ethics which discouraged idleness and encouraged hard work

    iii) Government policy which granted subsidies to industrial enterprises/entrepreneurs led to industrial growth,

    iv) Availability of raw materials from within Japan eg silk and from other Asian countries which she had colonized eg cotton from China

    v) A well established industrial base

    By 1945 Japan had well developed industrial base,

    vi) Existence of labour force with industrial know

  • how/technological skills,

    vii) Availability of capital from local and foreign investors, especially the U.S.A financial support which was provided after the Second World War (the Marshall plan) stimulated industrial growth of Japan

    viii) Availability of energy Eg H.E.P and nuclear solar stimulated industrial growth of Japan,

    ix) Elaborate transport and communication system,

    x) Political stability of Japan

    xi) Cheap labour force

    xii) Good industrial relations

    xiii) Japanese goods are cheap

    xiv) Open minded economic policy

    xv) Scarce farming land

    xvi) Good natural harbours

    xvii) Foreign investments eg Japan investment in foreign countries

    7. What was the main source of energy during the early period of industrial revolution in Europe?

    Coal

    8. State two government policies which have contributed to industrialization in India

    i) Restriction on imported goods

    ii) Promoted technical and scientific education

    iii) Development of heavy industries by the state/government

    iv) Emphasis on industrialization of the five year development plan

    v) Encouragement of foreign investment in the country

    9. a) Describe the working condition of factory workers in Britain during the industrial revolution

    i) Factory workers subjected to long working hours

    ii) Workers received low wages

    iii) Under - age children were employed to work in the factories

    iv) Poor living conditions Eg over - crowding, inadequate lighting and poor ventilation

    v) Lack of insurance cover for the workers/no workman's compensation

    vi) Exposure to dangerous machinery/no protection against dangerous machines

    vii) Frequent outbreak of epidemics eg Cholera, Dysentery and Typhoid

    b) What factors favoured the development of industries in Britain by 1850?

    i) Availability of resources like energy for use in industries Eg cola

    ii) Existence of a large population which provided steady market for her manufactured goods/domestic market

    iii) Availability of external markets in her colonies for her industrial goods,

    iv) Availability of iron ore for heavy industries

    v) Existence of cottage industries which acted as a base for industrial expansion,

    vi) Availability of labour force especially following the displacement of the people from the rural areas as a result of the Agrarian Revolutions

    vii) Existence of capitals/entrepreneurs, who were willing to invest in the industries,

    viii) Political stability and strong leadership that existed at the time created conducive atmosphere for investment

    ix) Well developed transport and communication network Eg railway and canals/roads

    x) Agrarian Revolution increased food for industrial workers and raw materials for industries,

    xi) Scientific innovations led to the improvement and expansions of industries/technical know how

    xii) Existing banks and insurance systems gave financial help and security to the industrialists,

    xiii) Britain had a strong navy which protected her merchants from foreign competition/protection against sea pirates,

    xiv) Britain's policy of free trade encouraged industrialization

    10. In what ways did overseas colonies contribute to the expansion of industries in Europe?

    i) The overseas colonies provided additional market for European industrial products such as cloth and spirits

    ii) Overseas were sources of industrial raw materials Eg cotton, plan oil and sisal,

    iii) Trade between European countries and their colonies led to the emergence of a class of rich people who invested in industries

    iv) Use of machines in industries rendered people jobless

    v) Industrial waste was not properly disposed of and this led to environment degradation,

    vi) Long working hours deprived people of leisure and rest thus reducing their efficiency,

    vii) Low wages paid to workers led to poor living conditions which demoralized them

    11. Give one main reason why trade union movements were formed in Europe during the nineteenth century

    To fight for the welfare of workers / to enable workers to collectively negotiate for better terms of service with the employers

    12. Show two ways in which the Industrial Revolution in Europe promoted European colonization of Africa

    i) The European nations wanted colonies as source of raw materials for their industries

    ii) The European wanted markets for their manufacture goods

    iii) Wealthy industrialists wanted colonies where they could invest their excess capital

    13. Describe the use of gold in Ancient Egypt

    i) Gold was used to make ornaments/jewellery

    ii) It was used in making decorations for houses/handlers of swords

    iii) It was used for making utensils especially plates and vases for rich people,

    iv) It was used as currency/money/medium of exchange/making coins

    14. Why did the industrial revolution take place in Britain ahead of other European countries?

    i) Britain had ready markets for her industrial products within the British empire,

    ii) The empire was also a source of raw materials for industries in Britain,

    iii) She had large reserves of coal which was used as a source of industrial energy

    iv) She had a well established cottage industry which provided a basis for the industrial growth,

    v) Some of the inventions that accelerated industrialization were made in Britain

    For example the steam engine

    vi) There existed a class of rich businessman who were keen to invest in the industries,

    vii) Availability of labour following the displacement of peasant as a result of the Agrarian revolutions/ unskilled labour

    viii) Agrarian revolution led to production of adequate food for the industries workers

    ix) Existence of well developed banking and insurance systems which advanced loans to entrepreneurs

    x) Protection of her trading ships from piracy by her strong navy,

    xi) Britain had well developed transport system both land and water,

    xii) Availability of skilled labour

    xiii) Britain had enjoyed a relatively long period of peace and stability/strong leadership

    xiv) The policy of free trade

    xv) No internal custom barriers

    15. State two uses of bronze in early Egypt

    i) To cast the statues of the Pharaohs

    ii) To make special tools for cutting and shaping huge stones for making pyramids

    iii) Make tools such as holes, chisel and adzes were made from bronze

    iv) Make weapons such as sword, daggers, axes and spears

    v) Make items for decoration

    16. Identify one way in which the Industrial Revolution contributed to colonization of Africa by Europeans

    i) The need for raw materials for their industries

    ii) Desire to establish new markets for their manufactured goods

    iii) Desire by European industrialists to invest their surplus capital

    17. Give two reasons why coal was used as the main source of industrial power in Britain during the industrial revolution

    i) It was cheap

    ii) It was available in large quantities

    iii) It was more efficient than other sources of energy at the time

    18. a) What factors led to the development of urban centers in Africa during the Pre-colonial period

    i) Trading activities led to the rise of convergent centers which later developed into towns

    ii) The existence of local industries led to population concentration in places that were developed into towns,

    iii) Existence of trade routes which linked various places led to the development of towns at major cross - roads

    iv) Administration/royal centers later developed into towns eg Kumasi and Addis Ababa

    v) Development of centers of learning later became urban centers eg Timbuktu

    vi) Development of Agriculture led to availability of food which in turn encouraged people to establish permanent settlements

    vii) Religious centers developed into town erg-fe and Kumasi

    viii) Places that were secure attracted population concentration and later developed into towns eg Thababosiu the capital of Basuto land

    ix) Places where water was available developed to urban centers

    b) Explain the social effects of urbanization in Europe during the nineteenth century

    i) Migration of people to urban centers led to overcrowding

    ii) Inadequate housing due to high concentration of people in urban areas

    iii) Poor sewerage and sanitation facilities exposed to diseases such as Cholera and Typhoid

    iv) Concentration of people led to shortage of food which resulted in malnutrition

    v) Frustration and suffering

  • urban life led to anti-social behaviour such as drug abuse, alcoholism and prostitution

    vi) Increase in crime rate and vehicle created fear and insecurity,

    vii) Poor working conditions eg child labour, long working hours and lack of workmanship compensation dehumanized urban dwellers,

    viii) High concentration of people in urban areas ^trained the social amenities eg school and hospitals

    Early Religion

    1. a) State five cities of indigenous religion among the Kenya

    i) Religion provided spiritual care to members of society/people to Communicate prayers/services/sacrifice/knowledge for repentance

    ii) Religion set moral standards in society

    iii) It promoted unity and harmony in society

    iv) Religious leaders played advisory roles in matters affecting society Guidance and counseling/offering/sacrifices

    v) Religion provides the basis for secular laws

    vi) It was used to unite them against foreign invasion

    vii) It served as a link between spiritual world and man/communicate with god

    viii) It provided answers to the mysteries of nature

    ix) Medicine men used religion to treat the sick

    b) Describe the religious beliefs and practices of the Maya

    i) They worshipped many gods and goddesses

    ii) They believed in a supreme god called Hunab/Ku/Kunab Kin/Creator god

    iii) They worshipped in stone temple

    iv) They offered animal sacrifices to the gods

    v) They appeased their gods with human blood

    vi) Priests presided over religious functions and ceremonies

    vii) They believed in the existence of life after death

    viii) They believed in the existence of heaven and hell,

    ix) They believed in the existence of god gods (spirits) and bad gods

    x) They believed life is a struggle between good and bad

    xi) They buried the dead with some of their belongings eg food to use thereafter,

    xii) They made carving of their gods on temples, xiii) They believed that those who died while defending the community and those offered as sacrifice to gods went straight to heaven

    xiv) Members of the public worshipped by singing and dancing outside the temples

    xv) Believe maize was given by god who determines different varieties

    xvi) Maya believed in the predestination of mankind

    xvii) Believed that there were 13 layers of the sky and each layer had a god in charge

    xviii) Believed that the sky was supported by trees with a god at every corner

    2. a) Give five features of traditional religion in Ancient Egypt

    i) Belief in many gods and goddesses (polycyesis)

    ii) Belief in life after death

    iii) They had priests

    iv) They buried the dead with property

    v) Belief in the hierarchical importance's of gods - Ra, the sun god being most powerful

    vi) Belief in judgment after life

    vii) Worshipped in temples

    viii) Offering sacrifices to gods to appease them

    ix) Built temples for their gods to appease them

    b) Describe the role played by the traditional religion in Ancient Egypt

    i) The Egyptians traditional religion acted as unifying factor in the community especially in times of difficult/created harmony/law and order

    ii) It gave meaning to the mysteries of nature for example, in the event of natural calamities, the traditional priests offered explanations,

    iii) Religious leaders offered political and religious guidance to the community for instance, priests advised the Pharaoh, (the priest in alliance with the nobles could reject the Pharaoh)

    iv) Religion was the basis of the Egyptians moral values eg respect, obedience, it thus guided the behaviour of individual members of the society

    v) Religion provided Egyptians with hope and courage especially in times of problems

    vi) Religion was a source of socialization

    vii) Religion offered protection and security to the Egyptians

    viii) Religion influenced architectural/arts in Egypt/building of pyramids and temples

    ix) Religion influenced education

    The priests were the teachers in the society, x) Religion was the basis for secular laws

    3. a) Identify three indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Yoruba

    i) Belief and worship of one god

    ii) Belief in existence of ancestral spirits

    iii) Belief in life after death

    iv) Making offering and sacrifices to God and ancestral spirits

    v) Worshipped God in shrines

    vi) Use of religious God in shrines,

    vii) Use of religious leader/priests to intercede for them

    b) Explain the importance of religion in a society

    i) Religion has been used to give explanation to the mysteries beyond man's understanding- For example, occurrences of lightening and death

    ii) Religion contributed to the development of formal education by building schools

    iii) Religion inculcates (teaches) moral values and provide a moral code of conduct to people/how to behave

    iv) Religion provides hope and meaning to life

    v) Religion act as a moral conscience of society

    vi) Temples inspired writings

    vii) Sacred art work and pictures have influenced modern works of art

    viii) Religion strengthens and cements bonds of human brotherhood and provides cultural

    4. a) Describe beliefs the religion beliefs and practices of traditional Yoruba Society

    i) Yoruba people believe in the existence of one supreme being/god known as Olourn

    ii) They believed in the life existence of other lesser gods eg God of wisdom and war

    iii) They believed in the existence of spirits/ancestral worship

    iv) Yoruba priests and divines interpreted god's messages to the people/they acted as intermediaries,

    v) They offered sacrifices to God and the spirits

    These were presided over by the priest and diviners

    vi) Religious functions were conducted in special places/shrines

    vii) Stages in life eg birth, puberty and marriage were accompanied by festivals and rituals

    viii) They believed in life and death

    ix) Believed in mysterious powers

    b) Explain the importance of religion among the Yoruba

    i) Religion provided answers/explanations to mysteries that were beyond human comprehension eg drought, epidemics and death

    ii) It was a source of moral standards for the Yoruba

    It provided moral guidelines

    iii) It was the basis of Yoruba laws

    iv) I linked the living and the dead thus gave continuity of life

    v) It gave significance and divine purpose to the different stages of a person's life,

    vi) It provided meaningful spiritual and leisure activities eg participation in religious ceremonies and rituals,

    vii) It was used by leaders/kings to unite the people

    5. What similar roles were played by priest in both Egyptians and Yoruba traditional religions?

    i) In both cases priests acted as intermediaries between god and the people

    ii) They presided over religious functions and activities/offered sacrifice

    iii) They interpreted divine messages and messages from the ancestors to the people

    iv) They advised and controlled the powers of the Kings/rulers on the administration matters

    v) They controlled the power of kings

    vi) They predicted/foretold the future

    6. Identify two ways in which Yoruba worshipped their gods

    i) They offered prayers in shrines

    ii) They offered sacrifices to the gods

    iii) Priests presided over the offering of sacrifices/prayers

    iv) Gave offering to their god

    7. Identify the main reason why Egyptians buries the dead with their belongings

    The dead were buried with their belongings because they would use them in the new world/they believed in life after death

    8. State two duties of the priests in Yoruba traditional religion

    i) They interpreted the wished of the gods/god's messages

    ii) They acted as mediators between the gods and the people

    iii) They officiated in religious activities/presided over religious functions

    iv) They were consulted before important decisions were made

    v) They predicted the future

    vi) They led people in public and private prayers/conducted prayers

    Modern World Religion

    1. a) State five factors which contributed to the rapid expansion of Islam during the first hundred years of its existence 610-710 A.D.

    i) Through conquests - Islam expanded rapidly due to the jihads which were undertaken by the devout followers of the faith,

    ii) Arab migration - The Arab colonization - the migration of Arabs over large parts of Africa, Asia and Southern Europe contributed to the rapid spread of Islam/nomadic societies,

    iii) Development of Islamic learning - The development and spread of Islamic learning contributed to the rapid expansion of Islam/education

    iv) Establishment of Islamic states -The establishment of Islamic states contributed to the conversion of many people to Islam in many parts of Africa, Asia and Europe, v) The appeal of Islam - Islam appealed to many because it was accommodative to various cultural practices and values and regarded as a liberating force

    vi) Intermarriage/marriages

    vii) Religious persecutions

    viii) Means of transport eg camels and horse

    ix) Weakness of neighbouring states eg Persia x) Some became Muslims in order to avoid being enslaved

    b) Discuss the impact of Islam on East African societies

    i) Conversion/undermined traditional religion

  • Islam has become the religion of many people in East Africa, especially along the Coast

    Many of these people are converts from traditional and other religions

    Islam therefore significantly affected the religious complexion of East African societies,

    ii) Material culture

  • Islam had transformed the material culture of many East African communities

    This is reflected in architecture,

    iii) Dressing

    iv) Social etiquette - Islam etiquette on such areas as eating habits, forms of hospitality and social relations between the sexes has permeated many east African Societies,

    v) Language - many East African communities learnt Arabic - the language of Islam

    Some East African languages, especially

    Kiswahili also borrowed words from Arabic,

    vi) Education - Islamic learning has affected the forms and content of education among a number of East Africa societies,

    vii) Politics - Some parts of East Africa were for along time ruled by Muslim leaders who established ruling dynasties or families eg the shiraz - Islam therefore affected the form and structure of government

    viii) Legal system based on Islam law or sharia

    ix) Trade was promoted eg slaves trade, ivory and gold

    x) Growth of towns eg Mombasa, Kilwa, Mogadishu etc. city/states

    xi) Intermarriage leading to Kiswahili race people,

    xii) Islamic music

    xiii) Introduction of new crops eg coconuts, millet, rice etc

    2. a) Give three reasons why Christian Missionaries came to Africa in 19th Century?

    i) To spread Christianity/convert the Africans

    ii) To explore the continent

    iii) To promote Western civilization

    iv) To stop the slave trade

    v) To promote legitimate trade

    vi) To spread education/culture

    b) Explain six factors which undermined the activities of Christian missionaries in Africa during the 19th Century

    i) Tropical diseases such as Malaria claimed many lives and incapacitated some missionaries,

    ii) There was communication problem due to lack of a common language,

    iii) Some African rulers opposed the missionaries because they saw them as threat to their authority,

    iv) Missionaries lacked sufficient funds to carry out their activities Eg construction of schools and churches

    v) Lack of well developed transport network hampered their activities

    vi) Rivalry between different missionary networks hampered activities

    vii) There was opposition from Muslims and traditionalists who felt threatened by the religion

    viii) Tropical climate was unfavourable to the missionaries they found it difficult to carry out their activities,

    ix) Political instability in some parts of Africa made it difficult to carry out their activities shortage/lack of provisions/supplies eg food

    3. a) State three factors which contributed to the spread of Christianity in Europe up to 4th Century

    i) Missionary work of the apostle/disciples who visited Southern Europe

    ii) Early converts who spread Christianity in the region/Europe

    iii) Persecution of Christians within the Roman Empire made some of them to flee to other parts of Europe where they spread Christianity

    iv) Conversion of emperor Constantine of Christianity

    v) The declaration of the Christianity as the state religion of the European empire by emperor Theodosius

    vi) Christian doctrine of hope appealed to the oppressed in the European society/accepted by all

    vii) The hue of common languages (Latin and Greek) facilitated the spread,

    viii) Improved means of transport/facilitated the movement of preachers

    b) Explain six factors which led to the emergence of protestant churches in the 16th Century

    i) Widespread corruption among the clergy led to discontent among Christians who lost confidence in the church/bribery/selling of indulgences

    ii) Possession of absolute power by pope and excessive wealth by the church leaders in the Vatican, the centre of Christianity was seen by many Christians as a deviation from the Christian teaching/ absolute power,

    iii) Translation of the Bible into different languages in Europe exposed many people to the Bible thus they became critical of the clergy

    iv) The development of printing press in the early 16th Century made it possible for the critics of the church to circulate their ideas to the people

    v) Conservatism of the church made the clergy to refuse to compromise with the reformists some of whom were excommunicated eg King of England and marriage,

    vi) Some of the opposition arose as a result of the growth of national consciousness in different parts of Europe

    Nationals of different countries of Europe questioned their allegiance to Rome,

    vii) The activities of Martin Luther and his subsequent excommunication led to the split of the church,

    viii) Immorality was prevalent in the church and this caused discontent among the high ranking bishops and other Christians

    4. Give two ways through which Islam had spread in Africa by the 16th Century

    i) Jihads

    ii) Missionary activities

    iii) Commercial interactions

    iv) Intermarriages

    v) Influence of already converted rulers

    vi) Fear of being enslaved

    vii) Muslim culture was accommodating

    5. Why did missionary Work along the Coast thrive?

    i) Existence of already existing trade routes which connected the African coastal/trading posts with the interior facilitated the movement of the missionaries/railways and water ways

    ii) Use of guides and porters made the movement of the missionaries and the transportation of their luggage easy

    iii) The learning of local languages by the missionaries facilitated their activities among different communities

    iv) Transportation of the Bible and other church literature made Christianity accessible to many African communities

    v) The discovery of curd of some tropical disease eg Quinine for treating Malaria fever reduced the number of death cases among the missionaries

    vi) Support and protection given to missionaries by some African rulers eg Lowanika of Bulozi promoted missionary activities

    vii) Support from the church organization in Europe enabled the missionaries to carry out their activities

    viii) Support from colonial government (eg protection against some hostile communities) enabled the missionaries to carry out their activities

    ix) The existence of displaced people eg the freed slaves, helped the spread of Christianity in Africa as they readily accepted Christianity

    x) The establishment of mission stations which were used as basis from which they operated as stations also provided other social services eg heath care

    6. Give the main result of the translation of the Bible into different languages during the Sixteenth Century

    i) People were able to identify some of the weakness/excesses of the pope's powers and other religious leaders

    This led to criticism against them which resulted in the split of the Roman Catholic Church

    ii) Led to the rise of Protestantism

    7. a) Why were Christian missionary in other parts of the world

    i) To spread Christianity in other parts of the world

    ii) To help stop the slave trade and slavery

    iii) To support Christian missionaries who were sent to other parts of the world

    iv) To co-ordinate the activities of Christian missionaries in other parts of (he world

    v) To promote exploration of other parts of the world

    vi) To counter/check the spread of Islam

    vii) It was a period of evangelism in Europe

    viii) To spread western education and culture/to civilize people in other parts of the world

    b) Give six factors which affected Christian Missionary activities in Africa during the Nineteenth century

    i) Tropical diseases such as Malaria, which claimed many lives of missionaries and scared other who gave up and returned home,

    ii) Lack of adequate funds to finance missionary activities

    iii) Poor means of transport forced them to walk long distance/long tire some journeys

    iv) Language barrier hindered effective communication with the people

    v) Harsh tropical climate coupled with difficult terrain made it difficult for the missionaries to perform their work effectively

    vi) Hostility of the African leaders who feared losing their control over the people as a result of conversion of Christianity

    vii) Hostility of slave traders who saw Christianity as a threat to their trading activities

    viii) Opposition from Muslim dominated areas where Christianity posed a threat to the Islamic faith

    ix) Opposition from the Africans who saw Christianity as a threat to their traditional region and cultural values/practices

    x) The missionaries were few in number and therefore unable to reach many people,

    xi) Danger caused by wild animals eg snakes, scorpions etc

    xii) Shortage of medicine, water and food,

    xiii) Theft of medicine and other supplies,

    xiv) Hostility from local communities

    xv) Desertion by porters/loneliness/homesick,

    xvi) Conflicts/between various Christian groups undermined their effectiveness

    8. State the main reason why the independent church movement started in Africa during the nineteenth century

    To incorporate African values and practices into Christianity

    9. a) What factors led to the development of religious beliefs in societies?

    i) Desire to understand things that were beyond human understanding such as sun, moon, floods and drought,

    ii) Search for security in the face of uncertainties to human existence

    For instance death, diseases and war

    iii) Attempts by the human race to explain their existence on earth, ie belief in the existence of a force behind creation

    iv) Desire to keep the community together/desire for unity

    v) Some of the Christian teachings appealed to the oppressed and poor

    They were attracted to the religion because of its teaching on equality of all men, love and better life after death,

    vi) The conversion of powerful roman emperors such as Constantine contributed to the spread of Christianity

    vii) Non Christians were attracted to the faith as a result of the exemplary lives of the Christian leaders and converts/martyrs,

    viii) Missionary activities of British, German and Dutch converts led to the spread of Christianity in their respective countries,

    ix) Christianity spread as a result of the activities of Emperor of Charlemagne, who used force to convert people

    He also established a school for training priests and produced better copies of Bible, x) Existence of peace and security in the Roman empire encouraged Christian activities

    10. State the result of the translations of the Bible into different European language during the sixteenth century

    i) Enabled more people to read and understand the Bible,

    ii) Facilitated the spread of Christianity,

    iii) Led to the reformation of the church

    iv) The Bible became accessible to more people

    v) Led people to question in teaching of the Catholic Church

    11. Give two ways in which in which Islam spread to Africa in the 19th Century

    i) Trading activities

    ii) Migration and settlement of Muslims in Africa

    iii) Jihads/holy wars, especially in West Africa

    iv) Intermarriages v) Establishment of Islamic centers of learning

    vi) Missionaries activities/Muslims scholars

    12. a) In what ways are the teachings of Islam similar to those of Christianity?

