# Art and Craft Grade 6 Notes

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Art and Craft Grade 6 Notes

Arts and crafts describes a wide variety of activities involving making things with one's own hands.

• Arts and crafts is usually a hobby.

DRAWING

Stippling Technique

• This technique entails using dots to shade a drawing. It is used to create value

• It makes the drawing look solid while on a drawing surface.

In stippling, areas that have a small number of dots are exposed to light and areas that are dark have many dots.

Tonal value – is the lightness or darkness of the colour of a drawing of an object.

• When stippling the number of dots should change progressively from one area to another.

Factors to consider when drawing forms

➤ Proportion

➤ Space

➤ Balance

Proportion - is the drawing of an object that relates to the actual size

I.e. a stool is smaller than a table and not the vice versa.

Space - is the area around above and within an object. It is denoted by a border.

There are two types of space

1. Positive space – is an area within a piece of art i.e. trees within a landscape, the person in a portrait, a bowl in a still life

2. Negative space – is the space around and between an object instead of the object itself.

Balance - is the equal distribution of objects on a drawing space.

Note: Correct proportion makes the object look real. Proportion can be used to make object of the drawing look:

➤ Weak

➤ Strong

➤ Funny

➤ Confused

• Objects should be arranged at the centre and in a way that they occupy more than half of the drawing space.

• Balance helps to capture our attention and allows us to concentrate on objects and not the empty space.

• Creating a dark effect on two overlapped forms by stippling.

➥ Overlapping is a technique of drawing or placing two or more object to appear to be

covering or blocking each other’s parts.

➥ When overlapping objects:

• The large objects should be placed at the back while the small objects in front.

• The objects in front should be drawn at a lower position than the ones at the back.

• Objects closer to you are the one in front and the ones far from you are the ones at the back.

➥ Objects in front are said to be in the foreground.

➥ The objects in the middle are said to be at the middle ground.

➥ Objects at the back are said to be in the background

➥ The objects that overlap are separated by light and dark effect.

Drawing three overlapped forms using the stippling technique.

Materials and Tools

• Pencil or pen

• Drawing book/ plain paper

• Ruler

• Pictures of or a real water jug,

• cup and glass

Steps

1. Arrange the water jug, cup and glass on a flat surface

2. Draw an outline of the three objects. Use dotted lines where the objects are overlapping.

➥ The water jug should be behind the glass and cup should be placed next to the glass.

3. Erase parts or lines which have overlapped using a rubber

4. Choose the direction of light.

Note: To create solid effect on overlapping forms use either light or dark effect.

Imaginative Composition

Creating textual effect using stippling technique.

• In stippling technique, dots can be used to show the surface quality of an object.

• Texture is the surface quality of an object.

• Texture is used to show how an object would feel when touched or held

considered to be smooth.

• Imaginative composition is a drawing made from an idea that is in your mind not what you can see.

Activity

Collect the suggested tools and materials below

a. Drawing book

b. Pencil

c. Rubber

d. Tyre or a picture of a tyre

Steps

1. Sketch the tyre in your drawing book.

2. Apply many dots to make the dark areas and fewer dots to make the light areas

3. Add more dots on the dark areas to bring out a rough texture.

Creating visual balance when drawing several forms.

➥ Balance is that arrangement of objects in a space within a picture composition.

➥ Balance makes an artwork more attractive.

➥ The object must be placed at the centre of our space

➥ Balancing objects or forms can be done using colours, lines, shape, texture and tonal value.

Ways of creating balance.

♦ Placing objects at the centre of drawing space.

♦ Arranging forms in a way that the left and the right side of your composition are equal.

♦ Arranging forms in a circular manner.

• Drawing an imaginative composition of a twig with two leaves and a fruit.

Materials.

♦ Pencil or a pen

♦ Picture or real twig with two leaves and a fruit.

♦ Ruler

♦ Rubber

Steps

a. Place the picture or real twig with two leaves and a fruit on a flat surface.

b. Draw the drawing space on your drawing book using a ruler

c. Draw an outline shape of the object. Use dotted lines to show objects overlapping.

d. Erase lines or parts which have overlapped.

e. Reduce the darkness (intensity) of your outline using a rubber

f. Choose the direction of light and darkness.

g. Fill the sharp edges, corners and holes on the twigs with more dots to create texture.

Tip: Let the twig have more dots than the leaves and fruits because the twig has a rough texture.

• Display your imaginative composition of a twig with two leaves and a fruit to the class.

PAINTING

Imaginative composition

Painting imaginative composition

• Painting is the skill of creating an image using paint.

• The main materials used in painting are paints and painting surfaces.

Surfaces that can be used for painting include:

✿ Paper

✿ Cloth

✿ Canvas

✿ Stone

✿ Skin

✿ Walls

✿ Boards

Tools used in painting include:

• Paintbrush

• Sponge

• Paint palette

• Spatula

A palette is a flat surface on which a painter arranges paints and mixes paints. It can be made of

✿ Wood plastic ✿ Carton paper

• Tools used for painting can be found or made locally within our environment.

