Communication 3

iii) Telex


This is a means of communication used to send short or detailed messages quickly by use of a teleprinter. The service is provided by the post office on application.

A message is sent by use of two teleprinters one on the senders end and another on the recipients end. When sending information through a teleprinter which is a form of electric typewriter producing different electric signals, its keys are pressed and automatically the message is printed at the recipient’s machine.

Telex saves time for both the sender and recipient as the messages are brief precise and received immediately. However, it’s an expensive means of communication.

iv) Facsimile (Fax)

This involves transmission of information through a fax machine. Both the sender and the receiver must have a fax machine.

These machines are connected using telephone lines Fax is used to transmit printed messages such as letters, maps, diagrams and photographs.

To send the information, one dials a fax number of the required destination and then the document is fed into the sender’s machine.

The receiving machine reproduces the document immediately. It is used for long distance photocopying service.

v)Memorandum (Memo)

This is printed information for internal messages within an organisation.

It is normally used to pass information between departments or offices in an organization.

Memoranda have no salutation or complimentary clause.

They are suitable for informing the officers within an organization of matters related to the firm.

A memo is pinned on the notice board of an organization if it is meant for everybody otherwise passed to the relevant staff.

vi) Notice

This is a written communication used to inform a group or the public about past current or future events.

It is usually brief and to the point. It can be
placed on walls, in public places, on trees, in newspapers or on notice boards.

viii) Reports

These are statements/within records of findings recommendations and conclusion of an investigation/research. A report is usually sent to someone who has asked for it for a specific purpose.

viii) Circulars

These are many copies of a single letter addressed to very many people when the message intended for each is the same.

ix) Agenda

This is an outline of the items to be discussed in a meeting.

It is usually contained in a notice to a meeting sent in advance to all the participants of the meeting.

The notice of the meeting contains;

• The date of the meeting

• The venue of the meeting

• Time of the meeting

• Items to be discussed

x) Minutes

These are records of the proceedings of a meeting.

Keeping minutes of certain meetings is a legal requirements e.g. companies Keeping minutes for other meetings are for management purposes to ensure that decisions made at the meetings are implemented

Advantages of written communication

• It can be retained for future reference

• Some like letters are relatively cheap(can produce many copies)

• It is suitable for confidential messages

• Allows for inclusion of fine details

• It is not prone to distortion of messages

• Can be used as evidence

• Can be addressed to many people.

Disadvantages of written communication

• It lacks personal appeal

• It takes time to prepare and reach the recipient


• Suitable for the literate only

• Immediate feedback may not be possible

• Does not offer room for persuasion and convincing

• It may be expensive because it involves a lot of paperwork and time.

• Not suitable if the sender and the receiver do not share a common language.

3) Visual Communication

This is the process of passing information by use of diagrams,
drawings pictures, signs, and gestures e.t.c

a) Photographs

A photograph is an image (visual representation of an object as it appeared at the time when the photograph was taken Photographs are self-explanatory and may not be accompanied by any
narration or explanation.

The recipient is able to get the message at a
glance.

b) Signs

Refer to marks, symbols, drawings or gestures whose purpose is to inform the public about such things as directions, distances, dangers and ideas.

Examples; road signs, traffic lights and danger signs on electricity poles

This means of communication can only be effective if the meaning of the sign used is understood.


Graphs; These are used to show and illustrate statistical information Charts; These are diagrams which show or illustrate the flow of an idea

e.g. an organization chart illustrates the whole organization structure indicating the chain of command

Advantages of visual communication

i) It can be used to pass confidential information

The information may be obtained at once

Disadvantages of visual communication

i) Can only be used by people who can see

ii) The information may be wrongly interpreted

iii) It may be an expensive method of communication

iv) Cannot be used for long distances

4) Audio-Visual communication

This is a form of communication in which messages are sent through sounds and signs.

This form of communication ensures that the receiver gets the message instantly.

It is suitable where both the sender and the receiver know the meaning of specific sounds and signs.

Means of Audio-visual communication

i) Television (TV): This is a device that transmits information inform of a series of images on a screen accompanied by sound.

It is a very effective method of communication since it combines the advantages of image and
sound

A television can be a very suitable means of sending urgent messages especially when it gives live coverage of events.

ii. Siren: This is a device used to produce a loud shrill sound accompanied by a flashing light. It is commonly used by the police, ambulances, and the fire brigade and security firms to alert the public of the danger involved e.g. the ambulance siren conveys the message that somebody is seriously sick and therefore other motorists should give way.


Advantages of Audio-visual communication

i) It reaches many people

ii) It is more appealing than other means of communication

iii) Reinforces verbal communication

iv) May have a lasting effect on the receiver

v) Suitable where receivers are illiterate.

Disadvantages of Audio-visual communication

i) It is suitable to those people who can interpret the messages correctly

ii) It is not suitable for confidential messages

iii) Preparation may take long.

5) Audio Communication

This is when the message is transmitted through sounds.

Examples include

i) A whistle; This is a device which is blown to produce a sharp shrill sound to alert or warn the public or employees in an institution.

It is normally used by security guards when there is danger.

In some organization, a whistle is used to announce change in shifts

ii) Horn; This is also an instrument that is used to produce sound which passes different information depending on the way it is blown.

Other methods of audio communication include drums, alarms, and bells among others

Advantages of Audio communication

i) Is a faster method of communication

ii) It can reach several people at once

iii) The message is received instantly

Disadvantages of Audio communication

i) The message may be interpreted wrongly

ii) It can only be used within a certain radius at a time

iii) It distracts people’s attention

Communication 1 | Communication 2 | Communication 3 | Communication 4 | Communication 5 | Communication 6 |

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