    i) Both religious are monotheistic, ie they teach the worship of only one God

    ii) Their teachings are contained in the Holy Books, the Bible and the Koran,

    iii) There is life after death

    iv) Communicated their message through message through prophets

    v) There are angels

    vi) God communicates his through prophets

    vii) Faith and good works

    viii) There is judgment after death

    ix) Existence of heaven and hell

    x) Both recognize the significance of Abraham

    xi) Both believe in creation theory

    b) Explain why the Christian Church split during the 16th Century

    i) Translation of the Bible to many Europeans languages enabled people to read the word and challenge some of the teachings

    ii) Corrupt practices in the church eg pluralism (holding more than one office in the church) buying offices in the church

    iii) The clergy lived luxurious life's and many lived for world! v pleasure in the monasteries and nunneries which was not in accordance with the teaching the Bible

    iv) Sale of indulgences to those who had sinned in order to be forgiven

    v) Practice of the nepotism and appointment of their relatives to high offices

    vi) The clergy ignored the rule of celibacy and kept mistresses

    vii) The faithful were opposed to the heavy taxes imposed on them to sustain the church

    viii) Reformist questioned some church practices and ceremonies Eg confession

    ix) The growth of nationalism throughout Europe made many people to question why they were answerable to Rome

    x) Excessive secular and religion powers of the pope

    xi) The age of Renaissance (Rebirth) likened traditional beliefs of the church at the time

    xii) Struggled for papacy

    xiii) The development of printing press led to production of more religious materials

    xiv) The unwillingness of the clergy to compromise with the demands of the reformists especially after the trial and excommunication of Martin Luther

    Transport and Communication

    1. Explain the impact of the development of transport and communication network in Zimbabwe during the colonial period (1930)

    i) The development of railway and road transport led to the efficient and fast movement of goods and people,

    ii) Improved transport and communication network facilitated colonial administration For example, administrators were easily transported to various parts of the country

    iii) Improved transport and communication encouraged large number of white settlers to come to Zimbabwe

    They dominated the political and economic affairs of the country

    iv) Development of transport and communication network led to creation of employment opportunities, v) Development of transport and communication network led to creation of employment opportunities

    vi) The construction if Arriba Dam and lake promoted the development of local shipping services connecting Zimbabwe and Zambia

    vii) Improved transport system led to reduction of portage

    viii) Urban centres developed along transport and communication lines eg Harare

    ix) Dissemination of information was facilitated by the development of transport and communication network

    x) Promoted local and international trade

    xi) Transport and communication network generated revenue for the colonial government

    2. a) Explain three ways in which Macadamia are an improved level in the Road transport

    i) They are well weather roads

    ii) They are durable

    iii) Water drain easily

    iv) They provide a good monitoring surface

    v) Cheaper and quicker to construct

    b) What are the results of the development of railway transport in Europe up to the end of 19th Century?

    i) Led to the expansion of trade in Europe as goods were quickly transported from one point to another,

    ii) Facilitated the movement of people from one place to another thus promoted greater interaction among people,

    iii) Railway transport promoted agricultural growth as it assured farmers of means of transporting their products

    iv) The railway transport provided employment opportunities

    v) The development of railway transport led to growth and expansion of urban centers,

    vi) Facilitated the development of industries in Europe by providing quick means of transporting raw materials/finished materials and industrial workers,

    vii) It led to environmental pollution through emission of large of carbon dioxide smoke into the atmosphere,

    viii) Reduced transportation costs of goods

    3. Give one advantage of drum beating as a form of communication over the use of smoke signals in Africa during the pre - colonial period

    i) In most cases drum beating could be used at any time both day and night where as smoke signals could only be used during the day

    ii) Drum beats relayed specific messages whereas smoke relayed general messages,

    iii) Drum beats could be used during all the seasons whereas smoke signals could not be used during certain seasons eg when it was raining

    iv) Drum beats spread messages faster than smoke

    4. Identify one way in which invention of the wheel promoted early transport

    i) Facilitated travel over long distances,

    ii) It eased transportation of heavy loads,

    iii) It facilitated speedy transportation of people/goods

    iv) It enhanced the movement of soldiers during battles,

    v) It led to development of roads

    5. List forms of communication used to send messages to distant placed in the shortest possible time

    i) Telephone

    ii) Telegram

    iii) Telex

    iv) Fax

    v) E-mail

    vi) Television

    vii) Radio

    viii) Courier letter

    6. Give one way in which poor transport hinders industrialization in the 3rd world countries

    i) Poor transport network causes delay in marketing goods

    ii) Causes delays in supplying industrial raw materials

    iii) Brings about high cost of supplying industrial raw materials

    iv) Bring about high transport costs

    7. a) Describe the results of the development of railway transport during 19th Century

    i) Railway facilitated transportation of goods especially industrial products and raw materials for the industries

    ii) It facilitates transportation of industrial workers/labour

    iii) It facilitated the spread of ideas

    iv) It led to widespread migration and settlement of people

    v) It promoted the development of trade

    vi) It opened up remote areas for economic exploitation eg mining, fishing and farming, vii) It strengthened European pacification of their overseas colonies,

    viii) It led to the development of towns/urban centers

    b) Discuss ways through which the modern society benefited from the development in the telecommunications

    i) The use of telecommunication has facilitated storage of information more conveniently through use of computer

    ii) It has provided entertainment eg live transmissions of music and sports

    iii) It has promoted fast transmission of ideas

    iv) It has speeded up business transactions between individuals and countries

    v) It has reduced cost of business transactions by enabling a few people to handle a lot of workload,

    vi) It has enabled organizations/individuals to access information/programmes at their own convenience

    vii) It has enhanced safe traveling by air and water through radar connections,

    viii) It has enabled the exploration of outer space,

    ix) It has facilitated the study of weather

    8. State two ways in which poor transport systems have contributed to food shortages in Africa

    i) Poor transport has led to high transportations costs, leading to high places of food

    ii) Poor transport has led to poor distribution of food

    iii) Poor transport system have led to delays in the transportation of food leading to low losses

    iv) Poor transport system discourages/demoralizes farmers and this in turn leads to low agricultural production,

    v) Poor transport system undermine effectiveness of agricultural extension officers

    World Trade

    1. a) State five factors which contributed to the development of Trans – Sahara trade

    i) Availability of commodities of trade especially gold and salt

    ii) Introduction and use of camels for transport

    iii) Existence of local trade in the region

    iv) Existence of a strong economy based on agriculture/rich agricultural goods

    v) Existence of rich merchants who invested in the trade/middle mean/ availability of capital

    vi) Strong and able leaders provided security to traders,

    vii) Demand for commodities of trade

    b) Explain five factors which contributed to the decline of the Trans - Sharan Trade

    i) The minefields got exhausted - this discouraged traders from coming to West Africa/lack of trade commodities,

    ii) Political instability in the region brought about anarchy and insecurity

    This affected trading activities in the region/fall of empires

    iii) Invasion of the region brought about anarchy and insecurity,

    iv) The Moroccan invasion of the Western Sudan in the 16th Century undermined the trade as it created anarchy and insecurity in the region

    v) Trans - Atlantic trade grew and attracted some of the traders from the Trans - Saharan trade thus weakening the trade in terms of the volume of commodities and traders,

    vi) After the colonization of North and West Africa, the resources were taken over by Europeans and commercial activities by Africans were undermined/invasion of West Africa by Europeans,

    vii) The invasion of North Africa by the Turkey created insecurity along the caravan routes leading to the decline of the trade,

    viii) The ant slave pressure from the British from 1840 and the abolition of the slave trade in the Ottoman Empire in 1857 led to the end of Trans-Saharan slaves trade thus undermining the trade,

    ix) Change of the laws from guiding and protecting to attacking

    2. a) Give ways in which the Tuaregs contributed to the development of Trans-Saharan trade The Tuaregs

    i) Guided the traders through the desert

    ii) Provided security to the caravans

    iii) Took care of the oases/wells

    iv) Sometimes they acted as interpreters to the trade merchants

    v) Arranged for water and food and accommodation for the traders and animals

    b) State five ways in which the Trans - Saharan trade led to development of the Kingdom of Old Ghana

    i) Was a source of state revenue, wealth through import and export, taxes paid by traders

    ii) Kings acquired horses/firearms and weapons from North Africa which they used to establish strong armies to defend and expand the kingdoms

    iii) Islamic sharia which was introduced by trades was used in the administration of kingdoms,

    iv) The kings were able to acquire personal wealth

    This helped them command respect

    They also used it to reward their royal subjects

    v) The trade stimulated local trade, whish generated state wealth,

    vi) Muslims personnel were used by the Kings as advisers and secretaries

    This led to effective administration

    vii) The trade motivated the kings to establish diplomatic links with North Africa and countries of the Middle East,

    viii) Islam acted as a unifying factor

    3. a) Identify 5 factors which led to the development of the trade between East Africa and the outside world up to the 19th century

    i) Increased demand for East Africa goods in the outside world

    ii) Demand for foreign goods in East Africa

    iii) Establishment of Arab settlements along the East Coast

    iv) Monsoon winds facilitated their movement across the Ocean,

    v) Accessibility/availability of coast to the East Coast people

    b) What were the effects of the trade on East Africa?

    i) Trade with the outside world led to thee expansion of local trade (non regional trade)

    ii) It led to the development of a merchant’s class in East Africa

    iii) Foreign goods, such as cotton cloths, glassware, weapons were brought to East Africa

    iv) Some rich traders used the wealth derived from the trade to establish states and empires at the Coast

    For example, Mombasa, Lamu, Zanzibar and Mogadishu

    v) Some crops were introduced by the traders For example mangoes and maize were introduced in the interior of East Africa

    vi) Trade led to the introduction and expansion of Islam in East Africa

    vii) Slave-trade brought misery to the people of east African

    It led to the death and displacement of some people

    viii) Urban centres developed along the East Coast of Africa and interior

    For example, Kilwa, Malindi, Pate and Mamba

    ix) It led to colonization of East Africa as European powers came to protect their traders

    x) Intermarriages between Arabs and local people

    xi) Some of the Arabs who came to trade interfered in the running of some state at the Coast confusion over control of trade led to conflicts

    xii) Trade led to the diffusion of material culture.For example new clothes and new styles of building were introduced in East Africa

    4. a) Identify three factors leading to the abolition of slave trade in the 19th Century?

    i) Humanitarian movement in Britain which viewed slave trade as unjust and inhuman

    ii) Decline of plantation economy in the New World (the Americas and Caribbean Island)

    iii) Industrial Revolution in Europe, there was a need to retain Africans in their home countries so that they could produce raw materials

    iv) Views of conditions (Scholars) such as Adam Smith that free labour was ore productive than slave labour

    v) Resistance by Africans both in West Africa and in the New World made Europeans abandon the slave trade

    vi) The need to discourage mass migration of population from Africa so as to retain the market for European manufactured goods

    vii) The industrial Revolution in North America led to the use of machines and rendered slave trade unnecessary

    viii) Coming of Christian Missionaries

    5. What is barter trade?

    Barter trade is the exchange of goods for other goods/trade in kind

    6. a) What factors led to the development of trade between North Africa and West Africa during the pre-colonial period?

    i) Existence of enterprising North Africa merchants

    ii) Availability of capital provided by the Barber merchants of North Africa

    iii) Availability of trading items eg gold from West Africa and from salt mines of the Sahara Desert

    iv) Demand for scarce goods in North Africa and West Africa

    v) Existence of local trade in West Africa

    vi) Presence of Tuaregs who guided the traders through the Sahara desert

    vii) Presence of capable leaders/rulers who offered protection to traders/peace/security

    viii) The use of camel and horse

    ix) The presence of oasis

    b) Describe the effects of the Trans - Saharan trade on West Africa societies

    i) The trade led to the development of towns in West Africa eg Gao, Timbuktu

    ii) It led to the spread of Islam

    iii) Led to the emergence of a class of wealthy - the merchants who participated in the trade

    iv) The trade promoted intermarriage between North Africans and West Africans

    v) The trade introduced new cultural values in West Africans eg people adopted new styles of dressing and eating habits

    vi) Trade led to the introduction of Arab architectural designs in West Africans

    vii) Trade led to the development of empires Eg Mali, Songai and Ghana

    viii) Led to decline of empires Eg Ghana, Mali

    ix) Introduction of Sharia/Islam laws/new ways of Islamic rulings

    x) African was known to eh outside world

    xi) It led to depopulation of West Africa slave trade

    xii) Establishment of diplomatic ties between West Africa and North Africa,

    xiii) Led to growth of agricultural production of West Africa slave trade

    xiv) Led to increased warfare,

    xv) Led to spread of Islamic schools, education and universities

    7. Give ways through which slaves were obtained

    i) Sale of social misfits by chiefs/leaders/through rates by traders of chiefs

    ii) Sale of captivates of war

    iii) Enticement/trickery

    iv) Abduction/kidnapping 8. a) What factors contributed to the development of Trans - Saharan trade?

    i) Existence of local trade in the region provided a base for the trade

    ii) Demand for West African goods such as gold, slaves and kola nuts in the North

    iii) Demand for goods from the North eg salt, horses, cotton cloth and weapon

    iv) Existence of rich merchants in the region who were willing to invest in the trade

    v) Existence of trade routes made it easy for them to travel

    vi) The camel mad either journeys through the dessert easy

  • they were able to carry heavy loads and travel long distances without water

    They could also travel on sand with ease,

    vii) Tuaregs guided and guarded traders through the desert and also acted as interpreters,

    viii) Existence of oasis, which provided water/acted as resting point

    ix) The conquest of settlement of Arabs in North Africa

    x) Availability of trade items eg gold, salt from W. Africa

    b) Describe the difficulties faced by the Trans - Saharan traders

    i) Communication barrier due to lack of a common language in which to conduct commercial transactions

    ii) Traveling long distances and for many months across the dessert

    iii) Traveling under extreme weather condition - too hot during the day and too cold at night,

    iv) Scarcity of water and food during the journey across the desert

    v) Exposure of frequent sandstorms which killed many storms

    vi) Loss of direction due to vastness of the desert/getting lost

    vii) Attacks by hostile communities who sometimes robed them of their merchandise

    viii) Traders were sometimes attacked b insects eg scorpions/wild animals

    ix) Sometimes wars between kingdoms disrupted trade

    9. Distinguish between barter and currency systems of trade

    Barter systems of trade involves the exchange of goods with other goods where as currency system of trade involves the use of money to purchase commodities

    10. a) State the role played by the Tuaregs in the Trans - Saharan trade

    i) They acted as guides to traders across the desert/they guided traders along the trade\route across the Saharan desert

    ii) Provided security to traders/acted as guards

    iii) They provided food/accommodation

    iv) They acted as interpreters

    v) They maintained oasis/well/water sources

    b) Identify two trade routes which connected trading centres in the Western Sudan and North Africa during the Trans - Saharan trade

    i) From Sijilimosa in Morocco through That, Gao to Timbuktu

    ii) Fez Mareakech - wadeni - Walata

    iii) From Tunisia through Ghadames and Agades to Hausaland

    iv) From Tripoli through Fezzan to Bornu

    v) Fiom Cairo through Muizuk - Bilma – Kano

    vi) From Sijilimosa - Walata - Taghaza – Audoghost

    11. State one objective of international trade agreements

    i) To regulate transactions among members

    ii) Control unfair competition

    iii) Promote trade relations through dialogue

    iv) Control restrictions on trade member states

    12. What is the difference between barter trade and trade in which currency is used as the medium of exchange

    Barter trade refers to the exchange of one commodity for another whereas trade in which currency is used refers to the exchanging of a commodity for money

    13. a) What 5 factors undermined the Trans - Saharan trade?

    i) Lack of a common language made it difficult for the traders to communicate

    ii) The journey through the desert was sometimes hazardous due to frequent sand storms

    iii) Sometimes traders lost their way through the desert

    iv) Traders were attacked by desert robbers and would lose most of their belongings

    v) Exhaustion of trade goods eg salt

    vi) The journey across the desert was tedious and slow

    It sometimes took the traders as many as three months to cross

    vii) Political instability led to insecurity to traders

    viii) Uncomfortable weather - too hot during the day too cold at night

    ix) Attacks by wild animals and insects eg scorpions, snakes

    b) Explain why West Africa communities benefited from Trans – Saharan trade

    i) West African communities were above to acquire essential commodities from the trade, for example cloth, glassware, hose, firearms and salt,

    ii) Commercial centres developed along the trade routes eg Timbuktu, Jenne, Gao and Kano

    These enhanced local trade

    iii) Some African leaders established strong armies with the firearms that they acquired from trade

    They used the armies for defending and expanding their kingdoms,

    iv) It stimulated the production and exchange of locally produced commodities such as gold, kolanuts, ivory and slaves/local trade was stimulated

    v) It led to the spread of Islam

    vi) Introduction of Islamic culture in West Africa eg architectural designs and clothing,

    vii) It opened up West Africa to the outside world and the establishment of diplomatic relations with north Africa

    viii) Iron tools acquired through trade contributed to agricultural productions,

    ix) Revenue raised from trade taxes were used for developing the empire

    14. a) Describe how the Trans - Saharan trade was organized

    i) The trade was between people of the Western Sudan and Arabs from North Africa

    ii) Traders crossed the desert using camels

    iii) The traders traveled in large caravans to enhance their security

    iv) The Tuaregs/Berbers acted as guides to the traders through the desert

    v) Tuaregs provided them with security

    vi) The traders made stops at the oases to refresh themselves and let their camels drink water

    vii) The Tuaregs took care of the oases

    viii) The Tuaregs acted as interpreters at times

    ix) The trade was conducted in barber/it involved exchanging of one good for another/silent trade

    x) The rulers paid taxes to the kings of the western Sudan

    xi) The traders paid taxes to the kings of the western Sudan

    xii) The main items of trade were gold and salt

    b) What problems did the Trans - Saharan trade face?

    i) Long and dangerous journeys across the desert

    ii) Inadequate water and food

    iii) Extreme weather conditions of the desert - very cold at night and very hot during the day

    iv) Attacks by hostile desert communities

    v) Lack of a common language for transacting trade

    vi) Frequent sandstorms

    vii) Loss of direction in the vast dessert without assistance of the guides,

    viii) Attacks by dangerous desert creatures such as scorpions, snakes

    ix) Insecurity because of declining and falling of kingdoms

    x) Exhaustion of trade goods especially gold

    xi) Frequent shifts of trade routes

    xii) They were robbed by desert people

    15. a) Describe three ways which slaves were obtained during the Trans – Atlantic trade

    i) Through exchange of slaves for Europeans manufactured goods

  • exchange of slaves

    ii) By selling prisoners of war to slave dealers - selling prisoners

    iii) Lonely travelers and weak subjects were kidnapped and sold as slave - kidnapping

    iv) Some rulers sold their subjects/criminals to slave dealers

    v) By enticing people/children using desirable goods such as cloth and sweets - enticing

    vi) Through raiding - villages were attacked and captives sold to slave dealers

    viii) Parrying - (Selling of debtors)

    b) Explain six factors that led to the decline of the Trans - Atlantic trade

    i) The development of industrial Revolution in Europe shifted the demand from slaves to agricultural produce eg Palm Oil

    ii) The need to retain Africans in their homelands to produce raw materials for export to Europe,

    iii) The attainment of independence by the USA left Britain without colonies where she would take the slaves to work,

    iv) The rise of humanitarians in Britain made up of missionaries and some parliamentarians pressurized the British government to abolish the slave trade and slavery,

    v) The development of legitimate trade which was more profitable and less costly replaced slave trade and slavery,

    vi) Britain influenced other European countries to stop slavery and slave trade by signing anti-slave trade treaties

    vii) Use of machines in firms/industries rendered slave labour unnecessary,

    viii) Leading economists eg Adams Smiths argued that free people were more productive than slaves

    Urbanization

    1. a) State five factors that led to urbanization in pre - colonial Africa

    i) Development of agriculture led to the concentration of people in settlements which subsequently developed into urban areas

    ii) Development of trade: Some cities in pre - colonial Africa emerged out of markets centers,

    iii) The need for security encouraged people to settle in protected centers, some of which eventually developed into urban areas

    iv) Some cities grew out of religious centers which attracted population concentration,

    v) Major crossroads influenced the development of some urban centers in Africa

    vi) Some urban centers developed around royal/administrative centers

    vii) Mining centers

    viii) Harbours and ports

    ix) Availability of water for domestic irrigation and industrial purposes

    b) Discuss the problems of urbanization in Cairo

    i) Overcrowding

  • Cairo is Africa's largest city and one of the largest in the world

    It is terribly overcrowded

  • Overcrowding made life for many in the city unpleasant for it led to widespread squatters squalor eg inadequate social services
  • because of its size and rapid growth it has been difficult for the government to provide enough social services

    ii) Housing is scarce

  • Some people are even forced to live in cemeteries and rooftops

    In 1973, for example, one million people were living in cemeteries

    iii) Health vices/poor sanitation

    iv) Education

    v) Inadequate infrastructure

  • It has not been possible to develop the city's infrastructure as fast as the city's population growth

    As a result roads are congested/jams and many areas of the city are poorly served with water, electricity/and telephones

    vi) Unemployment

  • The city of Cairo has not been able to generate many jobs as its rapidly growing populations requires

    Unemployment is therefore high

    The economic and social costs of high unemployment are equally high

    vii) Social dislocation

  • Cairo suffers from all the social dislocations of very large cities

    Crime and prostitution, insecurity and inequality are widespread

    This takes a heavy toll on the lives of many residents of the city

    viii) Lack of food due to increased population growth

    ix) Pollution from vehicles, industries, desert dusts, garbage

    2. a) List 5 factors which led to rapid development of urban centers

    i) Establishment of industries/rapid industrialization

    ii) Enclosure systems created a class of landless people who migrated to urban centers/rural urban migration,

    iii) Increased mining activities

    iv) Expansion of transport system/communication

    v) Expansion of capital for investment

    vi) Existence of entrepreneurs who were willing to invest surplus capital

    b) Explain the result of urbanization in Europe in the 19th Century

    i) Migration of many people to towns led to overcrowding in urban centers,

    ii) Increase in urban population put pressure on limited social amenities such as schools and hospitals,

    iii) It led to the development of slums especially for those who could not afford to pay house rents,

    iv) Urbanization led to environmental pollution due to uncontrolled disposal of industrial and domestic wastes/poor sanitation

    v) Crime rate increased with the increasing number of unemployed people in the urban centers

    vi) Establishment of industries in urban centers created employment opportunities

    vii) Urbanization led to improvement of transport and communication/infrastructure such as postal services/road/railway

    viii) Urbanization led to interaction between different communities from different parts of Europe in urban centers and this promoted political awareness among the masses,

    ix) The demand for raw materials and food in urban centers led to expansion in agriculture,

    x) Urbanization led to interaction between different communities from different parts of Europe in, urban centers and this promoted political awareness among the masses

    xi) Urbanization led to agricultural land being encroached upon as the urban centers expanded