Paint brushes can be made using:

• Sticks

• Sisal

• Animal hair

Factors to consider when painting.

➥ Every painting is based on a theme or a topic also known as the subject matter. i.e.

♦ Sports.

♦ Family.

♦ Education.

♦ Celebration.

➥ The part of painting that attracts your attention is known as the centre of interest.

Note: One can create the centre of interest in painting by:

• Making a particular object in the painting bigger than the rest.

• Using colours that contrast (different colours)

• Placing objects at the centre of painting

➥ Proportionality is the painting of the actual size and shape of an object compared to

another.

➥ Depth is the technique of painting objects that are near lower and bigger while objects far, higher and smaller in size.

Creating tonal value in painting

♦ The darkness or lightness of colour is called tonal value.

♦ Objects can be made to look real by varying the lightness and darkness of the colours used.

♦ Tonal value is created using shading and tinting technique

♦ Shading involves adding black to colour to make it look dark.

♦ Tinting involves adding white to a colour to make it light.

♦ The addition of black or white colour creates tonal variation.

Activity

Tools and materials

1. Water paints

2. Container or palette

3. Paintbrushes drawing surfaces – a white paper or carbon or cardboard

Steps

. 1. Put blue and white paint on a palette separately

2. Draw square boxes on a drawing surface.

3. Apply blue paint in box 1 and white paint in box 2 4. Gradually move your brush from the blue paint towards the white paint and back to merge the two.

• In order to create tonal effect when painting identify the direction of light reflecting on the object.
• Apply the dark colour paint on areas of the object that you want to be dark
• Use white colours on areas that you want to be light.
• Merge two colours gradually.

Painting an imaginative composition sorting activity

Tools and Materials

1. Pencil

2. Drawing book

3. Water paints

4. Paintbrushes

5. Internet

6. Containers

Steps

1. Choose a sport that you love i.e. football and list down the activities involved i.e.

• Kicking the ball.
• Running.

2. Goalkeeper jumping or celebrating a score.

3. Make sketches to show the activities. Each activity should be drawn separately.

4. Copy and combine the sketched activities in on paper using a pencil.

5. Apply paint to your sketches.

6. Use white paint to create tone value on the faces clothes and posts.

7. Display your painting to class.

MONTAGE

• Is a picture composition that is created by cutting and joining images that relate to each other.

• The cut – out pictures are glued on a surface called base.

The base can be:

♦ Manila paper

♦ Cardboard

♦ Hardboard

♦ Plywood

Characteristics of a Montage.

➥ Are arranged in manner that they can overlap each other

Pictures used can be sourced from:

♦ Old newspapers

♦ Old magazines

♦ Calenders

♦ Printed images

➥ Pictures used are usually related to tell the same story.

➥ Cut – out texts can also be used to help montage to communicate better.

Spacing and Balancing.

➥ The cut – outs should be well balanced.

➥ You can arrange the picture side by side or overlapping.

➥ When overlapping let the small picture cut – out be glued on top of the picture cut – outs.

➥ Ensure that the cut – outs are well balanced to communicate or send a message.

• Creating a montage composition.

Materials and Tools

1. Base – cardboard, manila paper or fabric.

2. Adhesive – office glue or natural glue.

3. Razor or a pair of scissors.

4. Pictures of wild animals, trees or forests.

Steps

1. Pick the subject matter for your montage i.e. wildlife conservation.

2. Cut out a picture of each animal and tree you found.

3. Arrange the picture cut – outs on the base.

4. Mark the position of each picture to avoid disarranging when you will be pasting

5. Apply glue on the backside of each picture cut – outs of grass, bushes, rocks or cut – outs of newspapers or magazine titles.

6. You can add more details to your montage by making cut – outs of grass,bushes, rocks or

cut – outs of newspapers or magazines titles.

7. Position and hook the animal cut – outs onto the branches, or slip the behind the tree trunks or grass.

Tip: You can combine smaller paper shapes to create bigger elements like the paper fern.

➥ Paper edges scissors can be used.

For a neat montage, trim the parts of the cut – outs that are outside the mounting surface.

3. INDIGENOUS KENYAN CRAFT

COIL AND STITCH TECHNIQUE.

➥ The art of coiling materials and stitching them together using a needle and thread to make an item.

➥ There are two types of coils namely:

➥ Plaited coils

➥ Rolled coils

➥ Plaited coils are made by braiding two or more strands fo materials to make a pattern.

➥ Rolled coils are made by rolling strands of a material together.

➥ Items made using the coil and stitch technique are made using any suitable material such as:

♦ Banana fibres

♦ Reeds

♦ Sisal

♦ Palm leaves

♦ Recycled fabric.

➥ In weaving, the materials used are interlaced vertically and horizontally on a loom to form an item.

➥ Vertical threads are called the warps and horizontal threads are the wefts of fillings

➥ In basketry one does not use loom.

➥ In the coil and stich technique the materials are rolled in a circular form and stitched together using a needle and a string or a thread. Selecting materials for coil and stich technique.

