2017 Hindu Religious Education - Paper 2
1 a) Objects of Puja samogarithat are required for the performance of Havan.
ii. Cotton wick.
v. Havan samagari (mixture of herbs/ghee/dry roots).
viii. Samidha (wood).
xi. Red thread.
xiv. Money for guru dakshiria.
b) The benefits of the five kakaars (k) worn after Amrit Chhakna.
ii. Kesh — refers to uncut hair which is regarded as a symbol of saintli- ness/Dharma.
iii. Kanga — refers to a wooden comb which stands for purity/as hair needs to be combed. The individual could lead a pure life.
iv. Kada - steel bangle/symbol of perfection of character/is a reminder to the wearer of their role as spiritual / useful citizen.
v. Kirpan — refers to a sword — is an emblem of courage/self-respect and dignity/it symbolizes protection of Dharma which includes distortion of the Hindu culture and religion as well as standing up for the weak/down trodden and oppressed.
vi. Kachha — refers to a pair of shorts worn by both men/women, morally it stands for chastity/comfort/quick movement when necessary.
c) Importance of performing Sanskars.
i. Rites and rituals are important for sustenance of religion.
ii. It ensures continuity in the society.
iii. It marks different stages in human life.
iv. It brings the family/relatives together.
v. The mantras chanted have deep meanings.
vi. It disciplines life/mantras have effect on a person.
vii. It encourages one to follow the principles of Dharma.
2. a) Karmas done in three different states of mind
i. Abudh — this is done in ignorance/not punished in this or next life. ii. Abhan — done unintentionally/unconsciously done in sleep. iii. Nirhankar — it is done without any ego/unattached/not responsib1e/ not punished.
b) Ways in which Hindus can contribute towards a healthy society.
i. By keeping the environment clean.
ii. Through helping/practicing spiritual healing.
iii. Through guidance/counselling.
iv. By teaching yoga to overcome all these named above.
v. Through mantras/prayers — they relieve stress.
vi. By giving donations/act of charity.
vii. By supporting hospitals through offering services.
viii. By reporting all forms of crimes to the relevant authorities.
c) Examples of Vikarma Karmas.
ii. Wasting food.
iii. Cheating in exam.
iv. Nurturing someone/fighting in school.
v. Disrespecting parents.
vi. Being corrupt.
vii. Being lazy.
viii. Being selfish.
ix. Being greedy.
x. Being proud.
3. a) Reasons why Hindus celebrate Vyas Purnima.
i. It is an auspicious day for Guru puja
ii. On this day the disciples seek the blessings of their guru.
iii. Guru Purnima is celebrated to pay tribute to Maharishi Ved Vyas/it is his birthday.
iv. To remember all the hymns of the Vedas.
v. To revere eighteen Puramas/Mahabharat.
vi. To revere Guru Ved Vyas for the service he rendered to Hindu Dharma
vii. To remember the reconciliation of the Kshatriyas and the Bhrama- nas.
viii. To celebrate Ved Vyasji for the gift of Bhagwat — Gita
b) How Janmashtami Ustavis celebrated in Kenya.
i. On Janmashtami Hindus keep fast.
ii. On this day the Hindus dramatize/bring a small child in a basket at mid night.
iii. Devotees dance/welcome/sing/rejoice as if in Gokul/sprinkle colors
iv. In Kenya this day is celebrated in all the temples/individual/com- munal.
v. A cradle is decorated/children dramatize the episodes from the life of lord Krishna.
vi. After mid-night arti is done/Prasad of makhan (butter)/panjari/rice pudding are offered.
vii. Devotees rock the cradle which has Krishna’s Murh in it.
viii. All those present take prashad of butter and then break their fast.
ix. Hindus make donations.
c) Differences in celebrating the Jain festival of Paryushan and the festi- val of Navratri.
i. Paryushan falls in shravan, while Navratri is in Aswin.
ii. In Paryushan devotees listen to holy discourses while in Navratri they sing/rejoice.
iii. In Paryushan the devotees observe meditation where as in Navratri they praise Nav Durga.
iv. Jains abstain from entertainment while in Navratri entertainment is allowed.
v. In Paryushan the devotees asWseek for forgiveness while in Navratri devotees rejoice.