    3. Give two factors which led to early urbanization in Africa

    i) Trade

    ii) Mining/iron working industries

    iii) Religion

    iv) Agriculture

    v) Administration

    vi) Security

    vii) Transport and communication

    viii) Education centre eg Fez and Alexandria

    4. Give two factors which influenced the development of urban centres in Greece

    i) Security - location in area which could be easily defended

    ii) Trade/commercial activities with other countries

    iii) Religion activities - towns developed around places of worship

    iv) Accessibility and communication network

    v) Availability of water

    5. a) What 5 factors influenced the development of urban centers in Africa?

    i) Discovery of new crops for farming led to the development of farming centers which attracted population and later became towns,

    ii) Trading activities between different communities led to the development of trading centers which later became towns

    iii) Centers that were used for religious activities developed into towns,

    iv) Areas that had adequate security attracted population concentration and thus led to the development of towns

    v) Places that were used for administrative functions developed into towns

    vi) Places along the coast where ships stopped for supplies developed into towns,

    vii) Mining centers developed into settlements which became town for example Meroe

    viii) Places where water for use was available attracted settlements and grew into towns, ix) Towns developed at crossroads

    x) Centers of learning eg Alexandria developed into towns

    6. a) What factors led to the development Durban centers in Africa during the pre - colonial period?

    i) Landless peasants migrated to urban centers in search of employment/rural - urban migration

    ii) Inadequate housing in urban centers led to development of shanties

    iii) Pollution of the environment arising from industrial waste that were untreated

    iv) Administration/royal centre later developed into towns eg Kuasi and Addis Ababa

    v) Development of centers of learning later became urban centers eg Timbuktu

    vi) Development of agriculture led to availability of food which in turn encouraged people to establish permanent settlements,

    vii) Religious centers developed into towns eg Ife and Kumasi

    viii) Places that were secure attracted population concentration and later developed into towns eg Thababosiu the capital of Basuto land,

    ix) Ports and harbours which were used as calling stations for replenishments developed into urban centers eg Cape Town, Malindi, Cairo

    b) Explain the social effects of urbanization in Europe during the nineteenth century

    i) Migration of people to urban centers

    ii) Inadequate housing due to high concentration of people in urban centers

    iii) Concentration of industries led to shortage of food which resulted in malnutrition

    v) Frustration and suffering urban life led to anti - social behaviour such as drug abuse, alcoholism and prostitution

    vi) Increase in crime rate and violence created fear and insecurity

    vii) Poor working conditions eg child labour, long working hours and lack of workmanships I

    compensation dehumanized urban dwellers

    viii) High concentration of people in urban centers strained he social amenities eg school and hospitals

    Scientific Revolution

    1. Results of the development of writing

    i) It made information readily accessible to many members of the society

    ii) The development of writing made it possible for idea to spread fast

    iii) It facilitated the establishment of permanent records

    iv) It led to the establishment of libraries and archives

    v) Maintaining written records promoted accuracy as people no longer relied on the ability of a few to recall events and maintain continuity

    vi) It facilitated communication between individuals who are physically separated/letter writing

    vii) It promoted literacy as people became eager to read the written information/illiteracy reduced

    viii) It encouraged the development of allied industries such as paper production,

    ix) It provided employment to people such as the scribes and teachers

    x) Facilitated the spread of languages,

    xi) It led to invention of the printing press/printing

    xii) It led to establishment of schools and universities/not formal education

    xiii) Led to the efficient of running of government eg In Egypt/unified empire of kingdoms, xiv) Facilitated business transactions eg Greece xv) Provided literature and theatre activities in Greece/poems,

    xvi) Promoted agriculture eg in Egypt (harvests records, taxes)

    xvii) Promoted the spread of religion through the written word

    2. In what ways did the development of steam engine contribute to the growth of industries in Europe during the 19th Century?

    i) The development of steam engine of facilitated faster transportation of raw materials and finished industrial products

    ii) Facilitated faster transportation of industrial workers,

    iii) Provided a source of energy in the factories eg the spinning factory,

    iv) It was used to pup water out of the mines to facilitate mining eg cola mines

    3. Identify the main source of industrial energy in Europe from the twentieth century

    Coal

    4. State two scientific discoveries during nineteenth century which contributed to food preservation

    i) Discovery of canning

    ii) Invention of refrigeration iii) Invention of pasteurization

    5. State two inventions during the eighteenth century which improved textile industry in Britain

    i) The spinning jenny which produced large quantities of cotton threads - James Hargreaves

    ii) The spinning mule which produced high quality threads - Samule Compton

    iii) The power boom which facilitated the weaving process - Edmund Cartwright

    iv) The cotton gin which quickened the removal of seeds from cotton fibre - Eli Whitney v) The water frame the flying shuttle - John Key

    vi) The cylindrical calico printing machine - Thomas Bell

    6. a) Which scientific inventions of the twentieth century have led to a reduction in death rates?

    i) The grouping of blood into various blood groups by Land Steiner in 1900 facilitates blood transfusions ad the storage of blood banks for later transfusion,

    ii) The X - ray by Roengen, German scientists, to view the bone structure and internal organs

    iv) human body to facilitate treatment,

    iii) Penicillin, an antibiotic by Dr. Alexander flemming in 1928 prolonged lived by treating infections

    The Polio vaccine in 1954 by Jonas Edward,

    v) Transplant surgery by Dr. Christian Barnard, A South African surgeon in 1967 succeeded in prolonging lives of kidney patients,

    vi) Heart valve in 1961 has prolonged lives through replacement of defective valves

    b) Explain the positive impact of scientific inventions on industry

    i) The invention and use of machines in factories have led to production in large quantity of manufactured goods

    ii) The science of electronics has led to the production and use of computers in processing information, weather research and spying purposes

    iii) Research in science and technology has led to the development through the use of email and the internet,

    iv) The discovery of atomic power/nuclear has led to increased power generation for industrial use, electronic trains and supersonic jets,

    v) Scientific research has led to the production of alternative sources of energy for use in industries eg gasohol, methanol, solar energy

    7. Give two inventions that improved textile manufacturing industry in Britain in the 18th century

    i) The shuttle of John Kay

    ii) Water frame of Richard Arkwright iii) Spinning Jenny of James Samuel Crompton

    iv) Steam power loom of Edmond Carwright v) Cylindrical calico Printing Machines of Thomas Bell

    8. State one contribution of Joseph leister in the field of medicine in the 19th century

    i) He discovered the use of carbonic acid as an antiseptic to clean/sterilize surgical instruments

    ii) He discovered the use of carbonic acid to kill microbes around the wound after an operation,

    iii) He developed an antiseptic spray for cleaning the air during operations

    Political Social and Economic Systems of Africans in Pre - Colonial Period

    1. Give two functions of the Buganda traditional parliament

    i) It made laws for the kingdom

    ii) It checked on the activities of the government

    iii) It represented the interest of the people

    iv) It advised the Kabaka

    2. State two functions of the Lukiko of the Buganda kingdom during the pre - colonial period

    i) The Lukiko advised the Kabaka

    ii) Assisted the Kabaka to administer the kingdom

    iii) Made the laws/important decisions of the kingdom eg declaring the war iv) It acted as the court of appeal/settle dispute

    v) Directed collection of taxes or planned government expenditure

    vi) Presented the interest of the people of the country

    vii) Checked the activities of the government

    3. a) State one way in which centralization of the authority contributed to the Success of the Buganda kingdom

    i) It enhanced effective control of the kingdom

    ii) It promoted control of other traditional leaders eg clan heads and thus brought about unity,

    iii) It enhanced loyalty to one single leader,

    iv) It led to the emergency of able Kabaka who propelled the kingdom from strength to strength

    4. a) What were the economic activities of the people of the Asante empire? i) They participated in the local trade where they exchanged commodities such as fish, salt and cloth with their neighbours, Goan and Ga

    ii) They participated in the long distance trade as middlemen between traders from North Africa and those from the South

    Their main commodities of trade were salt, gold, kolanuts and slaves

    iii) They grew such as kolanuts and grain

    iv) They practiced crafts especially the manufacturing of items such as baskets and pots

    v) They practiced iron working and made tools like hoes, bangles and arrows,

    vi) They practiced hunting and gathering of fruits and roots

    b) Describe the political organizations of the Asante Empire during the 19th century

    i) The Asante empire was a centralized state divided into three divisions namely: the nucleus: (Kumai) state outside Kumais (amatoo) and the conquered states

    ii) The overall ruler of the empire was Asantehehe, Kumasi was under the direct control of the Asantehene

    iii) The conquered states were ruled by their kings but treated as provinces of Asante, Asantehene appointed representative in each conquered state,

    iv) The Asantehene ruled with the help of a confederacy of kings (Omanhehe)

    They took an oath of allegiance to ensure loyalty to the Asantehene

    v) The Omanhehe represented the king in the provinces

    They were allowed some autonomy but were expected to pay tribute to Asantehene soldiers in time of war

    vi) The empire had a standing army which defended/conquered other states and maintained law and order in empire,

    vii) Religion played an important role which defended/conquered other states and maintained law and order in the empire

    viii) The sacred golden stool which was introduced in the 18th century by Asantehen Osei Tut, strengthened unity in the empire

    It was kept as the headquarters, Kumasi, Each Omanhene was given a symbolic black stool to signify unity of purpose in the provinces

    ix) The empire had a well established judicial/court system at Kumasi and was headed by king

    The Omanhene were given powers to try minor cases at the provinces

    x) The empire had a strong economic base that depended mainly on taxes and profile derived from the long distance trade

    5. Give the main why the Golden stool was important for the Asante Empire?

    It was the symbol of unity within the Asante empire/it united the Asante Empire

    6. a) What were the economic activities of the Ndebele during the nineteenth century

    i) The Ndebele kept cattle

    ii) They traded with their neighbours and people from the Coast

    iii) They grew crops such as cassava, millet and cassava

    iv) They raided cattle, especially the warriors

    v) They practiced crafts such as basket weaving

    vi) They hunted wild animals and gathered wild roots and fruits

    vii) They were iron workers

    b) Describe the political organization of the Ndebele during the pre -colonial period

    i) The Ndebele were organized into a kingdom headed by king

    ii) The king was the commander in chief of the army and had powers to declare war or make peace

    iii) The king was the supreme judge of the kingdom

    iv) The kingdom was divided into settlements/military kraals ruled by an appointee of the king, known as Induna, generally chosen from commoner clans

    v) Each kraal was ruled by an appointee to the king

    vi) Indunas had very little autonomy as they implemented the King's decisions,

    vii) The settlements were further divided into units which were ruled by junior officers,

    viii) The king kept a standing army which was used to conquer new lands and defend the kingdom against external attacks,

    x) The king kept a network of spies who kept him informed of all that was going on in the, kingdom against external attacks

    xi) The king married from various sections of the country

    xii) The king's position was hereditary

    7. Give two functions of the Kabaka of Buganda

    i) He was the head of government

    ii) He was the commander in chief of the armed forces

    iii) He appointed senior officials in the government/dismissed

    iv) He was the supreme judge

    v) He was in charge of all religious activities/chief priest

    Form 3

    Establishment of Colonial Rule in Kenya

    1. (a) Give three reasons why Nabongo Mumia collaborated with the British

    (i) To consolidate his position and that of his kingdom

    (ii) To secure military support against his enemies’ eg the Luo of Ugenya

    (iii) To obtain material benefits from the British

    (iv) To secure military support to expand his kingdom

    (v) To gain prestige and fame by associating with the British

    (b) Explain the result of Nabongo Mumia collaboration with the British

    (i) The British were able to establish their rule over Western Kenya with the assistance of the Wanga soldiers

    For instance, the soldiers were used to subdue the Nandi, the Bukusu and the Luo of Ugenya

    (ii) The British used Wanga as their agent to rule various parts of Western of Kenya

    For example, Murunga his half brother was appointed chief over Isukha and Idakho

    (iii) The rule of Wanga agents led to hostility and conflicts with neighbours

    Attempt were made to overthrow this dominance

    (iv) His power was strengthened and his prestige rose

    He made paramount chief in 1909. (v) His headquarters at Aleruko became the administrative centre of the British in Western Kenya, until 1920 when it was transferred to Kakamega

    (vi) Nabongo Mumia Over a long period of time was consulted by the colonial government over the appointment of headmen and chiefs

    2. (a) Give five reasons why the colonial government encouraged white settlement in Kenya

    (i) The colonial government wanted to make Kenya white man’s country by encouraging white settlers to form the backbone of the economy

    (ii) The colonial government hoped that the settlers would finance administrative expense of the colony without involving the British tax payer

    (iii) The settler economic activities would help the colonial government pay for the construction costs of railway and maintain it

    (iv) The settlers were expected to produce raw materials for British industries

    (v) The colonial government wanted to counter Asia influence in Kenya by encouraging European settlement

    (vi) The Kenya highlands were suitable for European settlement in terms of climate and soils

    (b) State three methods which were used by the colonial government to acquire land for European settlement

    (i) The colonial government got some of the land through signing of treaties with Africans

    For instance, the Maasai were evicted of their land through the agreements of 1904 and 1911. (ii) Some of the land was acquired through the use of force

    For instance, after the defeat of Nandi, large tracts of their land were annexed and alienated or European settlement reserves were established for Africans (iii) Some parts of unoccupied land were declared crown

    These areas were leased, granted or sold to the settlers

    (c) Apart from providing settlers, state six ways through which the colonial government promoted settler agriculture in Kenya

    (i) The colonial government provided continuous flow of African labour to the settlers by imposing heavy taxes and enacting forced labour laws

    The Kipande system was introduced to restrict the movement of labourers (ii) Agricultural activities of the Africans were controlled to reduce competition for markets For instance, up to the 1930’s

    Africans were not allowed to grow any main cash crops

    (iii) The colonial government boosted settler agriculture by providing adequate transport network to ease marketing of their produce and delivery of farm produce

    (iv) The colonial government provided extension services through the department of agriculture and established research stations to facilitate the development of better breeds for better yields

    (v) Banking system and loan facilities were introduced to subdue settlers’ initiative

    (vi) The government encouraged settlers to form cooperatives such as KCC and KFA

    These facilitated political representation in the legislative council, they managed to get many concessions

    (viii) Through political representation in the legislative council, they managed to get many concessions from the government such as tariff barriers and removal of custom duties

    (d) List economic problems that white settlers in Kenya

    (i) Lack of labour

    (ii) Competition for the white highlands by Asians

    (iii) Scarcity funds

    (iv) Animal diseases

    (v) Crop diseases

    (vi) Variations in climate/ harsh climate conditions/ unfovourable weather conditions

    (vii) Marketing problems/ fluctuation of prices/ economic depression

    (viii) Lack of experience in farming/ delay in expecting goods

    3. (a) Give three reasons why the Portuguese came to the Kenyan Coast by the beginning of the sixteenth century

    (i) Look for Prester John

    (ii) Look for sea route to India

    (iii) Participate in the Indian Ocean

    (iv) Spread Christianity

    (v) Carry out revenge against the Muslim

    (vi) Explore/ adventure

    (vii) Colonize the Kenya coast in order to protect their commercial interest

    b) What were the results of the Portuguese rule over their settlements along the Kenyan Coast

    (i) The Portuguese rule along the coast disrupted trade between the coast and Arabia, Persia and India

    (ii) Their rule led to the decline of coastal settlements such as Geddi

    This was due to the fact that the Portuguese rulers were corrupt and inefficient and taxed them heavily

    (iii) The Portuguese build churches along the Kenyan Coast and attempted to convert some of the coastal communities to Christianity

    (iv) The coastal communities borrowed a few Portuguese word, which were incorporated into the Kiswahili language

    For example the Kiswahili word meza was borrowed from Portuguese (v) Portuguese rule along the coast disrupted Islam in the region

    This was due to constant fighting and destruction of mosques

    (vi) Portuguese Built some structures along the costs eg Fort Jesus and Vasco Da Gama Pillar in Malindi

    These survived their decline an remained important to date

    Punitive raids by the Portuguese led to lose of life and destruction of their settlement

    (vii) Harsh Portuguese administration led to suffering of the people and forced some to flee

    (viii) The Portuguese administered the Kenyan Coast Gao this in turn contributed to the development of strong links between the coast and India

    4. Identify three factors which contributed to the establishment of British colonial rule in Kenya by the end of the 19th century

    (i) Some communities such as the Wanga collaborated with the British

    (ii) Lack of unity among African communities made it possible for the British to subdue them one at a time

    (iii) The British used superior weapons and tactics

    (iv) Civil wars and epidemics weakened some communities such as the Maasai so they could not resist<> (v) Development of local and international trade/ commerce

    (vi) Establishment of industries such as food processing industries promoted the expansion of agricultural activities

    (vii) Exploitation of mineral resources in the country eg soda ash at magadi and gold in K.K

    (viii) Development of urban areas such as Nairobi, Nakuru and Kisumu

    (ix) Introduction of exotic breeds of livestock eg sheep, pigs and cattle

    (x) Development of tourists industry eg establishment of game reserves and parks

    (xi) Establishment of research stations/ centers to improve farming methods and breeds

    (xii) Development diseases and unfavourable climate

    5. (a) State five problems that the imperial British East African Company faced in administering Kenya

    (i) Lack of funds to undertake its tasks (ii) Rivalry from the Germany Company for the control of the region

    (iii) Hostility and attacks by the local people

    (iv) Lack of personnel to administer the colony

    (v) Lack of co-ordination between the headquarters and company representatives in Kenya

    (vi) Lack of good means of transport to facilitate the coordination of their activities

    (vii) Lack of experienced administrators

    (viii) Tropical diseases and unfavourable climate

    (b) Explain five social effects of colonial rule into the Africans in Kenya

    (i) The colonial government introduced Western Education, which undermined indigenous form Education

    (ii) Hospitals were built and modern medicine introduced, these undermined traditional medicine practices

    (iii) The introduction of Western health care improved standards of some Africans in Kenya

    (iv) The introduction of Christianity created new alliances and divisions among Africans

    (v) Colonial rule influenced Africans to adapt to Western values and practices eg new ways of dressing

    (vi) Colonial rule promoted the construction of permanent and improved building

    (vii) Colonial rule led to the expansion and improvement of transport and communication system

    (viii) Improved means of transport and communication promoted interaction between different African communities

    6. Name the company which administered Kenya on behalf government up to 1895

    The imperial British East African Company (I.B.E.A)

    7. Identify two factors which enabled the white settlers to establish farms in Kenya Highlands during the colonial period

    (i) Government policy and support ie providing loans, land and laborers

    (ii) Favourable climate ie adequate rainfall

    (iii) Availability of transport/ especially the railway and feeder roads

    (iv) Fertility of the soil

    8. (a) Outline five reasons why the Nandi resisted the imposition of the British colonial rule over their territory

    (i) They wanted to maintain their independence

    (ii) They wanted to protect their land

    (iii) They wanted to reserve their culture

    (iv) They did not want the Uganda railway to be constructed through their territory

    (v) They did not want strangers to pass through their territory

    (vi) They hated the whites because according to mythology they were a sign of a bad omen

    (vii) They wanted to protect their livestock

    (b) Discuss factors which led to the defeat of the Nandi resistance by the British

    (i) The British were supported by some of the local communities eg Somalia and Maasai soldiers so the Nandi warriors were outnumbered

    (ii) The British used superior weapons such as repeat rifles while Nandi used spear and arrows

    (iii) The British tricked the Nandi and used treacherous methods

    For example in October 1905, the commander of the British troops in Nandi territory

    Captain Meinerzhagen arranged to have a meeting with the Nandi Orkoiyot, Koitalel Arap Samoei when he had already arranged to kill him

    The Orkoiyot was killed in cold blood by the British and this demoralized and weakened the Nandi

    (iv) The British used scorched earth policy - They buried down the houses and food stores of the Nandi and confiscated their livestock

    The Nandi were deprived of the sources of their livelihood and this forced them into submission

    (v) Natural calamities, the small pox, epidemics that broke out in the 1890’s killed many people of the Nandi and weakened the survivors

    (vi) Lack of transport from the neighbouring Kenyan communities such as Abaluyhia and Luo

    9. Give the MAIN reason why the British were able to conquer Kenyan during the 19th century

  • Military superiority of the British

    10. State two reasons why the British used the imperial British East Africa Company (I.B.E.A) to administer her possessions

    (i) Absence of clear policy on the administration of colonial possession

    (ii) Lack of funds/ the colonies were not politically viable

    (iii) Lack of personnel

    (iv) IBEA a long experience with the region

    11. State ways through which the construction of the Uganda railway contributed to the development of settler farming in Kenya

    (i) Provided cheap and reliable transport network

    (ii) Opened up the Kenyan highland to the settlers

    12. Give ONE reason why Africans were denied equal educational opportunities with others races during the colonial period

    (i) Europeans aimed to produce and maintain semi- skilled labour force for the colony (ii) Fear of competition from educate Africans/ racial discrimination/ claim for the rights

    13. a) Why the British become interested in establishing their control over Kenya during the second half of the 19th century

    (i) Britain wanted to gain access to Uganda so as to control of the Nile

    (ii) In order to establish a market for her manufactured goods

    (iii) To use Kenya as an outlet for surplus capital investment

    (iv) To protect European missionaries and other British nationals who were already settled in Kenya and Uganda

    (vi) To prevent Kenya from being colonized by other European powers

    (vii) To stop slave and introduce legitimate trade

    (viii) To control the fertile highlands

    b) Explain why some African communities resisted the establishment of British rule in Kenya

    (i) Some communities had established strong socio - political systems which they were not willing to allow foreigners to destroy

    (ii) Those communities which were (military) superior to their neighbours believed that no other race/ community could defeat them and thus resisted

    (iii) Some communities resisted because their socio - economic political set ups were strong enough to sustain resistance

    (iv) They wanted to protect their independence against foreign invaders

    (v) Some communities were encouraged by their foreign invaders

    (vi) Most communities underestimated the military strength of the British

    (vii) They were against the alienation of their land

    (viii) They were opposed to forced labour for Europeans farms

    (ix) Imposition of unpopular elders by the British

    (x) Racial discrimination and arrogance of the British

    (xi) Lack of political representation

    14. Give two reasons why the Africans were opposed to British colonial rule

    (i) Land alienation

    (ii) Imposition of taxes

    (iii) Loss of independence

    (iv) Forced labour

    (v) Disruption of coastal trade by the British

    15. State two terms of the Anglo German Agreement of 1880

    (i) A 1 km coastal strip was awarded to the Sultan of Zanzibar (10 miles)

    (ii) The Islands of Pembe, Pate, Zanzibar and Lamu and river Ruvuma were given to the Germans

    (iii) Witu and territory between River Umba and Ruvuma were given to the Germans

    (iv) The territory between River Umba and Jumba were given to the British

    16. Give one reason why British colonial government encouraged white settlers to come to Kenya

    (i) To make the colony self - sustaining/ economic viability of the land

    (ii) To produce raw materials for their home industries

    17. (a) What factors facilitated the establishment of the British control over Kenya during the 19th century

    (i) Christian missionary factor

    (ii) Presence of trading company (IBEA)

    (iii) Superior military power/ good army/ force

    (iv) Disunity among African Communities

    (v) Collaboration of some communities with British/ signing of treaties

    (vi) The British policy indirect rule

    (vii) Financial support from home government

    (b) Why were the British interested in establishing their control over Kenya during the Europeans scramble for Africa?