➥ Natural materials are those that can be found in the environment

➥ They include

♦ Raffia

♦ Wool

♦ Silk

♦ Reeds

♦ Cane

♦ Banana

♦ Fibres

♦ Sisal

➥ Man – made materials include synthetic fibres such as:

♦ Nylon

♦ Carbon fibre

♦ Polyester yarn

♦ Acrylic yarn

➥ Materials used in coil and stitch technique should be flexible and easy to roll to form the coils needed.

➥ When selecting materials to make a door mat using the coil and stitch technique. One

should consider whether they are:

♦ Durable

♦ Easy to clean

♦ Non – slippery

• Preparing selected materials for coil and stitch technique

➥ There are different ways of preparing materials used to make an item using the coil and stitch technique.

They include:

♦ Dyeing

♦ Plaiting

♦ Tearing

➥ Tearing involves splitting materials such as banana fibres into thin strips for easier use

➥ Dyeing is the process of changing the original colour of materials used to make an item to a different colour.

➥ Plaiting is a technique whereby strands of suitable materials such as rope or silk are braided together to make a single string of fibre.

Methods of preparing selected materials for coil and stitch technique.

Tearing method

Collect the following Tools and Materials

♦ Banana fibres

♦ Cutting tool (knife,machete)

♦ Measuring tape

➥ Harvest the banana stems from the trunk of a banana plant

➥ Cut the stems into the length you want using knife and measuring tape

➥ Wipe the banana stem with a damp cloth to remove any dirt

➥ Take the dry stems and tear the strips you need

➥ Roll the fibre in bunches and put them in a sack

Stripping method.

Tools

include:

♦ Fibre stripper

♦ Sisal

♦ Cutting tool water basin

➥ Split the sisal stem into thin strips that can fit in the fibre stripper

➥ Place the sisal strips into the middle of the fibre stripper and pull them through to get sisal fibre.

➥ Wash the fibre using clean water

➥ Dry the washed sisal fibre in the open sun.

Dyeing method

➥ Collect the Tools below:

♦ Sufuria, basin, water, heat source

♦ Commercial or natural dye (roots, coffee powder tea leaves, flower of different colours)

♦ Apron

➥ Separate the strands of the thread and tape the beginning ends using sellotape.

➥ Roll the separated strands of thread into a circle and tie it loosely

➥ Take as many flowers as you can and put them inside a sufuria with water.

➥ Add a fixative agent to prevent the dyed material from fading.

➥ Let it simmer for a while and stir once in a while. Remove when the colour intensify

➥ Remove the thread from the dyeing mixture and rinse it with cold water.

➥ Let the dyed thread dry outside in the open sun.

Plaiting method.

➥ Collect strands of dyed thread and a ruler or a tape measure

➥ Using a ruler measure the desired size of the strand of the thread.

➥ Take the three strands of the thread and tie a knot at the beginning end.

➥ Start by crossing the leftmost strand over the other in your hand, and then place it below the strand on your right.

➥ Take the rightmost strand and cross it over the strand you just placed in your right hand, and place it in your left hand underneath the other strand.

➥ Repeat the process until you get the desired length.

➥ Use another overhand knot to tie the bottom length end of the plaited rope to keep it from getting loose from detaching.

What to consider when coiling and stitching an item.

➥ Uniformity of coils – it should be of the same size strength and thickness

➥ Consistent tension – ensure the coils are stitched tightly for better use and durability of item.

➥ Craftsmanship – finish your item by giving it a clean finishing look to make it more beautiful.

➥ Materials – the materials you pick should be strong, flexible and non – slippery.

Making a floor mat using coil and stitch technique using man – made or natural materials

Tools

✿ Needle

✿ Pair of scissors or cutters

✿ Man – made or natural materials

✿ Thread (woollen, nylon)

Steps

1. Use nylon paper or sellotape to wrap and cover the beginning end of the strand

2. Coil the wrapped end of the strand to form a small circle.

3. Stitch the wrapped end of the strand.

4. Fasten the loop after the first round by passing the needle from the right towards the left onto the back.

5. Continue to coil to make a mat

6. Finish the floor mat by fastening the end of the strand

7. Display your mat and talk about your own and other’s floor mats.

LEATHER WORK

➥ Wristbands are decorative items that people wear around their wrists.

➥ Beaded leather wristbands are made using leather materials and beads

➥ Beading technique involves using colourful beads to make an item more colourful and attractive.

➥ Beaded leather wristband can be made and decorated using different line patterns such as:

♦ Straight

♦ Zigzag

♦ Wavy patterns

➥ The stitching technique is used to tightly hold the beads used to decorate the leather

• Preparing used leather for making a wristband.

➥ We can prepare and rescue old leather materials to make new items

➥ To make quality leather items using used leather one needs to clean and prepare it properly.

Tools

used in preparing leather materials include:

♦ Scrap cutter

♦ Leather knife

♦ Leather punch

♦ Mallet

♦ Pliers

➥ You can make used leather look better by applying wax or shoe polish or natural oil to give it shiny glow and an attractive look.

