Communication 6

3. Briefly explain the following levels of communication.

(a) Vertical communication

Involves the flow of information either downwards or upwards, for example,from a senior employee to a junior employee

(b) Horizontal communication

Is also referred to as lateral communication which is passing of information between people of the same rank or status, for example from one departmental manager to another departmental manager

(c) Diagonal communication

Is communication of different people in different levels of management or departments for example a receptionist communicating to a production

4. Distinguish between formal and informal

Formal communication is official and documented and follows certain rules for example a worker writing an official letter to an organization’s seniors.

Informal communication does not conform to any time, for example communicating to friends and relatives.

5. State the essential elements in communication.

a) The sender who is the source of the information being communicated

b) The receiver(or recipient) of information

c) The message being communicated

d) The channel (or medium) through which the message is passed on

e) Feedback which is the response or reaction of the recipient.

6. Highlight the various types of verbal communication.

a) Face-to-face communication

b) Telephone conversation

c) Radio calls conversation.

7. State the advantages and disadvantages of verbal communication


a) A large number of people can receive the information at once for example when addressing in a meeting.

b) There is immediate feedback

c) Clarification can be made easily and immediately

d) This is personal appeal

e) It can be very convenient and persuasive

f) It is fast since the intended information reaches the recipient immediately.


a) It is not easy to know if the message or information has been received particularly if the receivers are many

b) It is prone to outside interference due to noise and other forms of disruptions

c) In case of incorrect pronunciation of words, there could be distortion of the information

d) There is no record for future reference.

e) The method is not effective for recipients with learning problems.

f) Can take a lot of time to pass intended information.

8. Outline the various barriers to effective communication.

a) Noise may hinder effective communication

b) The emotional state of both the sender and the recipient

c) Use of the wrong channel to communicate

d) Breakdown of a channel used to communicate

e) Illiteracy of the recipient particularly for written communication.

f) The attitude of the recipient towards the sender and the information being communicated.

g) Use of difficult vocabulary or words by the sender

h) Lack of concentration on the part of the recipient may affect communication.

i) Poor timing by the sender.

9. Highlight reasons that would make an organization use cell phones for communication within and outside the organization.

a) One gets immediate feedback

b) It is fast and can be used to send urgent messages

c) There is personal appeal

d) The sender has a great opportunity to convince and persuade the recipient.

e) It is not very expensive particularly for making calls for a short duration of time

f) It can be used even when both the sender and the recipient are far apart

10. State the various types of written communication.

a) Written

b) Memorandum(memos)

c) Reports

d) Notices

e) Telegrams

f) Circulars

g) Minutes

11. State the reasons why an organization would use written communication instead of verbal communication.

a) Written communication provides evidence which may not be there in verbal communication

b) Written information can be stored for future reference unlike verbal which cannot be stored and depends on the recipients memory.

c) It is not prone to distortions and therefore more accurate than verbal communication.

d) Written communication can be in form of diagrams, illustration and maps which is not possible for verbal communication

e) Some written communication such as letters would be cheaper and time saving than verbal communication, for example making long telephone

f) Written communication can be used for confidential messages, for example registered mails.

.12. State the disadvantages of written communication.

a) Written is not very persuasive or convincing

b) There is no personal touch

c) It can only be used by literate

d) It
can be slow where letters take time to reach the recipient

e) It takes time to get a feedback from the recipient

f) Messages cannot be enhanced by gestures, that is, body language or face expressions.

g) It can be expense to file all the written communication.

13. Outline the various means of visual communication.

a) Charts

b) Photographs

c) Gestures, which may include signs and symbols

d) Slides

14. State the advantages and disadvantages of audio-visual of communication.


a) Information is more attractive and appealing

b) Can reach many people at once

c) It can be used even for those who cannot read and write

d) Immediate feedback is received from the way the recipient behave

e) Can be entertaining


a) Can be misinterpreted, for example if the receiver does not understand the signs or gesture

b) Not suitable for passing confidential information

c) It is not possible for the recipient to give a feedback

d) Gesture and signs are only suitable to those who can understand them

e) The initial cost of preparing these forms of communication may be high for the sender

f) It may take a lot of time to prepare these forms of communication

15. Outline the various service that facilitate communication.

a) Registered mail, for sending valuable or confidential information.

b) Speed post services offered by the post office to send letters parcels using the quickest means possible

c) Poste restante, usually used by those without postal addresses

d) Business reply service which enables customers and clients to reply to a business without having to pay for postage stamps.

e) Broadcasting services through various radio stations.

f) Print media such as the various newspapers, magazines and journals.

g) Internet services which connect one to the world wide website

h) Telephone services

16. State the various trends in communication.

a) Mobile or cell phone use

b) Internet which uses inter linked computers to the world wide website

c) Fax, which can be used to send written messages very fast

d) Information and telephone bureaus where one can make local and international calls.

e) Move towards a paperless office.

f) Transformation of language.

17. Highlight the factors to be considered when choosing a means of communication.

a) The cost because some are more expensive than others

b) Availability of the means.

c) Reliability or assurance that the message will reach the recipient.

d) The distance between the sender and the recipient.

e) The literacy level of both the receiver and the recipient

f) The confidential nature of the information being sent

g) The urgency of the message

h) If there is need for evidence or need for future reference

i) The desired impact of the means upon the recipient

18. Advice Mary Wakio why she should not use telex to communicate to her friends

a) Her friends may be illiterate and may be unable to read the message received

b) Her friends may not have a receiving machine and will be unable to get the information.

c) It can be expensive to use as the sender pays a subscription fee and rental fee while he and the recipient pays for the sent message.

d) It can be expensive to buy the teleprinters used in receiving and sending information.

e) Telex may only send written messages but cannot be used to send maps, diagrams and charts

19. State circumstances when sign language can be the most appropriate form of communication

a) When communicating to someone who has a hearing problem

b) If one wishes to pass a secret or coded message

c) If both the receiver and the sender are far apart but can see each other

d) It can be used in case there is a language barrier

e) In an environmental where there is a lot of noise or physical interference to other forms of communication, sign language may be used.

f) It can be appropriate where both the recipient and the sender understand the signs.

20. Explain four factors that have led to the popularity of mobile phones as a means of communication.

Communication 1 | Communication 2 | Communication 3 | Communication 4 | Communication 5 | Communication 6 |

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