# KCSE Past Papers Power Mechanics 2013

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4.5 POWER MECHANICS (447)

4.5.1 Power Mechanics Paper 1 (447/1)

SECTION A: (40 marks)

1 a) List three factors to be considered when putting up a motor vehicle spare parts shop. (3 marks)

b) Explain two reasons why it is important to study power mechanics. (2 marks)

2 a) State the full terms represented by the following engineering drawing abbreviations:

(i) CL;

........................................................................................................................ ..

(ii) Q;

.......................................................................................................................... ..

(iii) CSK;

..................................................................................................................... .. (iv) A/F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

(2 marks)

b) Name two classes of ﬁre and for each class, identify one appropriate commercial ﬁre extinguisher. - (2 marks)

3 a) State two advantages of self-tapping screws over ordinary screws. (2 marks)

b) (i) Sketch an adjustable spanner. (1 mark) (ii) State where long nose pliers may be used in a small engine. (1 mark)

4 a) Explain one purpose of each of the following energy convertors in a motor vehicle: (i) altemator; (1 mark)

(ii) photo voltaic cells. (1 mark)

b) State two effects of adding each of the following alloying materials to carbon steel:

(i) Nickel; (1 mark)

(ii) Molybdenum. (1 mark)

5. With the aid of sketches, differentiate between a 4 cylinder in line and a V-4 cylinder engine block. (4 marks)

6. Figure l shows a sectional view of a Wankel engine. Describe one cycle of its operation with reference to C and D. (4 marks)

7.(a) Name the main components of the power transmission system of a motor vehicle. (2 marks)

(b) Explain the reason why modern vehicles are designed with collapsible steering columns. (2 marks)

8. (a) Brieﬂy explain the process of hard soldering. (3 marks)

(b) Explain the following temts as used in drum brake operation:

(ii) trailing shoe. (2 marks)

9. (a) State the purpose of the ply-rating of a tyre. (2 marks)

(b) State two advantages of an independent suspension system over rigid beam suspension system. (1 mark)

10. Sketch a dipped beam light path having an offset ﬁlament and label its parts. (3 marks)

SECTION B: (60 marks)

11. Figure 2 shows an isometric view of a Vee block resting on one side.

Figure 2

Draw full size, in ﬁrst angle projection, the following views:

(a) front elevation in the direction of arrow W;

(b) end elevation in the direction of arrow X;

. (c) Plan.

(Use A3 paper provided)

12 Figure 3 shows a component of the power transmission system of a motor vehicle.

Figure 3

(a) Name the component.

(b) Name parts labelled A to G. (3 marks)

(c) Explain how the component operates. (11 marks)

13 With the aid of a labelled diagram, explain the operation of an overhead valve engine train whose camshaft is in the engine block. (15 marks)

14 With the aid of labelled diagrams, explain the operation of a four-stroke compression ignition system. (15 marks)

15 (a) State three advantages of disc brakes over drum brakes. (3 marks)

(b) Sketch a sectional diagram of a disc brake assembly and label six parts. (12 marks

4.5.2 Power Mechanics Paper 2 (447/2)

1 STATION 1

In the space below, sketch in good proportion a sectional view of a mechanical fuel pump Label four major parts. (10 marks)

2 STATION 2

Using the tools, equipment and materials provided, make the scoop shown in ﬁgure 2.

STATION 3

On the multi-coil clutch disc provided, perform the following operations:

(a) measure and record the:

(i) depth of the four marked rivets;

(ii) depth of the splines.

(b) Inspect the torsion spring for free play, or damage and comment

(c) Inspect the friction surface for its service condition and comment. (Let the examiner check your work)

STATION 4

Identify the measuring tools labelled K to P and for each tool write the accuracy and two areas where it is used.

P STATION 5

Using the tools and materials provided, connect a twin headlight parallel circuit controlled by a single switch. (10 marks)

Let the examiner check your work.

STATION 6

Identify the tools and fasteners labelled A to J and state one use of each. (10 marks)

STATION 7

On the single cylinder provided;

(a) Demonstrate to the examiner how to check the roundness of the camshaft using a dial gauge.

(b) Count the number of teeth on the crankshaft and the camshaft and calculate the gear ratio.

Crankshaft .......................... .. teeth

Camshaft .......................... .. teeth

Gear ratio .......................... .. teeth

(10 marks)

STATION 8

Can'y out a compression test on the single cylinder engine provided and record the reading in the space provided.

(Let the examiner check your work). (8 marks)

Comment on the state of the engine compression. (2 marks)

Comment:

STATION 9

Identify the parts labelled P to T. For each part, identify ONE defect and ONE possible effect

on vehicle performance. Complete the table below.

(10 marks)

STATION 10

Using the tools and materials provided perform the following operations on the mechanical fuel pump provided.

(a) Dismantle the fuel pump. (2 marks)

(b) Check the service condition of each of the following parts and comment on each.

(i) Inlet valve; (2 marks)

(ii) diaphragm. (2 marks)

(c) Assemble the pump and test it using the fuel provided. (4 marks)

(Let the examiner check your work)

5.5 POWER MECHANICS (447)

5.5.1 Power Mechanics Paper l (447/1)

SECTION A (40 marks)

1. (a) Factors to consider when putting up a motor vehicle, spare parts shop.