    (i) Had strong military system

    (ii) Understood the terrain

    (iii) Adopted guerilla warfare

    (iv) Had reliable foods supply/ stable economic background

    (v) Were proud, confident, community having subdued their neighbouring eg Maasai

    (vi) Had strong unifying institution of the Koiyot

    (vii) Kimnyoles prophecies

    (viii) Superiority in numbers

    (ix) Distance of replenishing of suppliers eg food, arms

    18. Give reasons why the British allowed the imperial British East Africa Company to administer their possession in East Africa during Nineteenth century

    (i) The British tax payers were not ready to sustain the administration of the colony because it was expensive

    (ii) The company officials were familiar with the region – based on their trading experience in the area

    (iii) The British taxpayers did not see the economic benefits of the colony

    (iv) The British had inadequate personnel

    19. Give two reasons why the Uganda railway was built

    (i) To link Uganda with Coast

    (ii) To provide quick, save and convenient means of transport for government administration/ troops

    (iii) Open up Kenya for economic/ stop slave trade/ for legitimate

    20 Identify one institution which advised the governor in Kenya in the administration of the colony during the early twentieth century

    (i) The executive advisory

    (ii) The Legislative council

    21. Identify one method, which was used by the colonial administration to attack European Setters to Kenya

    (i) Provide efficient railway transport connecting the coast and the interior

    (ii) Alienation of the white highland for European settlement

    (iii) Advertising the availability of free land in Kenya in foreign newspapers

    (iv) Loans

    (v) Security

    22. (a) Describe five results of the collaboration between Mumia of the Wanga and the British

    (i) Mumia of the Wanga was made a paramount chief of the Abaluhya/ the whole of Western Kenya

    (ii) He was assisted by the British to subdue his enemies such as the Luo of Ugenya and other Abaluhya sub - clans

    (iii) The British assisted him to expand his kingdom and he rule over a vast area

    (iv) The kingdom was used as a base in Western Kenya by the British for more British people visited Wanga kingdom

    (v) The kingdom was used by the British to subdue/ colonies communities in Western Africa

    (vi) Mumias lost his independence to the British when the Wanga kingdom was made part of the British East Africa Protectorate/ colony

    (vii) Colonization

    (b) Explain six reasons why the British were interested in establishing control over Kenya during the scramble for East Africa

    (i) Britain wanted free access through Kenya and Uganda in order to control the source of Nile this was critical to her interests in the Nile Valley and Egypt

    (ii) Britain wanted to establish strategic stations along the coast to safeguard their interest in India

    (iii) Britain wanted a source of raw materials for her industries and market for her manufactured goods

    (iv) To protect British traders and missionaries who were already operating in the region

    (v) To help stop a slavery through direct occupation of the region

    (vi) To promote legitimate trade in the region by developing other economic ventures eg Plantation farming/ investments of surplus capital Naturalism plus prestige

    23. (a) Why did the Africans resist the colonial rule?

    (i) European settlers were provided with large tracts of land which were alienated from Africans through various land legislations

    (ii) The introduction of forced labour on European farms ensured steady supply of cheap labour

    (iii) The introduction of Kipande system ensured that Africans remained in employment

    (iv) The squatter system ensured that Africans residing on the settlers farms provided that required labour in turn for small plots where they practiced subsistence farming

    (v) Forced settlement of Africans in overcrowded and unproductive reserved forced them to seek wage unemployment in settlers’ farm

    24. (a) What economic reason encouraged the British to colonize Kenya during the 19th century?

    (i) To establish reliable markets for their manufactured goods

    (ii) To establish source for industrial raw materials for industries in Britain

    (iii) Control the coast in order to safe guard their trade in the Far East

    (iv) To stop the slave trade and establish legitimate trade

    (v) To find areas to invest surplus capital

    (b) Explain six ways though which the colonial government promoted settler farming

    (i) European settlers were provided with large tracts of land while were alienated from Africans through land legislations

    (ii) The introduction of forced labour on European farms ensured steady supply of cheap labour

    (iii) The introduction of the Kipande system ensured that Africans remained in employment

    (iv) The squatter system ensured that Africans residing on the settlers farms provided that required labour in turn for small plots where they practiced subsistence farming

    (v) Forced settlements of Africans in overcrowded and unproductive reserved forced them to seek wage unemployment in settler’s farm

    Economic and Social Development During

    The Colonial Period

    1. a) State three roles played by Kenya Federation of labour during the colonial period

    i) Improved the working conditions of African workers by fighting for better wages and housing,

    ii) The organization was to keep the spirit of African nationalism alive following the banning of the Kenya African Union

    iii) The organization secured international support for cause of African nationalism

    iv) The organization articulated African grievances in the absence of political parties

    v) The organization prepared some African nationalism

    vi) The organization educated the workers on the rights

    b) Apart from trade union movements, explain six factors which hastened the achievements independence in Kenya after 1945.

    i) The experience of ex - service men in the Second World War exposed the Myth of white supremacy and thus Africans rejected their domination

    They also acquired military training which they used in their struggle for independence,

    ii) Attainment of independence by India in 1947 gave the nationalist a strong urge to fight for their own liberation,

    iii) Kenya African Union mobilized Africans against colonial rules

    It also influenced the colonial office to institute constitutional changes,

    iv) The Mau - Mau uprising proved to the colonial office that unless Kenya was granted independence it would be difficult to run the colony,

    v) The elected Africans members to legislative council put pressure on the colonial government to grant independence to Kenya,

    vi) The liberation of Ghana in 1957 was a big influence on the other colonies like Kenya

    The president of Ghana Kwame Nkuruma took it upon himself to champion the cause of the nationalists struggle in other parts of Africa,

    vii) The formation of nationalists parties eg KANU, KADU and APP intensified the struggle, which led to the final attainment of independence,

    viii) African nationalist in Kenya received support from Afro Asian people/solidarity organization and the socialist state,

    ix) Pan - African movement inspired African nationalist in their struggle for independence

    They organized conferences where they planned strategies

    x) The labour party policy after 1945 was not in favour of keeping colonies but they were a burden to the British tax payers

    xi) The international opinion after 1945 was against colonialism

    The British contributed to the war

    2. a) Describe the economic developments that took place in Kenya during the colonial period

    i) Transport and communication systems were developed eg the constuction of railway and roads,

    ii) Settler farming was encouraged, this promoted agricultural production for export trade and local consumption,

    iii) Africans were encouraged, this promoted agricultural production for export trade and local consumption

    iv) Introduction of money and establishment of banking industry to facilitate economic transactions,

    v) Development of local and international trade/commerce,

    vi) Establishment of industries such as food processing industries promoted the expansion of agricultural activities

    vii) Exploitation o mineral resources in the country eg soda as at Magadi

    viii) Development of tourists industry eg establishment of game reserves and parks

    ix) Introduction of exotic breeds of livestock eg sheep, pigs and cattle

    x) Development of tourists industry eg establishment of game reserves and parks,

    xi) Establishment of research stations/centres to improve farming methods and breeds

    xii) Development of the fishing industry Eg use of better fishing methods

    3. a) Identify three commodities that were from Asia into towns along the Kenya Coasts by 1500

  • Glasware, salt, cowrie shells, beads/ornaments, rugs/capets, swords/daggers/knifes, cloth/silk, cloth/cotton clot, spices and porcelain

    b) Explain six results of the contact the Kenyan Coast and Asia by 1500

    i) The contact between the Kenyan Coast Eg Mombasa, Malindi and Lamu

    ii) The establishmen of towns promoted intermarriages between Asians and different African communities at the Coast,

    iii) It led to the development of Kiswahili language, which had become widely spoken at the Coast by 1500

    iv) It led to spread of Asiatic arcitecture to the Kenyan Coast

    The coastal committee built rectangular houses in stone,

    v) It led to the spread of Islamic culture along the Kenyan Coast

    For instance the people were converted to Islam

    They built mosques and adopted Islamic way of dressing,

    vi) It led to the development of trade between the Kenyan Coast and Asia

    They brought their goods to the Kenyan Coast and took the Kenyan goods in return

    viii) It stimulated commercial activities between different communities in the hinterland of Kenya,

    viii) It led to the rivarly between communities over the control of the region,

    ix) It led to the establishment of the Arab control/rule along the Kenyan Coast Islamic law/ Sheria was applied in the coastal town

    ix) It led to the emergence of a class of rich people who controlled trade,

    xi) It led to the development of slave trade; Many Africans slaves were transported to Asia/led to depopulation

    xii) It led to the introduction of new crops to the Kenyan Coast eg rice and coconut,

    xiii) Introduction of Madras/slamic learning

    4. Give two factors which led to the establishment of urban centers in Kenya during the colonial period

    i) Development of transport network/the construction of the Uganda railway

    ii) Development of trade

    iii) Development of mining activities

    iv) Development of agriculture

    v) Establishment of administrative centers

    5. Give one reason why Africans who lived in towns formed social welfare organizations during the colonial period

    i) They provide security s

    ii) To promote unity and a sense of belonging among members

    iii) To cater for the basic needs of the members

    POLITICAL AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN

    COLONIAL KENYA (1919 - 1939)

    1. Some two objectives of the Kikuyu Central Association (K.C.A)

    i) To advocate for the growing of the coffee as cash crops by Africans

    ii) To work towards the restoration of alienated African Inland

    iii) To have laws written in Kikuyu

    iv) To pressurize the colonial government to abolish racial segregation

    v) The respect African culture eg circumcision

    2. What was the main reason for the formation of the Ukambani members Association?

  • To oppose the colonial policy of destocking

    3. State two features of the political organization which were formed in Kenya before 1939.

    i) They were ethnic (Tribal based / oriented / urban based)

    ii) They were non - militant

    iii) They were led by educated African chiefs

    iv) They were formed in response to socio - economic and land problems of various ethnic groups

    4. State one features of the political associations that were formed in Kenya between 1920 and 1939.

    i) They were mainly ethnic based / they lacked national outlook

    ii) They addressed specific grievances affecting the ethnic groups

    iii) Their demand focused mainly on welfare of the people

    iv) Led by educated African

    5. State two reasons why the Taita Hills Association was formed in 1939.

    i) To fight for the return of their alienated land

    ii) To protest against destock policy

    ii) To protest against taxation

    iv) To protest against the Kipande system

    v) To protest against forced labour

    Struggle for Independence in Kenya

    From 1939 - 1963

    1. a) State five methods which were used by African nationalists in Kenya during the struggle for independence

    i) The nationalists attended constitutional conference to present their grievances

    ii) Africans in the legislative council put pressure on Britain to hasten her - decolonization program

    iii) The nationalists used the trade unions to popularize the cause of the struggle among workers

    iv) They organized strikes and boycotts

    v) They enlisted public sympathy through the press

    vi) They used violence against the colonial administration

    vii) They formed political parties that coordinated the nationalists’ activities

    b) Explain five factors which promoted the growth of African nationalist activities in Kenya between 1945 and 1963.

    i) The experience of ex - service men made them more informed in world affairs on their return, they were less inclined to resume subordinate status in the colonial set - up, and thus, informed the vanguard of the liberation front,

    ii) The labour government, which came to power in 1945 was more responsive to the demands for self rule in the colonies

    It created a favourable climate for the nationalists activities in Kenya,

    iii) The constitutional changes, which were initiated in Kenya by the labour government promoted nationalists activities

    For example, Lylteton constitution of 1954 provided for election for Africans to the legislative council for the first time

    iv) The United Nations Organization (U.N.O.) recommended for self - determination for the colonized communities as a right

    IT also provided a forum where owners were urged to liberated the colonized peoples

    v) The example provided by the India's and Ghana independence in 1947 and 1957 respectively showed African Nationalists in Kenya that independence was achievable and made them more determined in their struggle, the leadership in India and Ghana gave moral and material support to the liberation struggle in Kenya,

    vi) The Mau Mau movement consolidated the nationalists struggle and brought into direct confrontation with the colonial thus giving an impetus to the nationalist struggle,

    vii) Lifting of bans on political parties in 1945 . 1955 and 1960 by the colonial government enabled the African nationalists to co - ordinate the nationalists’ activities in Kenya

    viii) The activities of the trade unions promoted the growth of African nationalists activities especially in urban centers

    ix) Education

    2. Apart from trade union movement, explain six other factors which hastened the achievement of independence in Kenya after 1945.

    i) The experience of ex - service men in the Second World War exposed the myth of white supremacy and thus Africans rejected their domination

    They also had military training which they used in their struggle for independence,

    ii) Attainment of independence by India in 1947 gave the nationalist a strong urge to fight for their own liberation

    iii) Kenya African Union mobilized Africans against colonial rules

    It also influenced the colonial office to institute constitutional changes,

    iv) The Mau Mau uprising proved to the colonial office that unless Kenya was granted independence it would be difficult to run the colony

    v) The elected African members of legislative council put pressure on the ccolonial government to grant independence to Kenya

    vi) The libertaion of Ghana in 1957 was a big influence on the other colonies like Kenya

    The President of Ghana Kwame Nkurma took it upon himself to champion the cause of the nationalists struggle in other parts of Africa

    vii) The formation of nationalist parties eg KANU, KADU and APP intensified the struggle which led to the final attainment of independence

    viii) The charasmatic role of Jomo Kenyatta managed to unite Kenyan against colonial rule,

    ix) Africans nationalists in Kenya received support from Afro Asian people solidarity organized and social states,

    ix) Pan - African movement inspired African nationalists in their struggle for independence

    They organized conferences where they planned their struggles:

    xi) The international opinion after 1945 was against colonialism

    The British contributed to the war

    3. a) State five grievances of the Africans which were voiced by Kenya African Union (KAU)

    i) Inadequate African representation in the legislative council;

    ii) Lack of African participation in the governance

    iii) Existence/use of the Kipande systems

    iv) Lack of educational opportunities for Africans

    iv) Poor working conditions

    v) Land alienation

    vii) Racial discrimination

    viii) Undermining cultural practices of Africans

    ix) Lack of compensation for the ex - service men

    x) Imposition of taxes /forced labours

    xi) Free labour for communal projects

    b) Explain five ways in which Kenyatta contributed to the nationalist movement in Kenya upto1963.

    i) He was a founder member of the Kikuyu Central Association that fought for the rights of Africans in Kenya,

    ii) He started the KCA newspaper Muigwithania through which he articulated the grievances of the Africans,

    iii) During his study in Britain between 1929 and 1946, he presented the plight of Africans in Kenya in many international forums, iv) He became the president of KAU in June 1947 and endeavored to transform it into a mass party

    v) His detention by the colonial government turned him into a national hero and future leader

    vi) In 1961, Kenyatta was elected to the legislative assembly and he attempted to reconcile KANU and KADU

    vii) In 1962, Kenyatta led KANU delegated to the second Lancaster house conference to work out constitutional changes for Kenya's independence,

    viii) When KANU won election in 1963, Jomo Kenyatta became the Prime Minister

    4. a) Name three political parties which struggled for independence in Kenya after 1945.

    i) Kenya African Union (KAU)

    ii) Kenya African National Union (KANU)

    iii) Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU)

    iv) African People Party (APP) b) Explain six grievances which African nationalist in Kenya had against colonial rule between 1945 and 1963.

    i) The African nationalist complained about Africans land that was alienated by white settlers - They wanted this land to be restored to Africans

    ii) They complained about lack of effective representation in the Legco

    iii) Poor working conditions and poor salaries made Africans discontented

    iv) Imprisonment of Kenyatta and other nationalists who had been imprisoned after the declaration of the state of emergency displeased the nationalists

    v) The nationalists wanted the state emergency to be lifted to facilitate free movement and formation of political parties

    vi) The nationalists complained against the payment of the tax / hat tax / matiti tax

    vii) The nationalist were opposed to communal labour which was used to develop public facilities

    viii) The African nationalists demanded the granting of complete independence of Kenya

    ix) The Kipande system was cumbersome, humiliating and restricting to the freedom of movement,

    x) Unfufilled reward of promises to be participated in the world war

    xi) Africans were not allowed to grow cash crops

    5. Identify two ways in which the trade union movement contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya

    i) Trade unions sensitized workers about the importance of joining political parties that struggled for independence

    ii) Trade union contributed money to political parties to enable them sustain the struggle for independence

    iii) Trade unions organized strikes and boycotts to oppose some politics of the colonial government,

    iv) Trade unions provided relevant training ground for potential leaders,

    v) Release of political leaders eg Harry Thuku

    6. State two main roles that Thomas J

    Mboya played in the Kenya African Union (K.A.U)

    i) He was director of publicity in 1952 and opposed the KAU policies

    ii) He became treasurer of the party in 1953 thereby mobilizing financial support for KAU

    iii) He made KAU have a national outlook / revitalized KAU

    7. a) What were the grievances of African Nationalists against the colonial government upto 1945.

    i) Land alienation

    ii) Forced labour

    iii) The Kipande systems

    iv) Interference with African culture

    iv) Racial

    v) discrimination

    Poor social services vi) viii)

    Payment of taxes Poor wages/working condition ix) Harassment by colonialism administrators

    b) Explain the political developments which hastened the achievement of independence in Kenya between 1945-1963.

    i) The return of ex - servicemen after the Second World War exposed the myth of white supremacy making Africans ready to fight them

    They also acquired military expertise, which enabled them to organize their assistance

    ii) Failure by the colonial government to reward the African men on return embittered them,

    iii) Change by the Government from conservative labour party in Britain made her adopt sympathetic attitude towards the nationalists struggle in her colonies such as Kenya/Lancaster House Conference 1960/1962.

    iv} The establishment of political parties by African Nationalists eg KASU, KAU

    Nairobi Peoples Convention Party, KANU, KADU, APP enhanced mobilization of the masses against colonial rule

    iv) The Mau Mau uprising forced the British to realize the need to granting Kenya Independence,

    vi) Nomination and election of Africans to Legco enabled them to use the House as a forum to agitate for independence

    vii) Emergency of trade union movement, which helped to mobilize workers to fight for their rights,

    viii) Pan African Movement and other global bodies helped in the establishment of Afro – Asian peoples Solidarity organization, which supported the course of African nationalist in Kenya,

    ix) The return of Jomo Kenyatta from UK in 1946 strengthened the nationalistic movement in Kenya

    x) Independence of other countries eg Ghana and India inspired African nationalists in Kenya to fight for their independence (Kwame or Nehru)

    xi) The formation of the UNO and the pressure it exerted on the European powers to decolonize

    8. Why was the nomination of Eliud Mathu to the Legco movement?

  • It was important because, for the first time African interest were represented by African themselves

    9. Give the main reason why African nationalists in Kenya formed the Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU) in 1960

  • KADU was formed as an alliance of minority ethnic political groups to protect the right/ interest of the minority groups against possible domination of KANU/majority groups

    10. a) What factors undermined African nationalist activities in Kenya between 1939 and 1963

    i) Harassment, detention and jailing of the nationalist leaders eg Jomo Kenyatta, Oneko and Ngei

    ii) Banning of political organization especially during the inter war and emergence period

    iii) Disunity among the African nationalists/tribalism

    iv) Lack of finances and other resources with which tornanage the struggle

    v) African nationalists were denied access to the mass media and therefore could not articulate their grievances

    vi) Use of the mass media by the colonial government to discredit the activities of the nationalists,

    vii) Betrayal of the African nationalists by other people especially the home guards/loyalists,

    viii) Lack of support from some communities from within and out of the country

    ix) Illiteracy among Africans

    x) Restriction of movement

    b) Describe the role of African elected members of parliament played in the struggle for independence up to 1963.

    i) Elected members formed a pressure group to demand for greater political rights for Africans

    ii) They formed the core team which pressurized for independence

    iii) They made known the grievances of the Africans in international forums they networked with other African nationalist elsewhere eg Ghana and Nigeria to hasten achievement of independence in Kenya,

    iv) They sought for the release of Jomo Kenyatta and other imprisoned/detained/ African nationalist

    v) They educated and created awareness among the masses to the nationalist struggle

    vi) They popularized Kenyatta and made him to accepted as the nationalist hero,

    vii) They took part in the formation of the independence constitution

    11. In what ways did the Lennax - Boyd Constitution contribute to the constitutional changes that led to the attainment of independence in Kenya?

    i) The constitution led to increased number of elected Africans in the Legislative Council,

    ii) It opened up branches in various parts of the country to educate the African representation in the Legislative Council in various ways

    ii) It supported Eliud Mathu who was appointed to the Legislative Council in various ways

    iv) It represented the grievances of the Africans internationally of its support the activities of the Mau Mau Freedom fighters by giving them moral and material support,

    v) It provided leadership for the nationalist struggle

    vi) It laid the foundation for the formation of KANU which led Kenya to independence

    vii) It organized allies in most parts of the country to create awareness on the rights of the Africans

    viii) It held discussions with the colonial government about Kenya's political future

    ix) It supported trade unions

    b) Explain five constitutional changes which took place in Kenya between 1954 and 1963.

    i) The Lottleton constitution of 1954 led to the appointment of the first African

    Minister and nomination of other African leaders to the Legislative Council

    iii) In 1957 the first all races elections were held and Africans were elected in 8 constituencies

    iii) The Lennox Boyd constitution gave more seats to Africans from 8 and 14 members For the first time more Africans were elected to the Legislative Council

    iv) The first Lancaster House Conference of 1960 gave Africans more seats in the Legco

    Thus African representation move from 14 to 33 members,

    iv) In 1960 the state for emergency was lifted and Africans were allowed to form country wide political parties

    KANU and KADU were formed,

    v) The second Lancaster Conference drew up the independence constitution Kenya was to become Majimbo/ a federal state,

    vii) In 1961 the first general elections were held and KANU won but refused to form the government until the release of Kenyatta / KADU formed the government with Ngala as leader of government business

    viii) KANU and KADU formed a coalition government with Kenyatta as the first Prime Minister, ix) On December 12th, 1963 Kenya attained full independence

    12. a) What were the three main features of the independence constitution of Kenya?

    i) It provided for the establishment of a federal government

    ii) It spelt out that the party with the majority forms the government/multiparty

    iii) It spelt out the rights and obligations of individuals/citizens

    iv) It provided for the establishment of National Assembly consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives,

    v) It provided for opposition/post of Prime Minister to head the government and a Governor General to head the state,

    vi) It spelt out the powers and responsibilities of the central government and regional governments

    vii) It established regional government with regional Assemblies and presidents

    viii) It divided responsibilities between regional governments and the central government

    b) Explain six powers that constitution of Kenya gives to the president

    i) Powers prorogue parliament/dissolve the National Assembly

    ii) Powers to - appoint and dismiss the Vice President and minister

    iii) Powers to appoint and dismiss senior public officials/servants,

    iv) Powers to maintain peace in the country by upholding the rule of law/detention

    v) Powers to preserve public security through declaring the state of emergency

    vi) Powers to permit ministers and other officers in the civil service to be out of the country

    vii) Powers to form government after a general election

    viii) Powers to declare war or make peace with enemies

    ix) Power to establish commissions of enquiry to investigate issues of national importance

    x) Powers to perform official opening of parliament after general elections

    xi) Powers to nominate members of parliament after general elections

    13. a) What major reform result from the Lyttleton Cosntitution of 1954 in Kenya?