➥ The polish used will depend on the colour of the leather.

Tools

• Ruler

• Pliers

• Used leather

• Pair of scissors, scrap cutter or

• leather knife

• Workboard.

• Shoe polish or wax

Steps

1. Collect used leather that is locally available i.e

♦ Old belts

♦ Leather jackets

♦ Bags

2. Using pliers ledger remove any pin in the used leather

3. Wash the leather using water and soap to remove any dirt

4. Use a fabric or sponge to polish the dry leather by rubbing melted wax.

Leather cutting Tools

5. The leather is now ready for use.

Making and decorating beaded wristbands.

➥ Wristbands can be decorated using beads and stitching technique.

➥ Beads can be applied using different line patterns such as straight, zigzag and wavy.

➥ Beads of various colours can be used to crate colour patterns.

Making and decorating a bead leather wristband using straight – line pattern.

Tools

o Prepared used leather

o Ruler

o Stitching chisel

o Pair of scissors, blade or spatula

o Marker pen

o Leather punch

o Beads of different colour

o Needle and string (nylon twin,

thongs or fishing line

Steps

1. Sketch a straight – line pattern on a paper to familiarise with the pattern that will

appear on the leather

2. Cut the prepared leather to the size with even edges.

3. Measure the desired size of the strip of leather for the wristband on he wrist.

4. Using a hole punch, punch a small hole on the marked opposite ends of the leather.

5. Lightly punch holes on the outside edges of the leather piece

6. Run the needle along the holes created

7. Repeat the process around the entire strip of leather.

8. Draw a straight line where the beads would appear on the leather.

9. Pick out the beads you wants to use

10. Put a string in the needle and knot the string. Insert the needle in the first hole of the

straight – line pattern

11. Insert the beads through the needle or the string and stitch them on the leather strip.

12. Repeat stitching the beads until you complete the desired pattern.

13. Cut two strips of leather and tie them on the two holes at the end of the leather trip to

complete the wristband.

14. Display your beaded leather wristband to the class.

POTTERY

Slab technique

➥ Slab technique is a pottery technique that involves creating forms by joining shapes cut

from thick sheets of damp clay. These sheets are known as slabs

➥ A clay glue known as slip is used to help stick the slabs together.

➥ Geometrical shapes include:

♦ Cubes

♦ Cuboids

♦ Cylinders

♦ Cones

♦ Pyramids

➥ Clay models of items that are geometrical in shapes are made using slab technique.

Tools used in slab technique

✿ Needle

✿ Cut – off wire

✿ Fettling knife

✿ Scrapper

✿ Sponge

✿ Bristle brush

Wooden modelling Tools

✿ Battens

Needle Tools

– is used for scoring the slab. Also used in cutting slabs into different shapes.

• Cut – off wire – is used in cutting large lumps of prepared clay.

• Fettling knife – used for trimming unwanted parts of slabs. Also used to pierce decorations onto the clay items.

• Sponge – used to smoothen the clay items.

• Bristle brush – used to carry water and slip to specific ares of the modelled clay.

Wooden modelling Tools

– they can be used to smoothen the joints of the clay items.

• Scrapper – used to smoothen the cracks on wet or soft leather – hard clay.

• Battens – used when rolling clay to make sure the slab equal thickness.

Preparing clay for modelling geometrical forms.

Tools

➥ Clay

➥ Water

➥ Plastic bucket or container

➥ Old clay items

➥ Damp cloth

Steps

1. Collect clay from various sources within your locality.

2. Crush and grind the pieces of old broken fired clay pots to make grog. Sieve the grog to

remove large pieces of stones, twigs or grass.

3. Mix the freshly collected clay and the grog clay slowly as you add water and start kneading.

4. The grog makes the clay more firm.

5. Store the kneaded clay by putting it in a plastic bucket. Wait for the clay to be firm but mouldable.

➥ Kneaded clay must be covered with a damp cloth or plastic container to keep it moist.

➥ Leather – hard clay is dry enough to maintain form and still damp enough to be smoothen, curved and decorated.

➥ Grog is clay that has been dried, fired, crushed added to normal clay.

➥ Slip is a mixture of clay and water. It is best for use when it has a thick consistency.

Preparing slip for slap technique

Tools

♦ Jar

♦ Small lumps of clay

♦ Water

♦ Mixing sticks.

Steps

1. Put the small dry lumps of clay in the jar and crush them

2. Pour the clay powder into the jar, powdered clay makes a good slip paste.

3. Slowly add water into the jar use the sticks to mix the paste well

4. Store it in readiness for modelling.

Modelling geometrical forms using the slab technique cube form.

Tools

➤ Prepared clay

➤ Bristle brush

➤ Two battens

➤ Wooden modelling tool

➤ Fettling knife

➤ Rolling pin

➤ Sponge

➤ Ruler

➤ Damp cloth

➤ Needle tool

➤ Cut – off wire

Steps

1. Put a damp cloth on the table and cut out a portion of the prepared clay using a thin wire.

➥ The process of kneading clay to remove the air trapped in the clay is called wedging.