4. a) Importance of visiting the Ttrtha-kshetra Hazur Sahib.
i. Sikh pay pilgrimage on the bank of river Godavazi at Narided.
ii. Hazur Sahib is one of the five Takhate.
iii. Guru Gobind the tenth Guru passed on there.
iv. Also called sach-khand/Realm of Truth.
v. Siri Guru Granth is installed there.
vi. Guru Gobind Singh gave the status of eternal Guru to Granth Sahib at Hazur Sahib.
b) Rituals undertaken while on the tirthyatra to Amarnath.
i. The (devotees) pilgrims start trekking from pahalgam/shrinagar.
ii. Trekking continues for four days (45 km) three halts are made at Chandanwari/Sheshnag/Panchatami
iii. From Panchatarni journey starts early morning for six km
iv. On reaching there devotees have darshan of naturally formed ice Lingam/they then return to Panchtami for lunch.
v. Pay respect to the residing deities/continue to Wawjan to spend the fourth night out.
vi. They return to Pahalgam on the fifth day.
vii. The devotees sing bhajans/priests perform aarti/puja invoking the blessings of Lord Shiva
viii. The Yatra is mostlytaken in the month of Shravan
ix. Pilgrims go there barefoot, take minimum food or fast/perform austerities.
c) Importance of Bodh-gaya to Buddhists.
i. Bodh Gaya is considered the holiest place in India.
ii. There is River Niranjana in Bihar/Buddhists both in this.
iii. There is Mahabodhi Temple/houses a huge status of meditating Buddha covered in gold and orange garments
iv. Gaya is blessed by Lord Vishnu’s foot.
v. At Bodh gaya under the Boddhi tree the Sankhyamuri attained enlightment.
vi. There is Divine Energy/Links with Buddha.
5. a) Saints who contributed towards the development of Dharma during the medieval period.
i. Saint Kabir.
ii. Saint Namdev.
iii. Saint Tukaram.
iv. Saint Eknath.
v. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
vi. Shri Shamkracharya.
vii. Shri Ramanujacharya.
viii. Sant Vidyaranya.
ix. Shri Valla hacharya
b) The ways in which knowledge from Vedas is brought to Hindus in modern times.
i. Through discourses given by learned scholars.
ii. Visits by enlightened beings from the world.
iii. Books with the knowledge.
iv. Through internet.
v. With modern technology/attending courses online.
vi. Learning on/getting diploma through e-courses.
vii. Visiting universities which have the Vedas/Germany/Uk/USA/ India.
viii. Going to pilgrimage plates.
c) The ways in which Chaitanya Mahaprabhu restored the faith of Hin- dus in Parmatma.
i. During this period he taught people to keep absolute faith in Par- matma.
ii. He demonstrated love for all.
iii. He made Hinduism a religion of masses.
iv. The people were ready to die for their tradition.
v. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu sang songs glorifying Parmatma.
Vi. Chaitanya unified Hindus/Muslims.
V11. He spread his teachings far and wide.
Viii. He showed the path of Bhakti/travelling all over India.
ix. Many saints/heads of Vaishnava faith joined him/in spreading Bhakti he popularized Jap Yagna.
X. He removed inhibitions in devotees while singing and dancing.
Xi. He also motivated ISCON
6. a) Factors to be considered before building a temple.
i. Always built according to the scriptures again
ii. Land should be strong/stable.
iii. To be built according to Vastu Shastra/to survive thousands of years
iv. A hole is dug to check the stability of soil.
v. Bhoomi puja is done/forgiveness is asked of earth/all beings destroyed there in.
Vi. Donations are collected to build the temple.
vii. Silanayas is done/square slab of stone is put on which the temple is constructed.
viii. Land is purified, homage is paid to Vishrakarma, the supreme architect.
b) Hindu Functions that brings the communities together
i. Communal prayers
iii. Community rites and rituals
iv. Celebration of anniversary of enlightened beings
v. Social functions for Sanskars
vi. Religious discourses/religious camps/yoga camps
viii. National holidays
c) Reasons why the up- veda AyurVeda is the science of improving life
i. Teaches about the philosophy
ii. Teaches physical fitness
iii. Teaches about a balanced diet
iv. Recommends pranayama/correct way of breathing
v. Uses herbal and plant/roots medicines
vi. Confidentiality of patients to be preserved
vii. Plastic surgery was highly developed
viii. Treatment given by diagnosing pulse rate
ix. Gave knowledge of vat/pitt/cough
x. Promoted naturopathy.
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