    i) I t led to the establishment of multi

  • racial council of minister made up of official and non official members

    This new council replaced the executive council,

    ii) B.A. Ohanga one of the nominated African members was made minister for community Development and African Affairs,

    iii) Africans were allowed to form political organizations whose functions were confined to district levels

    iv) The government provided for elections of eight Africans to the legislative councils

    v) It led to the establishment of an Advisory Council to discuss government policies

    b) Explain six ways through which Thomas Joseph Mboya contributed the struggle for independence in Kenya,

    i) He was a member of the Kenya Local Government Workers Union (KLGWU) and Kenya Federation of Labour (KFL)

    ii) He protested against colonial separation of the Agikuyu, Aembu and Ameru from other communities in Nairobi

    iii) He was a member of KAU and became its director of publicity in 1952 he was later elected treasure of the party

    iv) He protested against government arrest, detention and torture of African workers

    v) He solicited for financial and moral support to KFL from international trade unions and organizations

    vi) He protested the restriction of Africans to grow cash crops

    vii) He campaigned for the release of detained unionists and political leaders such as Jomo Kenyatta

    viii) He facilitated trade union in many parts of Kenya

    ix) He exposed African problems and sought help from Pan African

    x) In 1957, having been elected into Legislative council, he championed their needs such as involvements in government affairs

    xi) He was elected Secretary General of KANU in 1960

    xii) He condemned the reservation of white highlands for Europeans settlers

    14. Explain the functions and powers of the President in Kenya,

    i) He is the Head of state and symbol of national unity (Head of Government)

    ii) He is responsible for making and ratifying international treaties and ugreemen (if one unites "elects")

    iii) The president appoints the cabinet and Assistant Ministers from among members of the National Assembly

    iv) The president has the powers to summon, prologue and dissolve parliament

    v) The president has the powers to appoint disicple and remove senior public servants such as Permanent Secretaries, Ambassadors and Judges

    vi) He nominates twelve people to the National Assembly to represent special interests

    vii) He grants honors to deserving citizens

    viii) He has power of clemency

    ix) He presides over important state occasions

    x) He represents the country in international conference, he is chief diplomat

    15 a) State three ways through which a person can become a member of parliament in Kenya

    i) By being elected to represent a constituency,

    ii) By being nominated by the President

    iii) By virtue of office eg Ex-officio (Attorney Genera!),

    b) Name two Institutions which make up the Executive Arm of the Government

    i) Presidency

    ii) Cabinet

    iii) Civil service

    Modern Means of Transport and Communication

    1. Discuss the role by telecommunication service in modern society

    i) Improved communication - The development of telecommunication has revolutionalized communication through the world, between countries, between governments and their citizens and among individuals,

    ii) Mass entertainment - Telecommunication service such as radio, cinema and Televisions provide mass entertainment that is unprecedented in history

    This has played an important role in the development of the popular arts, iii) Education - Telecommunication services that served as a medium for public education

    Education by radio and television for example are widely used in many countries, iv) Travel - Telecommunication services have helped to improve travel

    For example, ships at sea and planes in the air are kept in constant touch through the marvels of the telecommunications industry

    v) Exploration of outer space - The development of telecommunication services has enabled people to explore outer space

    This has greatly improved our understanding of the way the universe and the earth itself operate

    vi) Warfare - telecommunication services have been widely used in improving weapons and conducting warfare

    This has made warfare more destructive than ever before in history

    vii) Cultural imperialism - The modern telecommunication industry is dominated by a few rich countries

    These counries are able to dominate and impose their cultural values on the rest of the world

    For example, the USA dominates in the production and export of films and television programmes

    viii) Business transaction/advertisement - the development of telecommunication services have led to the improvement of management techniques and systems eg computers

    ix) National unity patriotism propaganda on radio eg songs 2. What also has been the result of the development of telecommunication technology in the modern world?

    i) Advancement in telecommunication has increased the speed at which messages are communicated from one point to another

    ii) It has enabled direct personal delivery of messages through the use of telephone,

    iii) Led to the introduction of many forms of audio iv) visual forms of entertainment to people in various

  • parts of the world, Facilitated commercial transactions between countries an individuals through the use of telex, fax and telephone

    v) It has facilitated live transmission of some audio - visual programme,

    vi) Promoted audio

  • visual commercial advertisement of goods/products thus promoting sales and public awareness of the existence of some parts

    vii) Promoted cultural interaction positive or negative between different communities of the world

    Thus people have been able to learn more about each other's culture,

    viii) Enriched learning through the use of audio - visual means of communications,

    ix) Promoted the safety of air and water transport as it used to send signals to field pilots and captains

    x) Used in modern warfare to provide information to the parties involved in the war

    xi) Promoted space research through satellite communication

    xii) Provided employment

    3. Describe the results of the development of railway transport during the 19th century

    i) Railway facilitated transport of goods especially industrial products and raw materials for the industries

    ii) It facilitated transportation of industrial workers/labour,

    iii) It facilitated the spread of ideas

    iv) It led to widespread migration and settlement of people

    It promoted the development of trade

    vi) It opened up remote areas for economic exploitation eg mining, fishing and farming, vii) It strengthened European pacification of their overseas colonies,

    viii) It led to the development of towns/urban centers

    4. Give two ways in which air transport has improved trade between nations

    i) It has improved speed with which nation trade

    Organizations/individuals are moved

    ii) It has facilitated fast marketing of trade strategies by organizations/individuals,

    iii) It has improved transportation of urgent documents and messages relating to trade,

    iv) It enables fast transportation of perishable goods

    5. State two effects of the development of railway transport in the 19th century

    i) It facilitated transportation of bulky goods,

    ii) It led to expansion of trade, iii) It facilitated industrialization

    iv) It facilitated in the entrenchment of colonial administration/movement of soldier

    v) It facilitated the spread of Christianity

    vii) Created employment opportunities

    Political Social and Economic Systems of Africans in the Pre-colonial Period

    1. Give three characteristics if African traditional education

    i) It was carried throughout an individual's life/no time limit

    ii) Everybody in the society was a teacher/had something to offer

    iii) The elders in the society taught the youth societal norms/instructions

    iv) Learning was through participation/practically oriented in the affairs/experience of the community /observation/experimentation,

    v) It was informal,

    vi) Most learning took place during initiation

  • Young men learnt the role of father and girls the roles of mother,

    vii) Taught how to earn a living through apprenticeship

    2. a) State three factors which led to the growth of Baganda

    i) Sound economy based on agriculture

    ii) The office of the Kabaka was hereditary

    : iii) Capable rulers such as Mutesa 1

    iv) Participation of the long distance, v) Decline of Bunyoro Kitara Kingdom

    b) Describe the Buganda system of government during the pre - colonial period

    i) Buganda was a centralized monarchy headed by the Kabaka

    ii) The office of the Kabaka was hereditary

    iii) His court was the final court of appeal

    The Kabaka was the commander in chief of the armed forces and Sabatka

    iv) The AKbaka was assisted in the running of the government by the prime minister (Katikiro) who was his appointee

    v) There existed a council of ministers which consisted of Katikiro (prime minister) and Omuwanika (treasure)

    Tehy adised the Kabaka

    vi) Lukiko - This was a legislative body which discussed important matters affecting the kingdom

    It was made up of Kabaka's nominees

    3. a) Describe the social organization of the Shona during the pre - colonial period

    i) They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits whom the consulted from time to time

    ii) The Shona communicated with the spirits through mediums/oracles

    iii) The priest presided over religious functions such as offering sacrifices to god

    iv Shona elders were highly respected

    v) Priests came from Rozwi clan

    vi) It was a polygamous society

    b) Explain the political organization of the Mwene Mutapa kingdom during the pre-colonial period

    i) The empire/kingdom was ruled by an emperor/king who was both head of (he state and government

    ii) The office of emperor was hereditary

    iii) The emperor was assisted in administering the empire by the queen mother, head, drummer; emperor's sister, emperor's principal wives, the chancellor and military commander, head door keeper, head cook

    iv) The empire was divided into provinces which were ruled by kings who were directly answerable to the emperor

    The emperor had a standing army which was used for defense and expansion of the kingdom

    iv) Religion united people/religion create political unity,

    v) The emperor controlled trade activities whose revenue was used to sustain the empire and the army

    vii) Priest acted as a link between the people and the emperor/priests acted as emperor spies

    viii) The emperor was military leader,

    ix) The vassal states were ruled by chiefs who paid tribute to the king

    4. State the main function of the Golden Stool in the Asante Empire during the pre

  • colonial period

  • The Golden stool bound together all the Asante states

    It was a symbol of Asante unity

    5. State two factors that facilitated the growth of the asante kingdom

    i) Able leaders eg Osei Tutu

    ii) Unity brought about the Golden Stool/Odwira festival/common society,

    iii) Wealth derived from the Trans - Atlantic slave trade

    iv) Military strengths based on the acquisitions of guns

    v) A strong agricultural base/availability of food

    vi) Centralized political system under Asantehene

    vii) A large army

    viii) Oppressive need rule to free themselves from rule denkyia

    Scramble and Partion of Africa

    1. Give three reasons why the British were able to suppress the Ndembrlr uprising in Zimbabwe

    i) The British used firearms against the Ndembele/better weapons/inferior weapons of Ndembele

    ii) African communities in Zimbabwe were not united against the British/the Ndembele were not united

    iii) The ruthlessness qith which the British handed resistors demoralized the Ndembele warriors

    iv) The British were supported by some African warriors against the Ndembele

    v) The British soldiers were better trained and better organized,

    vi) The fleeing and final death of Lobenguela in exile demoralized the Ndembele

    2. Apart from Nigeria, name three other West African countries which were ruled by Britian

    i) Gambia

  • Sierra Leone
  • Ghana Gold Coast ii) Togo (after 1914)
  • a section of Cameroon

    VJ! 3. a) Name three colonies in N

    Africa which were colonized by France during the 19th Century

  • Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania

    b) Explain six factors which facilitated European colonization of Africa in 19th Century

    i) Some Africans rulers were ignorant of the true implications of the protectorate treaties which they signed with the European imperialists/signing treaties

    ii) Some Africans collaborated with imperials who used superior military weapons against the African communities

    iii) The Europeans imperialists used superior military weapons against the African communities

    iv) European imperialist missionaries who were already perating in Africa persuaded some African rulers to accept European rule

    For example, in Bugarida, Kaka Mwanga had refused to sign a protectorate treaty with captain Fredrick Lugard in 1890 but the Chrsitian missionaries persuaded him to sign it

    v) European traders operating in Africa persuaded their respective governmnets to acquire those

    African territories which they regarded as their commercial spheres

    vi) The discovery of quinine during the first half of the 19th Century reduced the European mortality rate in Africa

    This made it possible for Europeans to stay in Africa and impose their rule on the Africans

    vii) The Europeans had worked out their strategies of occupation in Berlin Conference

    They also co

  • operated to deal with the African/Berlin Conference

    4. What methods did European powers use to acquire colonies in Africa?

    i) They signed treaties with the rulers

    ii) They used military force to subdue communities which resisted

    iii) They signed treaties among themselves to partition African eg the 1890 Anglo-German

    iv) Use of treachery eg with Menelik in Ethiopia

    5. Give two economic reasons which made European powers to scramble for African colonies

    i) Search for markets for their manufactured goods

    ii) Search for sources of raw materials for their industries

    iii) Desire by the entrepreneurs to invest excess capital

    6. Give two methods that European powers used to occupy Africa during the nineteenth Century

    i) Diplomacy/treaty making/promises of protection/giving gifts,

    ii) Trickers/use of missionaries’ explorers/traders,

    iii) Military conquest eg the French in West Africa,

    iv) Divide and rule tactics ie playing off one community against another/promoting later state conflicts

    v) Annexation

    vi) Setting up administrative posts

    African Response to the European

    Colonization

    1. State six causes of the Maji Maji uprising

    i) The use of Arabs and Waswahili as Jumbes and Akidas by the Germans was resented by the people of Southern Tanzania

    ii) The Africans resented taxes imposed on hem by the Germans/hut tax

    iii) German administrators were cruel, harsh, oppressive and corrupt and this provided resentment

    iv) Africans resented being forces to grow cotton/cash crops

    v) Africans hated forced labour for public works and European settles

    vi) Land loss to European settlers

    vi) The Germans showed disrespect for African culture eg rape, sleeping with Ngindo women which was a crime punished by death

    viii) Desire by Africans to regain their independence, ix) Disrespect to traditional African rulers eg flogging them in public

    2. Name the empire which was ruled by Samori Toure during the European invasion of Africa

  • The Mandinka empire

    3. Explain six factors which influenced Lewanika of the Balozi to collaborate with the British

    i) Lewaninka collaborated with the British in order to protect his kingdom against the Germans and Portuguese/European enemies

    ii) Lewaninka desired Western educational and civilization and wanted the British to introduce it in his country/wanted his sons to be educated

    iii) Lewaninka wanted the British to protect him against internal enemies Eg 1884 Lewaninka faced an internal rebellion/safe guard his position

    iv) Lewaninka was encouraged to collaborate with the British by King Kham of Botswana who had already sought British sought British protection against Boers

    v) Lewaninka saw the futility of resisting a strong power like Britain, so he chose to collaborate,

    vi) Lewaninka wanted the British to protect his kingdom from attacks by other African communities such as the Ndembele and Shona/Africans enemies

    vii) Lewaninka was influenced by the European missionaries who had visited earlier to collaborate

    viii) In order to preserve the economic structure of his people

    ix) Desire for the promotion of trade between Britain and his people

    4. a) Explain why Maji Maji uprising occurred between 1905 and 1907.

    i) Cruelty and brutality of the German colonial administrators especially the Akidas and Jumbes

    ii) Forced labour on the German plantations and other works which dehumanized the Africans

    iii) Imposition of taxation eg hut tax provoked resentment among Africans

    iv) Compulsory growing of cotton on unsuitable soils and hence poor yields

    v) The Africans desired to retain their lost independence

    vi) Disrespect for African culture by the German administrators eg In Uganda, the German misbehaved with Ngindo women/raping

    vii) Land alienation

    viii) The charismatic role played by Kinjeketile in using region to unify the people of southern Tanzania against the Germans/role of religion/Kinjeketile Ngwale

    b) What was the outcome of the Maji Maji uprising against Germans

    i) The uprising led to destruction of property in southern Tanzania

    ii) There was loss of many lives through the war eg hanging of some leader

    iii) Many people were displaced as they escaped from the war

  • torn region of southern Tanzania/break up of families

    iv) The German colonial government changed its policies eg abolition of forced labour

    v) Change of German colonial administrators because they understood their system better/less harsh

    vi) Betrayed Africans confidence in their religion and the magic water

  • many turned to Christianity, vii) Created division between those communities, which resisted and those which collaborated/bitter feelings amongst people

    viii) Arrest and imprisonment of Africans

    ix) Africans learnt the futility of fighting against better

  • armed opponent

    5. State the contribution of religion in the Maji Maji uprising against the Germans

  • A religious leader Kinjeketile Ngwale used magic water which e claimed to had Magic power from the ancestors against German bullets, encourage and unite people of southern Tanzania to rise against foreign rule

    6. a) What factors led to the success of Menelik of Ethiopia against the Italians at the battle of Adowa

    i) Menelik had the support of the provincial rulers/kings

    ii) He was to unite Ethiopians against the common enemy, the Italians

    iii) Menelik had large well trained army with modern weapons which he had acquired from Europeans

    iv) The Ethiopian soldiers knew the terrain of their country/applied guerilla warfare

    v) Adequate food supply to sustain the prolonged war

    vi) Menelik used diplomacy by playing off one European power against another to delay Italian attack

    vii) The Ethiopians were anxious (Determined) to be independent of European control

    viii) Italian soldiers were incompetent and ill prepared/underrated Ethiopians military strength

    b) Describe the result of the battle of Adowa

    i) The Ethiopian victory led to their independence

    ii) It led to the signing of the 1986 Addis Ababa treaty in which Ethiopians independence

    iii) Other European nations such as France, Britain and Russia established diplomatic relations with Ethiopia

    iv) Many soldiers both Egyptians and Italians lost their lives in the fighting

    v) The war brought about general destruction of property

    vi) Insecurity brought by the halted economic activities

    vii) The victory enabled Ethiopia leaders to consolidate their unity and identify as a nation

    viii) Led to the resignation of the Italian Prime Minister due to humiliation at Adowa

    7. Give one reason why some Africans communities collaborated with the European imperialists

    i) Influence from the Missionaries

    ii) To get assistance against their enemies/hostile neighbours

    iii) Show them courtesy assuming they would soon leave/ignorance of the intensions of Europeans

    iv) To get material gains/benefits eg guns, clothes, luxury goods etc

    v) Saw it futile to resist a stronger force,

    vi) Traditional rulers

    vii) To get education and medicals services

    8. a) What factors enabled Samori Toure to resist French colonization in West Africa between 1882 and 1898?

    i) He had a large well - Organised army which was a formidable force for the French

    ii) He equipped his army with modern weapons which were acquired from the Europeans and also manufactured some locally

    iii) He used Mandinka nationalism and Islam to unify the soldiers/army

    iv) He has adequate food supply which sustained the army

    ix) v) He used guerilla warfare and scorched earth policy which proved effective against the French

    vi) Some of his soldiers had served in the French colonial army and were thus familiar with the French war tactics

    vii) Use of horses by Samori during the war enhanced the soldiers effectiveness

    viii) Samori's soldiers were familiar with the terrain

    This enabled democratic assignment of duties

    He was a competent leader who inspired his soldier democratic assignment of duties

    x) He used diplomacy eg he signed the Bussandugu Treaty (1886) to get more time to organise himself

    xi) Samori shifted his empire and capital further inland to give him more time to re-organise his forces

    b) Explain four result of the defeat of the Mandinka by the French in the nineteenth century

    i) The Mandinka empire disintegrated as the French established the areas

    ii) Property was destroyed due to the use of the scorched policy causing famine and suffering to the people

    iv) Some Mandinka fled to other countries such as Ghana and Ivory Coast to avoid French colonial rule

    iv) Samori Toure was captured and exiled to Gabon in 1989.

    9. a) What reasons led to the failure of Maji Maji rebellion in 1907?

    i) Africans were not well organized in their resistance

    Each Community fought on its own/lack of proper co – ordination

    ii) The magic water failed to protect Africans from German bullets leading to the death of African soldiers into the battle

    iii) The Africans did not unite to face the common enemy, for example the Hehe and Nyamwezi did not join the revolt/lack of unity

    iv) The Germans received reinforcement from Germany and other colonies and their number overwhelmed the African soldiers

    v) Africans soldiers lacked enough weapons to use against the Germans

    vi) The ruthlessness of the German soldiers in crushing the rebellion eg use of scorched earth policy

    vii) Capture and execution of leaders demoralized the warriors

    b) Explain five reforms that were introduced by the German administration after the Maji Maji uprising

    i) Communal cotton growing was stopped and Africans were encouraged to plant their own cotton and get profit from it

    ii) Force labour for settler farms was abolished

    iii) Corporal punishment was forbidden and those settlers who mistreated their workers were punished

    iv) Better educational and medical services for Africans were introduced

    v) Africans were involved in Administration of the regions as Akidas and Jumbes

    vi) The new governor censured newspaper that supported settlers against Africans,

    vii) A new governor censured newspapers that supported settlers against Africans

    viii) A colonial department of German government was formed in 1907 to closely investigate the affairs to German East Africa

    ix) Extra taxation of Africans was rejected by the new governors

    x) Kiswahili was accepted as the official language

    ix) Colonial administration in Tanganyika was tailored to suit the Africans

    COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION 1. a) Give 5 reasons why Britain used indirect rule in Northern Nigeria

    i) Britain wanted to reduce administrative costs by using the local chiefs ie system was cheaper

    ii) Lack of adequate funds

    xiii) iii) Nigeria had organized political structure which suited indirect rule/centralized government, iv) Britain wanted to guard against resistance by the local people through using existing local institutions and rulers

    v) Britain lacked adequate personnel to administer the vast colony, vi) Indirect rule had been tied in India and Uganda was found to be workable

    b) Why did the British improve transport and communication in Northern Nigeria?

    i) To promote trade in the country

    ii) To facilitate the movement of colonial administrators

    iii) To facilitate the exploitation of natural resources in remote parts of the country,

    iv) To promote evangelization of the colony by facilitating the movement of missionaries

    v) To speed up communication between Nigeria and Britain,

    vi) To facilitate the transportation of agricultural products and equipment,

    vii) To facilitate the transportation of raw materials/minerals,

    viii) To raise revenue for administering the country

    2. a) State five benefits which the people of the four communes in Senegal enjoyed as a result of the application of the French policy of assimilation

    i) They were allowed to send representative to the French Chamber of deputies

    ii) They were enfranchised like the French people in France

    iii) They were provided with same educational rights like the French people in France/protected by French constitution

    iv) They were exempted from forced labour

    v) They were allowed trading rights like the French people in France

    vi) They were allowed to operate local authority structures which were similar to those in France

    vii) They were allowed to serve in the French civil service

    b) Explain five factors which undermined the application of the French policy of assimilation in West Africa

    i) Opposition by local people who did not want the French to interfere with theory culture

    ii) Traditional African rulers who did not want to lose their authority and influence over people

    iii) The people who had been converted to Islam resisted the French attempt to convert them to their culture/Christianity

    iv) There was opposition by French traders in West Africa who saw the assimilated Africans as a potential threat to their commercial monopoly in the region

    v) The African land tenure system was different from that of the French

    vi) French government found it expensive to implement the policy because it required building many schools and employing teachers

    vii) It threatened the existence of the French empire

    viii) it was opposed by the French imperialists

    ix) The vastness of the French colonies made it difficult to supervise the implementation of the policy of assimilation/inadequate personnel

    x) The French people in France opposed of assimilation because they feared that they would be outnumbered in the chamber of deputies and that the laws would be made by representative from the colonies

    3. Name two systems of colonial administration which were used by the British to administer their colonies in Africa

    i) Indirect rule

    ii) Direct rule

    4. a) Describe that factors which facilitated the success of the French policy of Assimilation in Senegal

    i) The application of the assimilation led to the promotion of French culture in Senegal eg dressing feeding etc

    ii) The policy of assimilation undermined African culture as many adopted the French culture

    iii) It undermined the authority of the traditional rulers as they were replaced by the assimilated Africans

    iv) Senegal was incorporated in French republic regarded as an overseas province of France

    v) Africans from Senegal were allowed to participate in the political affairs of France

    Some of them became deputies and minister in the French government

    vi) It undermined the spread of Islam in the same communities where many Africans had adopted Christianity

    vii) It created a class of privileged Africans who were regarded to be equal with the white French people

    viii) It created division among Africans in Senegal some became citizens while others became subjects

    5. a) What were the difference between the British policy of indirect rule to administer Northern Nigeria

    i) The existence of a well established and centralized system of government in the region ie the Sokto Caliphate

    ii) Use of the Sheria (Islamic Law) in the Sokto Caliphate provided a base to be used to govern the protectorate

    iii) To win the confidence and the support of all the people by giving them the impression that they were still under the governance of their leaders

    iv) Shortage of British personnel to administer the vast protectorate

    v) Inadequate funds to facilitate administrative expenses of the protectorate/cheap/less expensive etc

    vi) Success already realized in using the policy elsewhere within the empire eg Uganda and India gave Lugard the courage to try it in Nigeria

    vii) Poor transport and communication network making it difficult for British officials to effectively administer different parts of the country

    6. Define indirect rule as a policy that was used by the British to administer their colonies in Africa

    Indirect rule was the British colonial administration policy where they retained the existing indigenous systems and use of local rulers in pursuit of their colonial interests