2. Place the battens (1 cm thick) on both sides of the clay.

3. Measure the size of the slab you need and use a needle tool or a knife to cut the clay slab.

4. Leave the slab for a short time to slightly harden

5. Score the edges of the bottom slab. Scoring helps to expose the damp parts of the slabs.

6. Use a bristle brush to apply enough slip on all scored surfaces of the bottom slab.

7. Score the edges of the four remaining slab and apply slip.

8. As you attach the slabs, hold them firmly to ensure they join at the edges.

9. Use modelling wooden tool or a stick to smoothen the joined edges of the slabs.

10. Use a damp piece of fabric or sponge to smoothen the clay item.

11. Use the following methods to decorate the slab item

➥ Embedding

➥ Piercing

➥ Embedding - is a decorative method that involves pressing objects into slab clay.

➥ Piercing - is a decorative method that involves cutting holes through an item to make an attractive design pattern.

Note: You can combine the two decorative methods to decorate a single clay item.

Modelling geometrical forms using the slab technique cylindrical form.

Tools

• Prepared clay.
• Ruler
• Rolling pin
• Two battens
• Needle tool
• Cut – off wire
• Fettling knife
• Bristle brush
• Canvas
• Sponge
• Wooden modelling tool
• Cylindrical object (a bottle, soda tin)

Steps

1. Using a rolling pin and the two battens, roll a lump of clay to an even thickness, measure and cut out a rectangle slab

2. Use a wet or moistened bottle to roll the rectangle slab into a cylindrical shape and cut the extra clay using any cutting tool.

3. Use the bottle to roll the slab back to the flat surface and let the flat slab harden slightly.

• Score the edges of the slab and apply the slip.

4. Again use the wet or moistened bottle to roll over the slab to make cylindrical shape.

5. Gently press the scored and slipped edges together to form a cylinder.

6. Coil some clay and apply it on the seam to reinforce it.

• Seam is where two pieces of clay join

7. Gently place the cylinder in the middle of the rolled clay slab and cut around the base leaving about half an inch of extra cylinder.

8. Press the base and the bottom side of the cylinder together.

9. Clean and smoothen the cylinder container using sponge

10. Decorate the cylinder using piercing and embedding methods.

11. Leave your clay item to dry in a cool place

Other geometrical modelling that uses slab technique includes:

➤ Conical form.

➤ Pyramid form.

SCULPTURE.

Carving

➥ Is the art of cutting and shaping a solid material such as wood or stone to make an item.

➥ When choosing the type of wood to use for carving and item, consider the function of the item.

➥ Carving requires sharp cutting Tools

such as:

➤ Chisel

➤ Gouges

➤ Curving knives

➤mallet

• Making a shallow carved wooden bowl using carving technique

Tools

➤ thick block of softwood

➤ sharp carving knives

➤ carving chisel

➤ handsaw

➤ mallet

➤ sandpaper

Steps

1. Draw an outline of a bowl on the block of soft wood.

2. Use a handsaw to cut the extra wood on each side of the outline of the bowl.

3. Use the mallet to tap the gouge or chisel inwards and forward through the wood making. carved cuts towards the centre of the bowl.

4. Using a carving knife and a chisel, shape the outside of the bowl.

5. Uses a sandpaper to smoothen the bowl. Finish the bowl by applying wax or vegetable oil to give it a shiny look. Safety.

➥ Use gloves to protect your hands from getting bruised by the Tools

when carving.

➥ Always look at what you are doing to prevent yourself from getting hurt by

Tools

Decorating the shallow carved wooden bowl.

• Incising and texturing are the major methods of decorating curved wooden bowl

• Incising is a technique that involves cutting or carving a decorative design pattern on an item using sharp cutting object.

• Texturing is a decorative method that helps create visual and physical interest.

• Texture is the surface condition of an object. It can be smooth, rough, sharp or rounded

Tools used for texturing include:

➥ Nail

➥ Carving gauge

➥ File or an owl.

• The type of texture used to decorate an item depends on the functionality of the item.

• Rough texture makes it difficult to hold an item used for eating or serving food.

• A mallet can also be used to make deeper impressions of the design when incising.

4. DESIGN MIXED MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY

STENCIL PRINTING

♦ The art of creating images on a surface by pressing an object is called Printing

♦ The image created during this process is called print

♦ Prints can be made by pressing thin sheets of paper, plastic or metal with design that has been cut out. This item is called a stencil.

♦ Stencil printing is the process prints are made by pressing a stencil on a surface.

♦ The design on a stencil can be picture or text. The design that is printed out is called a motif.

Materials and Tools for stencil printing.

♦ A stencil can be made out of paper, plastic or metal.

♦ Ink or paint can be made by crushing leaves, charcoal or flower and mixing with water. It can also be bought.