    7. State two reasons why indirect rule was unsuccessful in Southern Nigeria

    i) Southern Nigeria lacked centralized administration which could be used to implement the indirect rule

    ii) African chiefs feared erosion and loss of the traditional authority

    iii) The African elite resented British rule

    iv) Existence of many ethnic groups and religious made it difficult to bring the people together under one rule

    v) The use of unpopular African rulers eg Obas/puppet made the people reject British rule

    8. a) Why did the British use direct rule in Zimbabwe?

    i) They desired to control the economy of Zimbabwe to maximize profits

    ii) The indigenous/local political institutional based on Induna system had been destroyed during the British occupation of Zimbabwe

    iii) To ensure complete control of Africans

    iv) Existence of British South Africa company personnel on the sport who were familiar with the area as well as British system of administration

    b) Explain the effected of British rule in Zimbabwe

    i) It led to the alienation of African land to white settlers resulting to displacement of Africans

    ii) African traditional rulers lost their political autonomy and served as puppets of the British/loss of independence

    iii) The day to day running of the colony was vested in the hands of the British without much reference to the African interest

    iv) Africans were subjected to heavy taxation and forced labour

    v) The British South African company was given too much in the administration of colony

    vi) It undermined African traditional economy as some Africans worked in white farms

    vii) It led to the development of transport network/infrastructure,

    viii) It led to the introduction of new crops in the region,

    ix) It undermined African culture, x) Establishment of white settlements subjected Africans to poverty and suffering

    xi) Africans were denied freedom of movements by being confined to reserves and required to carry identity cards

    xii) It led to rise of African nationalism

    9. a) Why did the British use indirect rule to administer Northern Nigeria?

    i) To reduce the administrative costs of the colony because it was vast/costs

    ii) The British did not have enough trained personnel to administer the area - no – person

    iii) There existed an already accepted system of administration through the Enirs and Qadis

    iv) They did not want to provoke people of Northern Nigeria into rebellion - or rebellious by introducing the rules

    v) Indirect rule had already succeeded in Uganda and India, so they had points of reference

    vi) the adoption of the dual Mandate policy by the British government encouraged the development of the colony for its own good and good of Britain

    vii) Poor communication

    b) Explain why the use of indirect rule in Southern Nigeria was unsuccessful

    i) Southern Nigeria did not have centralized indigenous system of government that was necessary for the application of indirect rule

    ii) Lack of homogeneity in the South as there were many ethnic groups, language and customs to be understood

    iii) The British introduced new ideas such as forced labour and direct taxes which infuriated the people

    iv) the failure of the British administrators to fully understand how the social and economist and political system of Southern Nigeria (based on the office of the Oba) operated made them fail easily

    v) Opposition from the educated elite who felt out of the administration of their country/leadership

    vi) The educated people in Southern Nigeria resented the chiefs appointed by the British because they were illiterate

    vii) The Obas of Southern Nigeria had defined powers such as mediation, so when they were given wide ranging powers, people became discontented

    viii) communication barriers between the British supervisors, the warrant chiefs and the people often led to misinterpretation and misunderstanding

    ix) misuse of power by the Warrant chief who raised taxes for their own benefits

    They also harassed women sexually

    x) Use of excessive force to suppress any form of resistance provoked resentment eg the shooting of women during a demonstration against

    British administration

    Nationalism of Africa

    1. Give two ways through which the attainment of independence in Ghana contributed to the liberation of other African from colonial rule

    i) Motivated other African countries to strengthen their independence struggle

    ii) Nkurumah became more vocal in agitating for the course of other nationalists in globa forums

    iii) Ghana played a leading role in the formation of the OAU, which was instrumental in the liberation of other states

    iv) Ghana allowed some Africans nationalists to establish their military bases in the country

    2. Identify one way in which the rise of nationalism undermined the policy of assimilation in French West Africa

    i) The nationalist created awareness on the value of African culture and systems, this encouraged Africans to condemn assimilation

    ii) The nationalists created awareness of the importance of African Unity which exposed the hypocrisy of assimilation/nationalists parties were used to mobilize the masses to condemn assimilation

    Form 4 Government of Kenya Provincial

    Administration National Unity and Bill

    Of Rights

    1. Explain how the bill of rights in Kenya Constitution protects the rights of the individuals

    i) The bill of rights guarantees a person the right to live

    This means that taking away life, either by murder or suicide is punishable under the law

    ii) The bill of rights provides for the right to own property thus any person who interferes with another person's property is liable to prosecution in court of law

    iii) It provide for freedom of conscience for the prosecution in court of law

    iv) it provides for freedom of association/assembly

    This entitles the individual the right to assemble and associate with people of his won choice without harassment

    v) It provides freedom of expression

    This allows person to express his opinion freely in writing or speech without fear

    vi) It provides for freedom of movement of the individual

    This guarantees a person the right to move freely in any part of the country at any time without fen

    vii) It provides for protection against slavery and forced labour

    This allows the individual to choose when, where and whom to work

    viii) The bill of right protects the individual against arbitrary search, arrest and detention

    2. a) Identify three occasions when the Kenyan National Anthem is sung

    i) When raising the National flag

    ii) During National heads of state meeting,

    iii) When commemorating public holidays

    iv) During international sports events where Kenya is participating

    v) When radio and TV open and close

    b) Explain six factors that promote the National Unity in Kenya

    i) Office of the President

    ii) National Language

    iii) National Anthem

    iv) Equal distribution of resources

    v) Loyalty pledge

    3. Which provision in the Kenyan Constitution protects the wealth of individuals in the country?

    The right to own property/of right

    4. a) State three functions of the Police force in Kenya

    i) To maintain law and order

    ii) To investigate suspected criminal activities

    iii) To provide internal security

    iv) To control and direct traffic in the country

    v) To arrest and prosecute suspected criminals

    vi) To mount a guard of honour for domestic and international dignities

    b) Describe six duties performed by Provincial Commissioner in Kenya

    i) The PCS act as representatives of the president in their areas of jurisdiction

    ii) The PCS overseas the implementations of government policies and programs in their provinces

    iii) The PCS interprets government policies in their areas of jurisdiction

    iv) The PCs ensures that law and order is maintained in the provinces

    v) They issue permits for public meetings in their respective provinces

    vi) The PCs serves as chairperson in the provincial security to the areas

    vii) They co - ordinate development programs to serve as chairperson of the provincial development

    viii) They are in overall control of all government departments in their respective provinces

    5. a) Describe the main provision of the Independence Constitution in Kenya

    i) The Independence Constitution provided a regional/Majimbo government

    Each regional has a regional assembly and president

    ii) A bicameral parliament consisting of the Senate and House of Representatives/upper house or lower house

    iii) The Prime Minister to be the head of government, the party with the majority forming the government

    iv) Recommended a multiparty system of government, the party with the majority forming the government

    v) The bill of rights, which protected the individual interest

    b) Explain circumstances which may force the government to limit the rights and freedom of the individual

    i) One can be denied the right to life if one is convicted of murder in a court of law or caught in the act of robbery with violence

    ii) If suspected to be planning to commit a crime, one can be denied their personal liberty/freedom of movement

    iii) One can be denied freedom to own property if the government wishes to develop public utilities in the areas, but compensation must be paid

    iv) One's freedom of assembly can be limited if it poses a threat to the state

    v) Ones freedom of speech may be limited if one publishes false accusations about another person or state/incite people against the government

    vi) If one is not of sound mind one can be taken mental hospital by the police for confinement and treatment

    vii) If one has an infectious disease one can be denied one's personal liberty

    viii) If one has not attained the age of maturity/one is considered a minor and their decision are made on their behalf by adult members of society

    6. State one fundamental right of the individual which a person in prison is deprived of

    i) Freedom of movement

    ii) Freedom of expression

    7. State the main functions of Kenya army

    Protect the country against external attacks

    8. Give two reasons why the Chief's Baraza is important in Kenya

    i) It is used to communicate the government's policies/decisions to the local people

    ii) It acts as forum for people to express their wishes to the government

    iii) It is used to address, resolve minor concerns of the people in the locality/settling local despite

    iv) Mobilization of local resources

    9. Explain five functions of a Provincial Commissioner in Kenya

    i) He represents the president during national celebration eg Labour Day, Moi Day etc. He reads the presidents speech in these occasions

    ii) He is the president's representative in the province

    iii) He explains and educates the government employees and the people on the government policies

    iv) He is responsible for the maintenance of law and order where he chairs the provincial development committee and ensures that there is law and order during public meetings

    v) He co-ordinates all the administrative functions in the provincial development committee meetings

    vi) He supervises and co-ordinates all the administrative functions in the province being the Chief Administrator

    vii) He chairs provincial committee meeting on procurement, land control boards, education and non - governmental organizations

    viii) Installs chiefs in the areas of jurisdiction

    10. State one way in which the Kenya constitution promotes national unity

    i) Guarantees equal opportunity to all Kenyans

    ii) Helping to apprehend individuals who break the law

    ii) Centralized national examinations

    iv) Existence of national schools

    11. State two ways in which the chief promotes law and order in the location

    i) Settling disputes between the people in the location

    ii) Helping to apprehend individuals against any form of discrimination/bill of right

    iii) Provide for unity government

    12. Give one way through which the education system in Kenya promotes national unity

    i) Use of one curriculum in all the public schools

    ii) Use of one medium of instructions

    iii) Centralized national examinations

    iv) Centralized training and deployment of teachers

    v) Existence of national schools

    13. Identify two national philosophies used development strategies in Kenya

    i) Harambee

    ii) Nyayoism (peace, love and unity)

    14. a) Describe the process of preparing a bill before it is taken to parliament for debate

    i) Preparation of bill starts with making suggestions/proposal about the need for the law

    ii) The proposal is taken to the Attorney General's chamber for drafting

    iii) The Attorney General prepares a draft proposal of the intended law

    iv) The Attorney General notifies the members of the parliament and the public about the intended bill to enable them carry out research

    b) Explain six ways in which the Bill of Right protects the right of the individual

    i) States that every individual has the right to life

    ii) It guarantees liberty to all citizens by forbidding enslavement, detention or imprisonment without trail

    iii) It protects the individual from all forms of torture and inhuman treatment

    iv) It guarantees protection of private and allows Kenyans to own property anywhere in the country

    v) It protects individual freedom of conscience and religion/workshop, vi) It guarantees the protection of freedom of speech and expression

    vi) It gives Kenyan the right to move freely throughout the country

    Kenyan are protected against expulsion from the country

    viii) It guarantees individual against any form of discrimination on the basis of colour, creed, gender and religion

    ix) It protects individuals against arbitrary search, arrest and entry into one's property without one's consent

    Political Parties in Kenya

    1. a) State five advantages of multi - party democracy

    i) Provides citizens with alternative political parties to belong to

    ii) Provides a form of accountability of government of the day

    iii) Allows for the existence of a shadow cabinet which enables the country to have an alternative u national policies

    iv) The party officials work hand in hand with civil servants at all levels in implementing government policies accordingly

    v) Lay down the policy to guide members of parliament

    vi) The ruling party is charged with the responsibility of promoting the country social and economic development

    vii) Promotes political awareness and general development among the people with national consciousness

    viii) Charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and providing security to the people

    ix) Formulates foreign policies and protects Kenyan nationals who are citizens of the country

    2. What is the main functions of opposition parties in Kenya?

    To provide a system of checks and balances to the government of the day in order to guard against excess/to act a check on the government

    3. Identify TWO causes of divisions within the opposition party in Kenya since 1992,

    i) Personal difference

    ii) Ethnic affiliations

    iii) Selfish motives

    iv) External interference

    v) Ideological difference

    4. a) Describe the structure of the Democratic Party of Kenya (DP)

    i) National Delegates Convention is the highest organ of the party and responsible for electing the officials of the party and amending the party constitution

    ii) National Governing Councils is made up of all National Officials of the Party and two representatives from each province ensuring that all party policies and programmed are implemented/second highest party, organ

    iii) National Executive committee consists of selected officials

    They are charged with day to day running of the party

    iv) Branch Executive consists of selected officials

    They are charged with day to day running of the party

    v) Each branch is divided sub - branches up to the village level

    vi) NSC - National Secretariat Committee headed by executive officer

    vii) PET

  • Party Election Committee

    viii) EOT-the Board of Trustees

    b) Explain the role of the opposition parties in the government and national building

    i) Keep the government of the day on its toes by pointing out the shortcomings/acts as the watchdog for the people/contribute to the process of law making and ensures that laws are in harmony with the constitution

    ii) Educates the masses/public about their right/gives civic education to the masses

    iii) Mobilize people for participation in the political/democratic process

    iv) They offer alternative policies and program to those of the ruling party

    v) Ensure that public funds are properly utilized through Public Investment Committee and Public Accounts Committee (PAC)

    vi) They check the possible excess by the government of the party in power

    vii) They provide the basis for peaceful solution of conflicts

    5. What main factor led to the split of the Forum for the Restoration of Democracy Party (FORD) in 1992?

    i) Difference/disagreements over the election of the officials/delegates ideological differences/personality

    ii) Ideological difference/personality

    6. Give the main role of opposition parties in Kenya

    To act as check on the excess of the government and the ruling party/upholding democracy

    Executive Arm of the Kenya Government

    1. Name two parastatals organizations in Kenya that fall under the Ministry of Transport and communication

    i) Kenya Ports Authority

    ii) Kenya Railways

    iii) Kenya Posts and Telecommunications

    2. a) What are the constitutional duties of the president of Kenya

    i) The president is the head of the government/chair cabinet meetings

    ii) Opens parliament at the start of every session

    iii) Prorogues parliament

    iv) Commander in chief of the armed forces

    v) Receives credentials from the foreign envoys accredited to Kenya

    vi) Appoints senior civil servants

    b) Explain six factors which have promoted national unity in Kenya since 1963.

    i) The use of common language - English and Kiswahili which enable people of different groups to communicate

    ii) The establishment of national schools which enable pupils from different pan s of the country to meet and interact/education

    iii) Intermarriage enables people from different ethnic backgrounds learn different cultures

    iv) Expansion of job opportunities, which enables people of different parts of the country to meet and interact at their place of work

    v) Development of transport network has facilitated free movement of people in the country

    vi) Promotion of sporting and other cultural activities through which people of different ethnic groups interact

    vii) The Harambee spirit which has made it possible for people of different ethnic groups/religious interact and help eh other

    viii) Existence of the instructions of the presidency is one unifying factor

    ix) The use of the national flag which is recognized by all Kenyans

    x) The national anthem which involves the spirit of unity among Kenyans

    xi) The court of arm which is recognized by all Kenyans

    xii) Constitution of Kenya

    3. State TWO ways through which the government controls Parastatals

    i) Through appointment of top officials of the Parastatals either by the minister or the president

    ii) Constant inspection of Parastatals by the inspectorate of state corporations,

    iii) Annual inspection requires the Parastatals prepare detailed annual report on their activities and expenditure for approval by parliament

    iv) The government requires the Parastatals prepare detailed annual report on their activities and expenditure for approval by parliament

    v) Parastatals are created by act of parliament

    4. a) Explain the role of the Electoral Commission of Kenya

    i) The electoral commission organizes civic, parliamentary and president elections

    ii) Identifies, appoints and trains elections officials

    iii) Clears party candidates for participation in elections

    iv) Verifies and announces election results

    v) Prepare ballot papers and other election materials

    vi) Educate/informs the general public on the requirements for voters and contestants

    vii) Identifies and recommends polling stations

    viii) Prescribes and reviews electoral boundaries

    ix) Registers voters

    x) Maintains and updates registers of voters

    xi) Supervises the election process

    xii) Participitates in the formulation of election code of conduct

    b) Describe the factors that are likely to interfere with free and fair election in Kenya

    i) Ethnic loyalties/polarization/allegiance

    ii) Party loyalties

    iii) Harassments of voters by rival groups

    iv) Incompetent elections officials

    v) Parties election officials

    vi) In accessibilities of polling stations

    vii) Transport difficulties

    viii) Communication x) problems between the headquarters

    ix) Illiteracy of some voters

    x) Extreme weather conditions

    xi) Corruption of candidates and their supporters

    xii) Inefficient distribution of election materials xiii) Use of negative propaganda by party leader supporters

    xiv) Insecurity/fear instils in candidates

    xv) Gender insensitivity

    xvi) Use and misuse of the mass media

    Legislative Arm of the Government

    1. a) State three constitutional requirements that must be fulfilled by a person who wishes to be elected a president of Kenya

    i) The person must be a Kenyan citizen

    ii) Must have attained the age of 35 years

    iii) Must stand for parliamentary elections in a constituency (must be an elected MP)

    iv) Must be registered voter

    v) Must be nominated by a registered political party

    (Member of registered political party)>

    vi) Must be proposed by one thousand registered voters

    vii) Must be of a sound mind,

    viii) Must not have been declared bankrupt by a court of law

    ix) Not jailed for over six months

    b) List five powers and duties of the president of Kenya

    i) Ye is head of state and symbol of national unity (Head of Government)

    ii) He is responsible for making and rectifying international treaties and agreements (if one unites 7 "elects")

    iii) He president appoints the cabinet and Assistant Minister from among member of the National Assembly

    iv) The president has the powers to summon, prologue and dissolve parliament

    v) The president has the power to appoint, discipline and remove senior public servants such as Permanent Secretaries, Ambassadors and judges

    vi) He nominates twelve people to the National assembly to present special interests

    vii) He grants honours to deserving citizens,

    viii) He has power of clemency,

    ix) He presides over important states occasions, x) He represents the country in international conferences

    He is chief diplomat

    2. Explain five ways through which the parliament exercises control over the Executive Arm of the government

    i) Parliamentary has to approve sources of government revenue

    The minister of finance presents a budget annually to parliament and it gives its approval to this budget

    ii) Ministers are accountable to parliament for their actions, they have to answer questions in parliament about the running of their respective ministries

    iii) The public accounts Committees scrutinizes government expenditure and censors individuals/institutions that have not followed the laid down procedures,

    iv) Only parliament has the powers to legislate the bills prepared by the cabinet and its decisions are binding,

    v) Parliament can pass a vote of no confidence in the government if it is not satisfied with performance; in that case the president and the minister have to resign,

    vi) Parliament can pass a vote of no confidence in the government expenditure before funds can be released to various government ministries

    vii) Parliament can limit the powers of the expenditure through amendment of the constitutions

    3. Identify three situation that may lead to a by - election in Kenya

    i) Death of a member of parliament

    ii) Nullification for elections results by court of law/when one is declared bankrupt

    iii) Imprisonment of a Member of parliament

    iv) Resignation of a Member of Parliament v) When a member resigns/defect the party that elected him/her to parliament

    vi) Failure to attend parliament meetings eight (8) times

    4 a) Why are parliamentary elections held regularly in Kenya

    ? Parliamentary elections are held regularly in order:

    i) To give the citizens the chance to choose leaders whom they have confidence in

    ii) To inject new blood into parliament and government

    iii) To enable sitting MPs to be responsive to the development needs of the electorate/be conscious and alert

    iv) As stipulated by the constitution

    b) Describe the stages through which a bill is passed before it becomes a law in Kenya

    i) Draft stages by the Attorney General

    ii) First reading - the Bill is presented to the National Assembly by the Mover of he debate takes place during this stage

    iii) Second reading - The Bill is discussed in details and amendments are made,

    iv) Report stage - Chairperson of the committee reports the amendment Bill to the whole house, v) Third - Final debate on the Bill and voting is carried out if the Bill is supported by the majority then it is passed to the next stages

    vi) The Bill is presented to the president for assent, it becomes an act of parliament and is gazetted and becomes law

    5. a) Describe the process of the electing the Speaker of the National Assembly

    i) A person qualifies to be elected speaker to the National Assembly if she/he is eligible to contest and vote in elections

    ii) A date is set for the election of the speaker at the start of new parliament/after general elections,

    iii) The candidate is proposed and seconded by members of parliament,

    iv) If more than one name is presented, the members vote through the secret ballot, if one person name is proposed and seconded then the person is declared Speaker without elections,

    v) A swearing - in - ceremony is then conducted for the elected Speaker,

    vi) If the speaker is an elected Member of Parliament then his/her seat is declared vacant

    b) Explain six reasons why parliament is an important institution in Kenya

    i) Parliament is the supreme law - making institution in the country

    Once it makes laws, they are binding to everybody, ii) Parliament is made up of elected representative who are elected by the people, therefore it represent the electorate,

    iii) It checks on the possible abuse of power by the executive and thus promotes good governance and accountability,

    iv) It is empowered to control revenue collection and government expenditure

    For example annual budgets are discussed and approved by parliament, v) Parliament ensures that government is spent properly

    The controller and auditor general checks on the spending of all ministries and produces a comprehensive report for discussion by parliament,

    vi) Parliament is empowered to investigate the activities of any public servant if they feel that person is not doing the work well

    vii) It can pass a vote of no confidence in the government of day

    viii) It reviews the constitution

    6. a) Describe the process of preparing a bill before it is taken to parliament for debate

    i) Preparation of bill starts with making suggestions/proposals about the need of the law

    ii) The proposal is taken to the Attorney genera's chambers for drafting

    iii) The Attorney general prepares a draft proposal of the intended law

    iv) It is empowered to control revenue collection and government expenditure

    For example annual budgets are discussed and approved by parliament

    v) Parliament ensures that government money is spent properly

    The controller and auditor general - checks on the spending of all ministries and produces a comprehensive report for discussion by parliament,

    vi) Parliament empowered to investigate the activities of nay public servant if they feel that person is not doing the work well

    vii) It can pass a vote of no confidence in the government of day

    viii) It reviews the constitution

    7. a) Describe the process of preparing a bill before it is taken to parliament for debate

    i) Preparation of bill starts with making suggestions/proposals about the need of the law

    ii) The proposal is taken to the Attorney General's chambers for drafting,

    iii) The Attorney General prepares a draft proposal of the intended law

    iv) The attorney General notifies the member of parliament and the public about the intended bills to enable them carry out research

    v) The intended law is taken to parliament for debate

    The Judiciary

    1. a) State three functions of the Judiciary in Kenya

    i) Interpreting the law

    ii) Settling disputes between parties

    iii) Protecting the constitutional rights and freedom of individuals against encroachment,

    iv) Administering justice/punishing criminals

    b) Explain six ways through which the independence of the judiciary is guaranteed Kenya

    i) There is a separate system of command for the judiciary unlike other government departments that are headed by the public service commission

    The chief justice heads the judiciary

    ii) Settling disputes between parties

    iii) Protecting the constitutional rights and freedom of individuals against encroachment

    iv) Administering justice/punishing criminals,

    c) List five terms of service of judicial officials

    i) There is separate system of command for the judiciary unlike other government department that are headed by the public service commission The chief justice heads judiciary

    ii) The judiciary service commission does the appointment of the Magistrate

    The president in consultant with the Judiciary Service Commission appoints the judges

    iii) Judges and magistrates are protected against any form of victimization and molestation by judicature act

    iv) The judges are bound by the oath of allegiance to perform their duties without fear or favour and will

    v) A judge can be removed from office only due to inability to perform the functions of his office

    This means that nobody can dismiss a judge at will

    His tenure of office is fairly long, the retirement age being seventy - four years,

    vi) Salaries and allowances of judges are fixed by statues and are not subjected to be reviewed or debated upon in parliament

    vii) Judges and Magistrates are not answerable to the entire executive

    This allows for impartiality in making judgments

    2. Explain the process of law making in Kenya

    i) The bill is prepared by the Attorney General's chambers or by law if it is private members bill,

    ii) The bill is introduced in parliament during the first reading either by the attorney General or the relevant Minister to acquaint the members with the Bill and seek their approval,

    iii) During the second reading the bill is discussed by members in details and amendments are suggested

    A vote is taken and if the majority approves the bill it goes to the next stage,

    iv) A committee of the whole house discusses the bill in details, makes amendments and incorporates those suggestions made during«the second reading

    v) A report is made to the house regarding the amended bill

    vi) The bill that goes through the third reading, during this stage some discussions of the bill takes place

    A vote is taken and if majority of the members supports the bill it goes to the next stage

    vii) The bill is taken to the president for his assent after which it becomes a law and is published in the Kenyan gazette

    3. a) Identify three functions of the attorney General of Kenya

    i) The Attorney General is the chief legal adviser to the government

    ii) Chief state prosecutor

    iii) Interprets the laws of Kenya iv) Drafts government bills

    v) Serves as ex - official Member of Parliament b) Describe the structure of the court system in Kenya

    i) The judicial structure in Kenya consists of a system of courts which are managed hierarchically from the lowest to the highest level

    ii) The District magistrate's court

    This is the lowest court in Kenya, which is charged with the responsibility of trying civil and criminal case§ within the district

    iii) The Kadhi's court

    This is parallel to the District Magistrate court which has powers over all the resident magistrates and Districts Magistrates

    It supervises and oversees the work of other courts in the country,

    iv) The High Court of Kenya

  • This have unlimited jurisdiction over civil and criminal stemming from any part of Kenya, v) The Court of Appeal
  • it is the highest court in the country

    It listens to appeals from any court in Kenya

    vi) Other court eg Industrial court, tribunal etc 4. What is the main role of the Attorney General as an E

  • official member of the parliament? Advises the parliament and the government on the matters of law 5. a) Describe three ways in which the judiciary ensure fairness in the administration of justice

    i) The Judicial Service Commission ensures that Judges and Magistrates discharged their duties without interference

    ii) Suspected criminals are held innocent until proved guilty in a court of law

  • giving them a chance to be heard by the courts

    iii) Persons founds administering mob justice are liable to prosecution

    iv) Suspected criminals are entitled to legal representation through an advocate of High Court,

    v) Suspected criminals of serous crimes such as murder are guaranteed free government services of being represented by advocates, vi)

    Persons not satisfied with the verdict are allowed to appeal a higher court

    b) Explain six factors that may undermine the administration of justice in Kenya

    i) High incident of crime cause delay in the hearing and finalizing of cases

    ii) Corrupt practices by some of the judiciary personnel and police officers undermine fair administration of justice,

    iii) Political interference - some suspected criminals may be freed on orders from above without following the laid down procedure

    iv) Lack of awareness by the general public on their rights and legal procedures,

    v) Inadequate personnel and equipment for detecting and investigation acts of crime - this may lead to inadequate evidence against acts of crime

    vi) Some of the laws are too colonial/foreign to be relevant to the Kenya context,

    vii) Unwillingness of some members of the public to give information and also acts as witness,

    viii) Use of out - dated customary laws that have not been harmonized with current situation makes their proper interpretation difficult

    ix) Poverty makes it difficult for some people to hire professional services of lawyers/advocates,

    x) Miscarriages of constitutional privileges

    6. a) Describe the structure of the court system in Kenya

    i) District magistrate's Court is the lowest in the structure

    These are found at District level

    ii) Kadhi Court

    It is at the same level as the District Magistrate Court can be heard at the High Court of Kenya and Court of Appeal,

    iii) Resident Magistrate's Court is the second lowest in the court system but it is the highest court in the province

    iv) Chief Magistrate's Court is the highest Magistrate's Court in Kenya system of courts

    v) High Court is above the magistrate's Court in Kenya

    The Chief heads it

    vi) Court of Appeal is the highest Magistrate's Court in Kenya

    The Chief Justice heads it

    vii) Special court/tribunals eg rent, industrial and business

    b) Explain the functions of the High court of Kenya

    i) The High Court is a constitutional court, which interprets the constitution to determine whether the dispute is constitutional or not

    ii) It ties both criminal and civil case/handling case involving large amount of money, iii) It can listen to cases from all over the country,

    iv) To correct mistake made in decision by the lower court,

    v) To hear appeal from decision of professional Depilatory Tribunal

    eg the Law Society of Kenya and the Kenya Medical and Dentist Association

    vi) Hear appeal from the Kadhi Court

    vii) It acts as court appeal for cases from Residents and Chief Magistrate's Court,

    viii) It deals with petition arising from elections (Presidential and Parliamentary)

    Local Government in Kenya

    1. a) Name five source of revenue for municipal councils in Kenya

    i) Grants from the central government,

    ii) Fees charges on services rendered by councils,

    iii) Sale of license,

    iv) Fines imposed on offenders

    v) Service charge paid by residents

    vi) Rates on property

    vii) Aid from donor agencies

    viii) Loans from financial institutions,

    ix) Profits from council investments, x) Rents charged on houses and office places

    b) Explain five roles played by the municipal councils in Kenya

    i) Municipal council provides and maintains transport network within their areas of jurisdiction,

    ii) They provide educational facilities to residents

    They undertake constructions and maintenance of primary and nursery schools and employment of nursery school teachers,

    iii) They provide recreational facilities to the resident

    They undertake the construction and maintenance of hospitals and health centres,

    iv) They promote business transactions by providing and maintenance of markets

    They also sell licenses and permits to businessman,

    v) Municipal council provide employment opportunities, for instance as administrator markets

    They also sell licenses and permits to businessmen

    vi) Municipal council provide employment opportunities, for instant as administrators, council and clerk,

    vii) Municipal council makes by - law, help regulate the activities and behaviour of the resident, lawbreaker and prosecuted,

    viii) They provide street lighting and ensure safety of residents

    2. a) Name three types of local government authorities in Kenya

    i) City Council

    ii) Town Council

    iii) Urban Council iv) Country Councils

    v) Area Councils

    b) In what ways does the Minister of Local Government ensure that local authorities carry their duties effectively?

    i) The minister for local government carries out general supervision of the activities of the local authorities to ensure that they conform to the stipulated national policies

    ii) The minister nominates councillors to the local authority and set p a commission to run the affairs of council,

    iii) By laws made by local authorities do not become effective until the Minister for local government approves them

    iv) The minister has the power to over - rule some of the decisions of the authorities,

    v) The minister has the powers to investigate activities of any local authority should need arise

    vi) The minister has the power to withhold grants to local authorities if needed

    viii) Senior officers of the council eg clerks are appointed by the central government

    3. What services are provided by Country Councils in Kenya?

    i) Administrative services are brought closer to the people

    ii) Local resources are utilized effectively eg Hospitals, piped water iii) Means of transport and communication are developed/improved

    iv) Local people are involved in decision making

    v) Local priorities are identified and implemented

    vi) Ensures equal development in all district/decentralize industries

    vii) Create employment for local people

    4. a) What are the main sources of revenue for Local Government authorities in Kenya?

    i) Rent from residential and other premises

    ii) Rents paid by property owners / bills boards

    iii) Loans form external sources

    iv) Grants from the central government

    v) License paid by business operators / trade licenses

    vi) Parking fees paid by motorists / hiring facilities eg stadiums, halls etc

    vii) Fees form national parks

    viii) Fines paid by people who break laws

    ix) Sale of property

    b) Explain six factors which undermine the performance of local authorities

    i) Some are too small to operate efficiently

    ii) High population concentrations rains available resources

    iii) Many local authorities lack adequate financial base to finance their services

    iv) Insufficient revenue collection system

    v) Tax evasion by individuals and organizations vi) Misappropriation of funds by corrupt officers

    vii) Conflicts between Councillors and the Chief Officers

    viii) Political interference in the affairs and management of local authorities

    ix) Too much control by the central government

    x) Lack of qualified staff in areas of administration and financial management due to poor remunerations

    xi) Over employment thus straining their financial abilities

    xii) Widespread corruption

    xiii) Election of illiterate Councilors to manage the affairs of the Authorities

    Government Revenue and Expenditure

    1. Discuss the functions of the Central Bank of Kenya

    i) The Central Bank regulates the issue of currency that there is adequate stock of notes and coins for circulation

    It also withdraws worn - out notes from the public and replaces them with new ones

    ii) It is charged with the responsibility of determining the denominations in which the currency should be issued

    iii) The Central Bank is a banker to the government - It keeps government revenue and pays for the government expenditure

    iv) It acts as the national centre of collection of data and general information in the field of money and banking

    v) The Central Bank is given powers to inspect books of accounts of commercial banks and other financial institutions and recommend the field in which they may lend money

    It also gives informal and formal advice to commercial banks

    vi) Foreign exchange operations

  • the Central Bank in liaison with the relevant government ministries administer the Country's foreign reserves

    The exchange control act and generally handles the financial relationship between Kenya and foreign financial institutions

    vii) Participates in negotiation for foreign borrowing and in handling of aid and grant funds from foreign Government and international organizations like the World Bank and international monetary fund

    The repayment of capital and interests of all loans are also channeled through the bank

    viii) Act as a banker to all commercial banks in the country

    These banks are required to maintain current account with the central banks, to use for settling claims with one another through the banking clearing house

    ix) The bank assists in the development and maintenance of a sound monetary credit and banking system conducive to orderly and balanced economic development of the country

    x) It regulates credit depending on the policy objectives the government is pursuing at any given period

    xi) The bank promotes exports while ensuring that satisfaction of domestic needs

    It ensures that all proceeds of the country's exports are received without undue delay

    xii) The bank has also initiated studies intended to identify ways and means of maximizing foreign exchange such as coffee and tourism

    2. Identify one type of direct tax through which the government raises its revenue

    i) Export tax

    ii) Import tax/excise duty

    iii) Sales tax

    iv) Value Added tax (V.A.T.)

    v) Income tax

    iv) Pay as you earn

    3. Explain why the Kenya Government prepares an annual budget

    i) To enable the government to priorities its needs

    ii) Help the government to identify sources of revenues

    iii) Enable Parliament to approve government expenditure

    iv) Enable the government to explain the tax structure to the public

    v) Enable the government to estimate the financial requirements for its needs

    vi) Acts as reference for future - in correcting mistakes

    vii) Smooth running of various government departments

    viii) Help the government to identify its departments and allocate duties appropriately thus enhancing accountability

    ix) Give useful information to those organizations and allocate duties appropriately thus enhancing accountability

    x) Enable the government to account for funds borrowed / donated for development,

    ix) Accomplish already started projects

    4. Identify one main factors that is addressed in the national budget in Kenya

    i) The amount of revenue the government requires and plans to raise

    ii) Source from which the government intends to raise the revenue

    iii) How the government intends to spend the revenue

    5. How does the Kenya Government ensure that the rule of law is upheld in the country?

    i) Establishing an independent court system to try criminal / civil offends / cases,

    ii) Ensuring that suspected criminals are tried in a court of law and is found guilty are sentenced

    iii) Allowing those found guilty to appeal for retrial

    iv) Empowering parliament to control the excess of the executive / president

    v) Entitling every accused person legal representation by an advocate of the High Court

    vi) Subjecting all citizens of the country to and are governed by the same law

    vii) Arresting suspects

    6. a) What actions do Police Officers in Kenya take from the time an offence is committed up to to the time judgment is passed?

    i) Arrest the suspected criminal

    ii) Confine the arrested suspect

    iii) Provide protection / security to the suspected criminal

    iv) Investigate the offence to prepare evidence for prosecution

    v) Take the suspected criminal to court

    vi) Lead the prosecution / give evidence

    vii) Hand over the criminal to prisons authority >

    viii) Release the suspect if acquainted

    b) Explain five factors which undermine the work of the police force in Kenya

    i) Inadequate working facilities such as vehicles, radios, stationery to facilitate efficient communication

    ii) Poor conditions of the roads lead to increase / frequent accidents and congestion on the roads thus putting pressure on the police officers,

    iii) Negative public attitude towards the police makes it difficult for them to perform their duties freely

    International Relations

    1. a) Give five ways in which international commodity agreements help third world countries

    i) Stabilization of price - international commodity agreements help to fix the prices of Third World Primary Products on the world market,

    ii) Guaranteed markets - International commodity agreements provided the producer nations with guaranteed markets during the duration of the agreements,

    iii) Regulations of production/quotas - the international commodity agreements help to regulate the production of the commodity in quantities,

    iv) International commodity agreements help in promoting Third World solidarity in international trade/unity

    v) The negotiation of international commodity agreements provides an important opportunity and forum for the producer and the consumer nations to articulate their positions,

    vi) The negotiation of international commodity agreements provides an important opportunity and forum for the producer and the consumer nations to articulate their positions

    vii) Improvements of quality of commodities

    b) Account for the failure of international commodity agreements

    i) Opposition from consumer nations - Many consumer nations are often opposed to international commodity agreements that guarantee high price to the primary commodity producers

    So they do their best to frustrate these agreements,

    ii) Protectionism - Many developed countries impose protectionist measures against third world exports

    This makes it very difficult for international commodity agreements to operate effectively

    For example, the EEC restricts the import of may third world agricultural products in order to protect its own agricultural industry,

    iii) Disunity among third world countries - Third world producer nations are often disunited during negotiations and in defending the international commodity agreements

    Each nation tries to maximize its benefits, but this undermines their collective interests,

    iv) Overproduction - Many third world nations tend to overproduce primary commodities

    This undermines the effective operations of international commodity agreements,

    v) The interference by non member countries - international commodity agreements do not always include all the producer or consumer nations of the commodity in question

    The non-member countries often undermine the effective operation of an international commodity agreement both directly or indirectly

    vi) Competition from other alternative commodities Eg synthesis,

    vii) Political changes between the buyers and sellers/political differences / ideologies / coups

    2. a) State five ways in which the United Nations Organization has attempted to promote world peace

    i) Peaceful settlements of disputes - The UNO has tried to promote world peace by encouraging the peaceful settlements of disputes in the world,

    ii) Application of sanctions - the UNO has attempted to promote world peace by imposing mandatory sanctions against countries that are seen as threat to world peace in an effort to bring them back into line,

    iii) Peacekeeping operations - The UNO has attempted to promote world peace by encouraging the development and application of international law

    iv) Promoting of international law - The UNO has attempted the world peace by encouraging the development and application of international law

    v) Disarmament - The UNO has attempted to promote world peace by encouraging disarmament through its disarmament commission and numerous conferences on disarmament that is has sponsored

    vi) Decolonization - The UNO has attempted to promote world peace by encouraging the process of decolonization and thus removing one of the major sources of world conflicts

    vii) Development - The UNO has attempted to promote world peace by encouraging the social and economic development of third world countries through the work of its numerous specialized agencies e.g UNDP

    viii) Creation of general awareness - The UNO has promoted awareness in the world about peace

    ix) Promotion of regional co-operation - The UNO has prompted regional cooperation in different areas between different countries

    x) Protection of human rights / refugees

    xi) Authorizing the use of force to bring peace / threatening to use force

    b) What problems has the UNO faced in its efforts to achieve world peace?

    i) Insufficient funds - The UNO lacks sufficient funds with which to carry out its work l effectively

    For example, it has often not been able to send enough peacekeeping forces due to lack of sufficient funds,

    ii) Veto power - of the permanent members of the Security Council

    These countries often adopt politics that promote their own narrow national interests at the expenses of the collective interests of most nations in the world as expressed in the General Assembly,

    iii) Ideological disputes - The work of the UNO in promoting world peace is often hampered by ideological disputes among member states

    There is hardly any question of international importance that is not affected by ideological disputes

    iv) The Arms race -The UNO has found it difficult to achieve world peace because of the arms race in different parts of the world

    The arms race generates and sustains conflicts rather than peace

    v) National sovereignty - The member states of the UNO are sovereign states that jealously guard their national sovereignty

    vi) Lack of machinery - The UNO does have effective power to enforce its decisions

    vii) Regional conflicts - The UNO attempts to promote world peace has been frustrated by deep - rooted regional conflicts

    For example, in the case of Iran-Iraq conflicts,

    viii) Voting as a block has frustrated the UNO efforts to promote peace,

    ix) Loyalty to other organizations - This undermines the strength and importance of the UNO

    3. a) State five objectives of the non-aligned movements

    i) To safeguard the sovereignty of member states

    ii) To fight for the decolonization of third world countries iii) To work for the disarmament of super powers iv) To discourage military alliances promoted by the super powers

    v) To promote active participation in the UNO programmes / to support UNO

    vi) To promote economic independence member countries

    vii) To promote neutrality among member countries

    viii) To fight racism in the world

    b) Explain the factors that undermine the activities of the movement since 1947.

    i) Political instability experienced by member states has undermined their contribution to the movement, such as civil wars and military coups, which has made it difficult for the affected af states to participate fully

    ii) Economic ties between the third world countries and their colonial masters has made it difficult for the member states to pursue an independent line,

    iii) Border disputes between neighbouring member countries has weakened their co-operation

    For instance, border disputes between Morocco and Algeria, North and South Korea,

    iv) Economic backwardness of some of the member states has made it difficult for them to meet their obligations in the movement as national needs come first

    v) Ideological differences between member states has undermined their co-operation whereas some countries are inclined towards the West and others to the East,

    vi) Personality differences between leader states has undermined their efforts to discuss issues successfully,

    vii) Membership to other organizations such as OAU, Commonwealth and French community has made it difficult for some sates to participate actively in the affairs of the movement,

    viii) Break up of the Soviet Union has destabilized the movement

    ix) The movement lacks a permanent institutional framework such as secretarial

    x) Nationalism/ national interests have conflicted with other objectives of the movement

    4. Apart form China, name three permanent member states of UNO

    i) USA / America / US

    ii) United Kingdom/ Britain Not England

    iii) USSR / Russia / Soviet Union

    iv) France

    5. a) State three member states of the commonwealth in West Africa?

    i) Nigeria

    ii) Ghana

    iii) Sierra Leone

    iv) Gambia

    b) Six ways the Commonwealth member countries have benefited from the organization

    i) Member states have received technical know-how through the provision of experts and advisers in various fields Eg Agriculture

    ii) The developing member states of the organization have acquired skilled manpower through the provision of scholarships and setting up training programmes by the developed muaber states of the organization eg Britain and Canada,

    iii) Member states have been able to interact with one another through activities such as commonwealth games and exchange progammes / cultural interactions,

    iv) Member states have conducted trade among themselves with relative ease and its has helped them to develop their economics,

    v) The developed member states have provided financial aid to the developing member sates of the organization and this has promoted economic development among the latter,

    vi) The organization has provided a forum for member states to air their views with one voice on international issues

    vii) The organization has promoted friendship and understanding among member eg the Commonwealth peace keeping force was sent to Zimbabwe

    viii) The organization has promoted friendship and understanding among member states through conferences such as the commonwealth heads of government meeting

    ix) It has enhanced the democratization process in developing member states of the organization through sending observers to monitor democratization Eg Kenya and Uganda

    6. a) Name three West African countries which are under OAU

    i) Senegal

    ii) Ghana

    iii) Nigeria

    iv) Mali

    v) Niger

    vi) Burkina Faso(Upper Volta)

    vii) Republic of Benin (Dahomey) viii) Ivory Coast / Cote D'vore

    ix) The Gambia

    x) Sierra Leone

    xi) Guinea

    xii) Liberia b) Explain six roles which the OAU has played in Africa since its formation

    i) It has contributed to the liberation of African states from European colonial rule

    For instance providing financial material support and articulating their demands in international forums,

    ii) It has promoted cultural interaction among member states for example the All African Games,

    iii) It has mediated in disputed among African states for example the difference between Morocco and Algeria over the West Sahara Republic

    iv) It has promoted economic co

  • operations among members states for example encouraging regional economic groups such as Preferential Trade Area (PTA) v) It has promoted peace among member states through dialogue

    vi) It has provided research funds and activities in Africa

    vii) It has promoted friendly ties among member states, for instance through meetings

    7. Name two agencies of the United Nations Organizations (UNO) which deal with the problems of health

    i) World Health Organization (WHO)

    ii) United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNCEF)

    8. a) Why was the Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) formed?

    i) To promote economic co

  • operation among West Africa states eg agriculture and transport

    ii) Promote unity and solidarity among member states

    iii) Promote free movement of people among member states

    iv) Create a customs union in the region/improve trade

    v) Promote industrial development among member state

    vi) Promote cultural interaction among member state

    vii) Promote peace in the region

    viii) Promote economic independence among member states

    ix) Setting up a fund to finance viable economic projects

    b) Explain the factors that have undermined the activities of the OAU

    i) Existence of national interest among member states which override continental commitment,

    ii) Personal differences among leaders have made it difficult for some of them to come together,

    iii) Lack of funds to facilitate implementation of the OAU activities

  • as some of the member states do not remit their subscription regularly,

    iv) Lack of an army to enforce decisions of the organizations especially on critical and urgent issues

    v) Interference by foreign powers / governments in some of the activities undertaken by the organization,

    vi) Divided loyalty

  • membership for other international organizations by some member states eg Commonwealth,

    vii) Political instability and the resulting refugee problem makes it difficult for the organization to operate effectively,

    viii) Attachment to former colonial masters by some member states

    For instance former French colonies look to France for assistance,

    ix) Existence of basic problems within member states which require immediate attention eg famine, drought and diseases

    x) Different political ideological among member states

    xi) Disputes among member states eg border disputes between Kenya and Somalia,

    xii) Lack of executive authority to enforce OAU decisions

    9. Give the main aim of the United Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

    To encourage / promote trade between the rich/developed and the developing countries

    10. Name one organization which has been formed by the organization of Africa Unity (OAU) member countries to promote economic co-operation among Southern Africa countries

    i) Preferential Trade Area (PTA) of Eastern and Southern Africa / COMES

    ii) Southern Africa Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC) SADEC

    11. State one problem which faced the League of Nations

    i) Inability to settle disputed between member states

    ii) Lack of military strength with which to implement its objectives

    iii) Lack of adequate funds fit

    iv) Nationalist ambition of member countries / rearmament v) Lack of support and commitment by major powers Eg US, Italy, German and Japan

    12. Give the main reason why the League of Nations was established in 1919.

    To promote peace and security in the world / preventing a possible occurrence of another world war

    13. a) Why was the East African Community formed?

    i) To maintain a common market for the member states/promote balanced economic co-operation

    ii) To provide common services to the three member states, especially in the areas of transport Li and communication

    iii) To promote political cooperation between the three countries

    iv) Facilitate free movement of the people of the regions to foster greater co-operation and understanding among them

    b) Explain 6 factors that led to the collapse of the East African Community

    i) Unequal distribution of services and accrued benefits from the organization by the member countries made Tanzania and Uganda resent Kenya's economic monopoly of the organization,

    ii) Ideological differences between the three countries, made them pursue different economic policies

    iii) Individual differences between leaders made it more difficult for them to hold meetings that would promote dialogue and unity

    iv) To coup d'etat which over threw Milton Obote undermined the unity that was desired for the survival of the organization