♦ Paint application Tools

- these are used to apply ink through the stencil to the printing surface.

They include:

♦ Toothbrush

♦ Sponge

♦ A piece of cloth.

♦ Cotton wool.

♦ Printing surfaces – the motif can be printed on paper fabric, wood, wall, skin.

• The most common stencil used is cardboard paper because it is easy to cut and readily available.

• The stencil used should be strong and one that cannot absorb ink easily.

• The cutting tool should be sharp and painted to make sure the design cuts are clean and precise.

• Cutting should be done on smooth hard surface like glass.

Designing motifs for stencil printing

Tools

• Stencil paper – cardboard or paper

• Cutting tool – blade or razor

• Sketch of the design.

Steps

1. Choose the subject matter. i.e. wedding, birthday, Christmas, Eid – ul – Fitr, Diwal etc.

2. Draw the design you want. The design can be image, words or both.

3. Transfer your design on a hard stencil paper by tracing or copying it.

4. Place the stencil paper on a firm surface and use a sharp blade or a razor to cut out the design.

5. Display your motif to the class and say the occasion that it represents.

Stencil printing motif on fabric.

Tools

• Tape

• Fabric

• Paints, paintbrush or sponge

• Stencil paper

Steps

a. Prepare your paint or ink by making sure that it is not too wet.

b. Place the stencil on the fabric and secure it using a tape to prevent it from moving around when applying the paint.

c.

d. Apply the ink or paint using the dabbing technique

Dabbing is a printing technique that involves applying paint or ink onto a surface using corners of a sponge.

e. Remove the stencil gently and dry the fabric.

➥ Positive image is formed when paint or ink is applied through the design gaps in the stencil.

➥ Negative image is formed when paint or ink is applied around the cut – out stencil design.

Calligraphy lettering.

• Calligraphy is the practice of writing letters or words in a decorative style.

• Calligraphy can be done using a special pen called calligraphy pen.

• Decorations used to make seasonal cards look more attractive is known as embellishments.

They include:

➤ Dried or plastic flowers

➤ Buttons

➤ Ribbons

➤ Pins

• The letters are words used to write messages on seasonal cards can also be written using a

beautiful style.

• 3D block letters can also be constructed or creatively combine uppercase and lowercase letters to decorate a seasonal card.

Making seasonal cards using stencil printing.

Tools

• Plain cardboard or paper

• Stencil paper or stencil printed

• Fabric you made in previous lesson

• Ruler

• Sponge

• Glue

• Pair of scissors, razor

• Pen or pencil

• Ink/ paint

• Embellishment.

• Bamboo

Steps

1. Measure and cut out the desired size of your card. Fold the cardboard paper into two equal halves.

2. Using glue, stick the stencil printed fabric you made on the front page of the card.

3. Use attractive and beautiful writing style to write to the name of occasion on the front

cover of the card.

4. Decorate the card further by sticking a dry flower, colourful stickers or ribbon on the card.

NOTE: The style of folding the cardboard is known as one-fold layout.

In one-fold layout, the paper is divided into three sections, front, back and inside.

PAPER CRAFT

Paper flowers

In paper craft, we use paper as our main material.

There are different types of papers that can be used to make paper items. They include:

➥ Tissue paper

➥ Old newspapers

➥ Old magazines paper

➥ Card paper

➥ Paper from books

• Other materials used in paper craft include adhesives such as glue.

• Technique of making and decorating paper flower.

There are different techniques used for making paper flowers.

They include:

♦ Folding

♦ Cutting

♦ Pasting

♦ Twisting

♦ Pleating

Objects that are used to add beauty to a paper flower are known as embellishments

They include:

♦ Buttons

♦ Coloured sand

♦ Inedible seeds

Other ways of decorating a paper craft include:

♦ Painting using water

♦ paints

♦ Tie and dye

♦ Stencil.

Making paper flowers using the cutting technique.

Tools

➥ Stiff papers

➥ Pair of scissors, pencil, paper,rubber.

➥ Embellishment (buttons, ribbons,beads, inedible seeds or coloured sand)

Steps

• Draw a flower design on a piece of paper.

• Transfer and copy the flower design on a stiff paper.

• Mark the parts of the stiff paper that should be cut.

• Use the pair of scissors to cut out the design outline of the flower

• Use a blade to cut out the inner design of the flower.

• Stick the embellishments on the design using glue.

• Making and decorating a paper.

• A container used for holding flowers is called a flower vase

• Stiff papers are the best for making flower container i.e.

★ Hard paper

★ Cardboard paper

★ Manila paper.

• The paper container should be decorated to make it more attractive i.e. using stencil printing technique montage.

• Geometrical shapes can be cut out and pasted to create beautiful decorations.

Making a paper container using the cutting technique.

Tools

➥ Stiff paper (35×50cm)

➥ Glue

➥ Pair of scissors

➥ Ruler

➥ Pen or a pencil.

Steps

1. Draw a square measuring 10 cm by 10 cm at the centre of your paper and label it A

2. Add a rectangle of 15 cm by 10 cm on each side of square. Label it B, C,D and E

3. Add I cm extension to the opposite sides of flap B and D.

4. Cut around the outline of your drawing.

5. Fold all the sides of square A towards one direction until it forms a container.

6. Glue the extension to hold the sides together

7. Draw different shapes or design on coloured paper and cut them out using a blade or a pair of scissors.

8. Apply glue on one side of the decorations and stick them on the paper container.

9. You can now put your flowers in the decorated container.

Simple animation.

Flipbook animation; Bouncing ball

➤ Flipbook is a book that has a number of images that gradually change from one page to the next in sequence.

➤ When the pages of a flip book are quickly flipped through, the object in the images appear to be moving.

➤ Animation is the art of making drawings appear to have life or movement.

➤ Paper is the main material used in making a flip book.

➤ Drawings created on a flat surface can only be viewed from one direction.

• They are known as 2D.

➤ In order to animate drawings, first decide on the direction of movement of your object.

There are three main positions for objects in motion.

They include:

• Key positions; first key, middle key, last key

➤ The pictures filled in- between the key positions are known as breakdowns

➤ Breakdowns help to create smooth movement of objects in a flip book.

• What to consider when making a flip book

• Images should be drawn in a way that show gradual series of the action being performed.

• The arrangement of images in a way that describes a series of actions or movement is known as sequence.

• The number of images that change from one action to another is known as frequency.

Components of a flip book.

1. Text – these are the letters and words that are written in a flip book.

2. Illustration – these are images that are drawn in a flipbook

3. Layout - this is how you plan to creatively arrange your text and images on the pages of the flip book.

4. Colour – this can be used to make the images and text more beautiful

Flip book animation: Walking stick figure.

➤ A stick figure is a human body structure that has been drawn using lines.

➤ Legs and hands are the most common parts of the body that shows movement. They are known as limbs

➤ To animate a walking stick figure, limb movement should change in sequence.

➤ The direction of movement is marked by poses.

➤ A pose is the way you position an object, just like the way you pose for photographs.

• Drawing sequence of limbs movement of a walking stick figure.

• In walking movement, the hands move in opposite direction to the leg that is in the same side.i.e.

• When the right hand is in front, the right leg will be at the back and vice versa.

• The number of sequences of a movement will increase the frequency of the figure.

• Making a simple flip book using a walking stick figure.

Tools

➤ Pencil

➤ Light box

➤ Eraser

➤ Ruler

➤ Paper

➤ Stapler or an adhesive

➤ Pair of scissors.

Steps

1. Cut at least 20 pages of 8cm by 12cm size.

2. Draw the three key positions on a paper

3. Copy the first position on a paper and number page 1.

4. Place another paper on top of page 1 and hold it against a glass window, slightly adjust

the position of the limbs and trace the movement. Label this page 2

5. Place a new paper on top of page 2.Repeat the same process of tracing the image while

slightly adjusting the limb position. Label it page 3

6. Repeat the process with other pages until the leg and arm that were behind are now

stepping in font.

7. Repeat step six at least three to five times to increase frequency.

8. Write the title of your flip book on the cover page.

9. Align your pages correctly and use a pin or string to bind the pages together like a book.

PHOTOGRAPHY

Sceneries

A scenery is the natural appearance of a place or and environment.

Elements of photography.

• Viewpoints

• Backgrounds

• Focus quality

• Image quality

• Lighting

• Centre of interest

• Framing

• composition

➤ A photographer can take pictures from different position also known as viewpoints.

They include:

♦ Bird’s eye view – this is when photographs are taken from above a high position.

♦ Worm’s eye view – this is when photographs are taken from the ground level.

♦ Normal eye view – these are photographs taken at the level of the eyes when standing.

➤ Centre of interest is the part of a photograph that attracts attention. It also helps define the theme of photograph.

➤ The surrounding must be beautiful to make the photograph beautiful. The surrounding is known as the background.

➤ The background should not steal or divert attention from the main subject of the photograph.

• Focus quality, image quality framing and composition.

➥ Framing and composition – is the way objects are positioned within a frame.

➥ A frame is a rectangle or square space that a photograph is supposed to fit.

➥ When a particular object in a photograph is seen more clearly than other objects, we say

it is in focus

➥ Focus quality of the main object in a photograph should be sharper and cleaner.

➥ Focus quality helps to create the centre of interest of scenery.

➥ The objects that are behind the main subject make up the background.

➥ Light helps us to see objects clearly and improve the image quality.

➥ We can use natural light from the sun or artificial sources such as flash, lights, lamps, electric bulbs.

➥ Light helps improve the image quality of a photograph by:

➥ Enhancing the colours

➥ Shapes and texture of the objects.

4. PRESENTATION AND EXHIBITION.

MOUNTING AND DISPLAY.

➤ Artwork can be mounted on various surfaces such as manila paper, carton, cardboard and

then framed to keep them safe.

➤ A frame is a structure made of wood, metal or plastic that surrounds or borders a picture,

painting or drawing and holds it in position.