    Nyerere refused to recognize Amin as the president of Uganda/political instability in Uganda undermined their unity

    v) Use of different currencies by the three sates made transaction difficult

    vi) The fear that more Kenyans were benefiting from the community in terms of employment

    vii) Hostility towards nationals from member states

    viii) Financial constraints resulting from failure by member states to remit funds to meet the organization needs,

    ix) Lack of trust in manning community resources by member countries led to unlawful nationalization of the organization’s assets

    Tanzania's closure of the common border with Kenya halted community activities

    x) Personal ambitions of the leaders eg Nyerere, Kenyatta, Amin etc

    xi) Too much power was placed on the authority of the community (3 Heads) lacked a defined policy / scope of co-operation (little agreement better leaders about the above)

    14. Identify two factors that undermined the effectiveness of the League of Nations

    i) Countries refused to take disputes to the international court of justice

    ii) Germany's aggression/Germany's determination to strengthen its armed forces

    iii) Harsh conditions against Germany after the defeat

    iv) National interest that pre-occupied individual nations

    v) It lacked executive powers and authority to implements its resolutions

    vi) Refusal by the USA to join denied the organization economic strength

    vii) Some members left the league eg Brazil, Japan

    viii) Shortage of funds to implement its function

    ix) The appeasement policy of Britain and France

    x) The covenant of League did not forbid way

    15. Identify one aim of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)?

    i) To assist the marketing of primary products as well as manufactured goods from member of states/to promote trade between developing all developed countries

    ii) To stabilize commodity prices

    iii) To assist in the transfer of technology from development to developing countries

    16. Give the main reason why the League of Nations was formed in 1919. To prevent the occurrences of another world war/to maintain world peace

    Forms of Governments

    1. a) What arguments are advanced in favour of one party system of government in the USSR? i) Promotion of national unity - is by minimizing political conflicts based on ethnic or regional or religious consideration,

    ii) Promotion of development - because people's energies are concentrated on development and not divisive party policies,

    iii) Vanguard of revolution changes- therefore it should have the sole responsibility of running the state,

    iv) Promotion of the interests of the working class - a one party system of government makes it easier to organize and promote the interests of the working class which is the important class in the society,

    v) Embodiment of the national identity - one party state promotes direct contact between the people and the government

    vi) It is argued that it promotes the best form of democracy in the world and allows discussions in the party

    b) Described the structure of the government in USSR?

    i) Federal government - is in-charge of running the whole country of union through the Supreme Soviet, the presidium and the council of ministries,

    ii) Republican government - the Soviet Union is composed of union republics and autonomous republics, which have their own government responsible for running affairs in each of the republics,

    iii) Local government - At the local level the organs of states power are the soviet of working people deputies they are elected by the people of the respective territories region areas district cities or localities

    They are responsible for maintaining public order and directly local economic and cultural affairs and draw p the local budgets,

    iv) The Supreme Soviet - This is the highest organ of the soviet government

    It consists of two chambers, the soviet of the union and the soviet of Nationalities

    It is elected for a term of 4 years and is headed by a chairman

    But it meets only once or twice a year

    In the interim it delegates its powers to the presidium of the Supreme Soviet

    v) The Presidium - It is the authority to convene the sessions of the supreme soviet, issue decrees and interpret soviet laws, dissolve the supreme soviet and order new elections, order referendums, annual decisions and order ministers if they do not conform to laws, appoint and remove the high command of armed forces, declare war, ratifying international treaties, receive letters of credence of foreign diplomats and appoint minister if they don't conform to laws

    vi) The council of ministers / cabinet - it is responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet, or in the intervals between the sessions of the Supreme Soviet, to the presidium

    The council directs the work of ;the ministries, prepares the national economic plan and budget, overseas public order, exercises general guidelines over foreign affairs, fixes the annual quota of citizens to be called up for military service, and can set up special committees and central administrations of economic and cultural affairs and defence

    The council of ministers has a chairman sometimes called premier or prime minister

    2. a) Give three reasons why Lenin introduced the New Economic policy in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic USSR

    i) The Marxist economic policies which has been introduced by the Bolsheviks had failed

    ii) To attract foreign investment

    iii) To encourage peasants to produce more food,

    iv) To revive industrial production that had collapsed because of the First World War and the civil wars

    v) To re-establish foreign trade that had collapsed after the 1917 revolution

    vi) To create employment opportunities

    b) Discuss six factors which have contributed to the emergence of the USSR as an industrial power

    i) The USSR had developed a strong agricultural base as a result of the establishment of collective farms

    This facilitated the production of industrial raw materials and food,

    ii) Rehabilitation programmes of the 1920's and 1930 provided a bases for further industrial expansion

    iii) Existence of a large population provided labour for industrial advancement,

    iv) The USSR had technological and scientific know - how form Germans after her defeat in the Second World War

    She used this for her industrial development/technological know-how,<

    v) Establishment of the USSR's influence over most parts of Eastern Europe after the second world war enabled her to acquire vast markets for her industrial produce/external markets,

    vi) Foreign investment contributed to industrial development/availability of capital,

    vii) Good economic planning especially the five-year plans enabled USSR to achieve her objectives in her industrial development

    viii) Availability of vast natural resources (Mineral resources) for example coal and iron ore contributes to further industrial growth,

    ix) Good communication and transport network facilitated the transportation of raw materials and industrial products

    x) Availability of sources of powers eg coal and H.E.P.

    3.a) List three ways through which a person may become a member of parliament in Britain

    i) By election to the House of Commons

    ii) Nomination to the House of Lords by the Queen/Monarch

    iii) By virtue of holding certain offices eg Bishop of the Church of England and some judges,

    iv) By becoming a member of the House of Lords through inheritance

    b) State four factors which may limit the supremacy of parliament in Britain

    i) Parliament is the supreme institution in Britain

    All other institutions derive their power from it

    ii) Parliament is the only institution empowered to make, amend and abolish laws

    No other institution has the right to order-ride the legislations of parliament/passing of bills,

    iii) Parliament is the only institution empowered to approve government budget,

    iv) Decisions of parliament are biding to all

    They cannot be over ruled or nullified by a court of law

    v) Parliament has the powers to remove an unpopular government from office

    4. a) State five conditions that had to be fulfilled in order to become a member of the communist party of the Union of Soviet Socialists Republic (USSR)

    i) A person had a citizenship of the Soviet Union

    ii) A person had to actively practice supporter of communism

    iii) A person had to be a staunch supporter of communism

    iv) To become a full member of the party, a person had to successfully complete a probation period of one year

    v) A person had to be prepared to accept all party resolutions without question

    vi) A person had to apply for party membership

    The application was screened by a committee made up of a party youth wing (Komsomol)

    vii) One had to be an outstanding/responsible member of the society eg Intellectuals, scientists, outstanding workers and peasants

    b) Explain how the USSR government was organized before the break up of the union

    i) The USSR was a federal republic made up of about fifteen republics

    ii) The head of state was a resident

    iii) According to the soviet constitution, each member state had status in the union

    iv) Membership to the union, according to the constitution was voluntary - individual member states had the right to choose to be members or secede,

    v) The highest organ of the Federal Government was the Supreme Soviet (Council) which was a bicameral legislature

    It was made up of the soviet of the union and the Soviet of the nationalities

    vi) Each republic was represented in the two houses of the Supreme Soviet,

    vii) Representatives of the two houses of the Supreme Soviet were elected through adult universal suffrage

    viii) The federal government took charge of the foreign policy, defence and other sensitive issues,

    ix) Candidates were chosen by the communist party,

    x) Each republic had its own constitution and government run by a council of working people’s deputies,

    xi) The council of working people’s deputies was responsible for the internal affairs and law and order,

    xii) The Communists Party had all control of government at all levels

    For instance, it defined and determined government policy and elected the president

    5. a) State advantages of a federal system of government

    i) A federal system of government makes it possible for several states to work as one political unit

    ii) It ensures that the interests of smaller states and groups are protected/security

    iii) It makes it possible for member states to benefit from the federal pool of resources/economics of scale

    iv) Federalism makes it possible for member states to solve common problem together

    v) It makes available a large market of goods produced in the various states,

    vi) Promotes trade within the federation by eliminating problems of customs duties and boundaries / establishing common currencies

    vii) It makes it possible for member states to be together without losing their identity,

    viii) Facilitates interaction between people of different states and nationalities,

    ix) It provides checks and balances in the systems between the central government and the states

    b) Explain how the government of the US A is organized

    i) The USA is a federal republic made up of about 50 (49, 51) states

    ii) The head of state is a president who is elected every four years

    Fie is the chief executive but he is not a member of the legislative

    iii) There is separation of powers between the executives, legislature and judiciary,

    iv) It has a bicameral legislature (congress)

    The congress is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate,

    v) Each state is divided into a number of electoral constituencies each of which elects representatives from each state

    vi) Each state has its own court system

    The federal court (The Supreme Court) is the high –test court in the country

    vii) Functions of the government are shared between the federal government and state governments

    viii) The federal government tasks are of major issues, foreign affairs, defence and making general laws for all American regulating trade and commerce and issuing the currency

    ix) Each state has its own government to deal with matters pertaining to their territories

    x) The secretaries are appointed by the president and are not member of the congress

    xi) State government deal with matters pertaining to their territories eg agriculture, education, health

    xii) There is a vice president who is appointed by the president with the approval of the party

    6. a) State 3 ways in which a British citizen may become a member of parliament

    i) By being elected to the House of Commons in general election

    ii) By being created a peer by the queen to become a member of the House Lords/nomination

    iii) By inheriting a set in the House of Lords

    b) List six functions of the queen of Britain

    i) She is the head of the state and commander- in- chief of the armed forces

    ii) She opens parliament / does not convene

    iii) She invites the leader of the wining party to become the prime minister

    iv) She invites the prime minister and creates political peers

    v) She represents the country international forums

    vi) She gives assent to bills before they become law

    vii) She appoints the Arch Bishop of the Church of England

    viii) She is the symbolic head of commonwealth

    ix) She bestows honours to deserving persons

    x) She exercises prerogative of mercy and grants pardon to convicted criminal/person/fountain of justice,

    xi) She creates peers

    c) Explain 3 roles played the House of Lords in the British Parliamentary system

    i) The House of Lords checks the powers of the House of Commons and therefore prevents nasty legislation - Bills from the House of Common have to go the House of Lords for debate and approval,

    ii) It provides a forum for the utilization of the talents of people who could not win a general election - These people are created peers by the queen and become members of the House of Lords,

    iii) It enhances unity in the country as commoners are created Lords by the queen and then become members of the House of Lord,

    iv) It provides continuity in operations in parliament

    Old and experienced peers retain their seats in the House of Lords until they die, so they provide guidance to new and young politicians

    7. a) What are the sources of the British Constitution

    i) Act of parliament eg the magma Carat, the parliament Act of 1911.

    ii) The British conventions which have been used from generation to generations over a long period of time

    For example, those who protect the British citizens against the excess of the executive,

    iii) Decisions made by the British law courts from time became part of the British constitution eg in 1884 the supremacy of parliament was established by the courts of Britain,

    iv) The Hansard and - official verbatim report of proceeding in the parliament,

    v) Royal prerogatives / powers of king or queen to declare war or make treaties of peace,

    vi) Legal publications by reputable authorities eg scholars, lawyers, statements, political thinkers

    b) Describe how the government of the USSR was organized

    i) The USSR was a federation of several socialists’ republics

    The federation was headed by a president

    ii) The Supreme Soviet was the highest law making institutions,

    iii) The Supreme Soviet was made up of two houses, the soviet of the nationalities,

    iv) There existed a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister who was also the head of the government

    v) Each state had its own government and parliament

    vi) The union government was in charge of defence, currency, and foreign policy,

    vii) There were local Soviets to run affairs at the local level

    viii) System of occurs existed from the local to the federal level

    The courts were independent,

    ix) The communist party controlled the government at all levels

    It was the supreme political force in the USSR

    x) The community party was the only legal political party in the country

    xi) The leader of the communist’s party was the most powerful person in the USSR

    8. a) Explain why the ancient regime in France had become unpopular in 1789.

    i) The kings possessed absolute and unquestionable powers

    Their word was law

    ii) The Kings claimed divine authority and so were above the law

    They used this claim to control people's lives

    iii) The royal family lied lavishly while the commoners lived in extreme poverty/famine, iv) The Kings tolerated no criticism; the opponents were sentenced to death with ruthlessness

    v) The clergy and nobility had a privilege position in the state

    They were the first and second class citizens and owned all the land which they rented to commoners

    vi) The nobles and the clergy were exempted from paying taxes while the commoners paid heavily,

    vii) The middle class which was made up of the professionals Eg Lawyers, teachers and doctors were excluded from government to their dissatisfaction

    viii) The peasants were over - burdened with many types of taxes which were collected ruthlessly, ix) They were subjected to other ills such as forced labour unfair evictions by the landlords

    b) Discuss the French s /stems of government from 1871.

    i) France became a republic in 1871 with an executive president,

    ii) The president is assisted by a Prime Minister who is his appointee

    iii) The president is elected by direct popular vote to a seven year term of office through according to the French constitution the president can be elected for a second term

    iv) The president with the help of the prime minister chooses a team of minister who are charged with irresponsibility of making and implementing government policies,

    v) Defence and foreign affairs fall under the direct responsibility of the president / commander in chief of the armed forces,

    vi) The National Assembly is the law making body in France although its power is limited to certain areas eg taxation, nationalization of industries and declaration of war

    vii) The president has the right to dissolve parliament in the event of a national crisis and rule by decree

    viii) France has a bicameral parliament consisting of the senate and the national assembly

    The senate is elected to a five - year term and has more powers, ix) The power is shared between the president and the prime minister

    x) The president is the arbitrator and guardian of the constitution,

    ix) France has a multiparty democracy

    9. Name one organization which has been formed by the organization of Africa Unity (OAU) member countries to promote economic co-operation among Southern African countries

    i) Preferential Trade Area (PTA) of Eastern and Southern Africa / COMESA ii) Southern Africa Development coordination conference (SADCC) SADEC

    10.a) What role does the Queen of England play in relation to the British government?

    i) At the end of election, ,, the monarch invites the leaders of the party with the majority votes in the House of Commons to form the next government / invites the Prime Minister

    ii) The Monarch is the legal head of the state and the symbol of national unity

    iii) Before a bill becomes law the Monarch gives the Royal Assent

    iv) The Monarch has the powers to officially dissolved parliament at the end of its tenure of office

    v) The Monarch approves the appointment of the cabinet

    vi) The Monarch nominates members to the House of the Lord / makes peers

    vii) She exercises the prerogative of mercy on conflicts and criminals

    viii) She summons the parliament after general election

    ix) The Monarch is the commander in chief of the armed forces

    b) Describe the functions of the British Parliament

    i) The British parliament discuses and makes laws

    It also amends laws when need arises

    ii) Parliament control government expenditure the approval of parliament is mandatory

    iii) Parliament approves the government budget and ways of raising money

    iv) It directs government foreign policy and keeps development programmes on tract

    v) It checks the power of the executive to ensure that the rule of law is maintained / can pass a vote of no confidence

    vi) Discuss / debates issues of national interest

    11. State one privilege which members of the British Parliament enjoy

    i) Freedom of Speech

    ii) Freedom from harassment within precincts of parliament eg arrest

    iii) Protection against arrest for civil offences for a period of forty days before and forty day after parliament

    13. Distinguish between written an unwritten constitution

    A written constitution is one which is available in a formal document whereas unwritten constitution is one which does not exist in a formal document

    14.a) Describe the structure of the communist party in the Union of Soviet Republic (USSR)

    i) The highest organ of the communists party structure was the all - union party congress was the final decision making organ

    ii) The next organ was the central committee whose main function was to ratify decisions made by the party congress

    iii) Another important party organ was the politburo / presidium of the central committee it made decisions when the committee was in the recess

    iv) The central party committee controlled and supervised the function of the various departments eg the army, finance and personnel

    v) The secretariat was the next organ in the political set up of the communists party

    It played a role in the formation of government policy

    vi) Youth wing (Komsomol)

    b) Discuss 6 critics that have been advanced against the communist party in the USSR

    i) The part was highly elitist and exclusive and membership was confined to a fear/selected citizens such as government officers, intellectuals, scientists, secret police and outstanding workers

    ii) Membership to the party was restricted and therefore was not represented of the masses, eg by 1973 out of a total population of 200 million people only 15 million people were members of the party

    iii) Members and applicants of the party were subjected to scrutiny and strict party discipline. Those who did not meet these demands lost their membership / were not accepted

    iv) The party deprived the majority of the population democratic participation in their governance since it could not possibly represents the wishes of the people

    v) The party established organs for the youth

    These were the union of the young wing (Komsomol) between ages 5 and 28 and the octobrists for those up to 10 years

    These organs K were used to propagate the ideals of communism and loyalty to their country and hence brainwashed them

    vi) The communist party was dictatorial and undemocratic at all levels - it did not give the citizens a chance to choose other forms of governance

    15. State one advantage of a written constitution over an unwritten constitution

    i) A written constitutional is readily available for ease of reference and application / use

    ii) A written constitution promotes uniformity of application in various situation

    iii) A written constitutional does not give much room for manipulation

    16. State two features of the government of France in the 20th Century

    i) It is multiparty democracy

    ii) Power is shared between the President and Prime Minister

    iii) The president is the executive head of government

    iv) There is a legislative which is composed of a senate and national assembly

    v) Presidential elections are held every 7 years

    vi) National assembly elections are held every 5 years

    vii) Senate elections are held every 9 years

    17. State the main reason why the USSR adopted a one party system

    To promote national unity

    18. a) Describe the functions of the president of the United States of America (USA)

    i) The president is the head of state

    ii) He appoints cabinet minister and senior civil servants with approval of the congress iii) He guides and controls foreign affairs/ chief diplomat

    iv) He is the commander in chief of the Armed forces

    v) He presides over the senate

    vi) He presides cabinet meetings

    vii) He appoints the supreme court judges including the Chief Justice

    viii) The president is the head of government

    b) Explain how the system of government of the USA works

    i) It is federal system of government consisting of 50 states

    ii) Each state is a republic with its own government

    iii) Each states is headed by governor

    iv) Each state has its own constitution guiding internal affairs

    v) The federal government is headed by president

    vi) The president is assisted by the vice president who can take over in case the president dies

    vii) The federal government has bicameral legislature / congress made up to two houses

    The Senate and the House of Representatives

    viii) Members of the congress are elected by popular votes /each represented in the congress

    ix) The congress makes law

    x) State judiciary comprises of the federal courts and the Supreme Court

    xi) The Supreme Court is the highest court

    xii) There is separation of powers between the legislation and judiciary

    xiii) The federal government controls foreign affairs defense trade, taxation issuing currency and solving disputes between states and citizens of different states

    World Wars

    1. a) State five causes of the Second World War

    i) The rise to power of Adolf Hitler and his determination to restore Germany's lost glory led war as he invaded other countries / Hitler invasion of Poland,

    ii) The inability of the League of Nations to implement its

    Resolution and punish those violated them encouraged the aggressors to purse their ambitions (Objectives) and this intensified tension in the World / failure of the League of Nation

    iii) The unfavourable conditions imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailies humiliated and made her nurse a grudge against the allied powers

    iv) The policy of appeasement practiced by Britain and France encouraged the fascist dictators to carry on with their acts of aggression,

    v) Establishment of alliances between major powers encouraged acts of aggression because of the feeling of mutual support,

    vi) Growth of nationalism made countries inward looking and therefore were reluctant to participate international issues

    vii) Rearmament and rise of dictatorship eg Mussoloni and Hilter

    b) Explain five effects of the Second World War on Europe

    i) The war led to the loss of many human lives

    Many of the survivors were maimed,

    ii) The war was costly and this slowed down the rate of economic development / economic problems

    iii) It led to the destruction of property such as industries and building through bombing,

    iv) Germany was occupied and dismembered by the Allied Force,

    v) The balance of power in Europe was changed with the emergence of the USSR and USA as new powers,

    vi) Communist governments were established in many parts of Eastern European through the influence of the USSR

    vii) The war increased USA's involvement in European affairs / NATO/Marshall plan

    viii) The was stimulated the development of the military technology and industry / making sophisticated weapons

    ix) It led to displacement of people who became refugees,

    x) European countries became more committed to the idea of maintaining peace in the world / formation of the UNO

    xi) The war left bitter feelings and mistrust among the countries which fought,

    xii) The expansion of the USSR in Eastern Europe and USA's determination to check it led to the cold war

    2. What event prompted the United States of America to join the first world war in 1917?

    Germany declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare / sinking of the USA ships

    3. Give two reasons why the central powers were defeated in the first world war

    i) The allied forces controlled the sea routes and had powerful navy which they used to block supplies to the central power,

    ii) The allied forces had adequate supply of human resources for the war from members against the central powers

    iii) The allied forces had abundant wealth with which finance the war

    iv) The initial defeat of Germany let to minutes in the Germany army

    It also made other members of the central powers to surrender

    4. a) Why was the United States of America (USA) reluctant to join the first world war during the initial stages?

    i) Desire to abide by the term to Moroe Doctrine of 1823 which Prevents her from interfere in European affairs

    ii) Fear of revolt by her citizens of German origin,

    iii) Fear of an outbreak of civil war between Americans of German origin and those of other European nationalists

    iv) The war had not interfered with the USA's interests until 1916.

    b) Describe the result of the Second World War,

    i) Loss of life

    It is estimated that 300 million people died either in Battle or as civilians through bombing,

    ii) The atomic bombs which were used against Japan released radioactive substances which affected the lives of many people,

    iii) Permanent ill health and shortening of life for millions of people as a result of years under nourishment or captivity

    iv) Destruction of property such as homes, houses, building and bridges

    v) Agriculture and Industry were disrupted due to lack of equipment, raw materials and human resources

    vi) Psychological and emotional problems to families, individuals and nations as a result of the torture of the war

    vii) Economics of the countries that were involved in the war were destroyed leading to depression/economic slump

    viii) External trade almost came to stand still due to fear and insecurity,

    ix) There was a high inflation rate which led to high cost of living, x) Large numbers of people were displaced which led to great suffering,

    xi) The pre-war balance of power was destroyed and the power vacuum was filled by two new super powers

    The USA and USSR,

    xii) The communist zone extended to cover half of the continent of Europe, the USA assisted weakened European powers through the Marshal plan,

    xiii) The division of European into two opposing blocks led to the cold war which was followed by arms race between USA and USSR

    xiv) The failure of the League of the Nations to maintain world peace led to the foundation of the United Nation Organization,

    xv) Germany was divided into two, capitalist West Germany and Communist East Germany

    The city of Berlin was also divided between the East and the West,

    xvi) The myth of European military superiority was destroyed due to the defeat of the British and American forces in the far East by the Japanese

    xvii) Participation of Africans in the war strengthened African nationalism

    5. Describe three factors that enabled the allied powers to win the Second World War

    i) Germany's inability to effectively control her expansive territories and some turned against her and fought along the allies

    ii) The USSR recovered from her losses rearmed and attacked Germany

    iii) The allies had more supporters than the axis powers who remained four ie Germany, Bulgaria, Australia and Turkey

    iv) USA's entry into the war on the side of allies’ attack of Pearl Habour

    v) Germany's forces were overstretched by fighting warring in many fronts

    vi) Allied forces had better arms than the axis powers as atomic bombs

    vii) A chief forces controlled North Sea to blocked Germany

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