➤ A frame also adds beauty.

➤ Framing is the method of surrounding and fixing a picture in position in a frame.

➤ Mounting – is the art of fixing images on a hard and firm surface known as backboard

➤ Mounting and framing helps protect 2D artworks from folding, wearing and tearing.

Making a picture frame using mitre joints

➤ The process of joining pieces of wood to form mitre joints is known as joinery.

➤ Joinery is done using strong adhesives such as glue or nails or both.

➤ A mitre joint is formed when two pieces of wood are cut at an angle of 45 ̊ and joined to

form a corner to make a 90 ̊ joint.

➤ Mitre joints are used to make frames for mounting 2D artworks.

Tools

• Hand saw

• Carving knife

• Sand paper

• Try – square

• Back of wood

• Wood glue

Steps

1. Measure and mark the dimensions of four pieces of wood equally.

2. Hold the piece firmly and cut out four equal pieces of wood using a hand saw.

3. Use sand paper to make the pieces of wood smooth.

4. Using a try – square measure an angle of 45 ̊ on both ends

5. Use a handsaw to cut the edges of the four pieces of wood at an angle of 45 ̊.

6. Test the accuracy of the angle of the four pieces of wood by joining them to form angle 90 ̊

7. Apply wood glue on the angle and join the pieces together.

8. Press the pieces together to enhance the tightness. You can use a clamp or improvise and use tape

9. Use a damp piece of fabric to quickly wipe out the excess wood glue before it dries.

10. Leave the frame for a few minutes to allow the wood glue to dry and the joints to hold firmly to each other.

11. Apply clear varnish to all parts of the frame to make it look beautiful and attractive.

Making and framing 2 – dimensional (2D) artwork

Tools

• Mitre joint frames.

• Glue

• Pair of scissors

• Pliers

• Picture, photograph, painting or drawing.

• Mounting surface – stiff paper,cardboard or carton.

Steps

1. Measure the length and width of your artwork.

2. Add 2cm to the length and 2cm to the width of your artwork and draw your new measurements on a mounting surface.

3. Use a pair of scissors or blade to trim the mounting surface according to your measurement.

4. Place your artwork on top of the trimmed mounting surface and position it at the centre.

• Ensure the margins of the mounting surface are equal, that is 2cm each.

5. Mark the position of your artwork using a pencil.

6. Carefully apply and spread the adhesive within the marked borders evenly.

7. Pick the artwork carefully place it on the glued area on the mounting paper.

8. One the back of the frame you had made using the mitre joints apply glue or paste and stick the mounted artwork.

9. Use the dimensions of the frame to cut a piece of a cardboard.

10. Stick the cardboard behind the frame using glue. This will help protect the artwork inside the frame.

11. Tap small nails into the back of the wooden frame and tie a hanging wire around them.

• Hang your framed artwork on the wall.

Note: the mounting surface must be bigger than the artworks in order to have margins on all sides of the mounted artwork.

➥ The frame should be bigger than the mounting surface to ensure clear visibility or display of the mounted artwork.

➥ The mounting surface used to frame the artwork is also known as a mat.

➥ A mat creates space between the artwork and frame.

➥ A mat is a useful addition to a framed artwork because:

i. The blank space between the frame and the artwork draws the eye and brings it back in when it reaches the edge.

ii. It separates the art from the glazing glass thus protecting it from moisture that may accumulate.

Hint: the place you select to present your work need to be spacious, open and frequently visited by other people.

Exhibition skills.

In art, an exhibition is a space or an event where artworks such as paintings, drawings pottery and sculpture are displayed and presented to the public.

Exhibition of 2D and 3D artworks.

Elements of presentation and exhibition.

• Exhibition are usually held in open places like school, dining halls, hallways, noticeboards or a classroom.

• Exhibition spaces should have enough natural or artificial lighting to illuminate the artworks on display.

• Proper lighting helps the artworks to look more attractive.

2D and 3D artworks can be displayed on;

Tables

➤ Stands

➤ Pedestals

➤ Shelves

➤ Walls

➤ Desks

➤ Windows

➤ Floors

• An exhibition can display and present both 2D and 3D artworks at the same time.

• The display surfaces must be strong and stable to safely hold the 3D artworks and protect them from falling and breaking.

• An artist can also decorate the display surfaces to enhance the beauty of the artworks.

• Decorated fabrics, paper craft and painted walls are some of the ways of decorating a display surfaces.

• The space used for an exhibition should have enough light, good ventilation and have enough room

• For people to freely move around and observe the artworks.

Marketing strategies for artwork.

• Marketing strategies are methods used to promote a product or service to attract people to buy them.

• There are traditional and modern types of marketing strategies.

• Boards

• Pamphlets

• Television

• Word of mouth.

Modern marketing strategies.

➤ Online marketing

➤ Social media marketing

• Exhibition can also be used as a marketing tool because they bring the art to be eye of a customer.

• Marketing helps inform people about the existence of an artwork, the artist who made it and where to find it.

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