Areas/size the spare shop.

Number of motor vehicles within the chosen locality/demand for spare parts.

Neamess to garages.

Type of customers (small scale or large scale).

Nature of competition.

Accessibility.

Locality of suppliers.

Availability of staffl labour.

Infrastructure in the locality.

Local authority incentives eg. tax rebate

Cost of building.

b) Reasons for studying power mechanics.

It provides learners with knowledge, basic skills and attitudes used in industrial world to enable them to be market ready.

Prepares learners to be better consumer or producers of industrial goods and services.

To develop learner interest and talents that may lead to a vocation.

2 a) Abbreviations

CL - centre line

(Z) - diameter

CSK - counter sink

A/F - across ﬂats.

b) Fire Extinguishers

Class A - water hose

B - carbon dioxidel dry powder

- carbon dioxide

- foam extinguisher

3. a) Advantages of self-tapping screw

- They cut their own thread, when screwed into drilled holes. Therefott they can be used in holes with blind threads.

- They don’t get loose easily as ordinary screws do.

- Can be used to drill holes on soft materials.

(b) (i) Uses of long nose pliers

- Removing value retainer gudgeon pin circlip.

- Any other insertion in closed areas i.e. small clips and washers insertion.

4 (a) (i) Purposes of an alternator

- Converts mechanical energy from the engine

into electrical energy.

- Keeps battery charged and handles electrical loads while engine is running.

(ii) Purposes of photo voltaic cells

- They are used as detectors (e.g. ﬂame detectors) because they are operated through illumination.

(b) (i) Nickel - improves strength

- improves ductility

- improves toughness

(ii) Molybdenum - increases hardness

- increases resistance to acids

- increases toughness

5.

6. Operation

I-When only the exhaust port is open (as in the ﬁgure) the exhaust gases are forced out.

I-Further rotation of the rotor opens the inlet port and closes the exhaust port.

I-When ‘C’ closes the inlet port there is maximum intake of airl fuel mixture the mixture is compressed into a very small volume.

I-At maximum compression the mixture is ignited and the combustion force tum the rotor. The process is repeated for every face of the rotor. (4 marks)

7 a) Components of power transmission system.

- Clutch

- Gearbox

- Propeller shaft

- Differential unit

- Half shafts

- Final drive

b) - Modem vehicles are designed with collapsible steering columns as a protective measure. The steering column is made of two parts which are ﬁtted together in such a way that they can ‘telescope’ as the steering column collapses during a head-on collision, which throws the driver forward.

In the process, the steering column will absorb the energy of this forward movement and reduce the possibility of injury. (2 marks)

8. a) Hard soldering also called silver brazing is the type of soldering done using solder

which melts at high temperatures 600° C and 750° C)

- Clean the surface

- Apply ﬂux.

- Preheat the soldering bit

- Apply the correct soldering rod and heat dipped in ﬂux.

- Allow to cool and remove unwanted solder.

b) (i) ‘Leading’ shoe - it rotates in opposite direction to the brake disc. It provides of the braking.

(ii) ‘Trailing’ shoe - it rotates in same direction to the brake disc. It provides the braking force.

2 x 1 = 2 marks

9. a) Purpose of ply-rating of a tyre.

It indicates the load range and inﬂation limit v@ of the tyre.

b) Independent suspension system.

- provides more stability.

- lowers engine position or centre of gravity.

- effects on one wheel are not transmitted to the other wheel.

- Provides a more comfortable ride.

10.

11.
12. Solution

a) Differential unit

A- Pinion! or propeller shaft

B- Crown wheel

C- Differential casing

D- Planet wheel or differential pinions

E- Spider shaft

F-Sun wheel or side gears.

G- Half shaft

C) When vehicle is running straight propeller shaft turns the ring gear pinion shaft. The pinion tums the ring gear, which in turn revolves the differential casing When the casing tums, the differential pinion shaft tums with it .

As the differential pinions are mounted on this shaft, they are forced to move with the case®. Being meshed with the axle side gears, the pinions will pull the axle side gears along with them.

Therefore, when t-he car is moving straight, the ring gear is spinning.

The differential unit is moving like a solid unit because there is no movement between the teeth of the pinions and the axle side gears .

When vehicle is taking a turn.

The outer wheel has to move a greater radius than the inner wheel and must therefore be speeded to take the same time as the inner wheel®. As the inner wheel is slowed when vehicle is tuming, this increases resistance of its sun wheel .

The spider shaft is still being turned end over end at the crown wheel speed, and as the inner sun wheel slows the planet wheels are forced to rotate (or walk) on the spider shaft and about the inner sun wheel.

In so doing, the speed of the outer sun and the outer road wheel is increased in the same proportion as the speed of inner sun is reduced .

The torque is still divided equally between the two half shafts but their speeds are different.

When one wheel slips while the other is stuck to the ground.

- The casing continues spinning the pinions but they will merely walk around ® the stopped axle gear and impart the torque to the spirming axle.

13

Operation

The crankshaft tums the camshaft.

As the camshaft is tumed, the camlobe reaches an upright postion ® and lifts the tappet .

The ta t then pushes up the push rod. The pushrod movement makes the rocker arm to shivelgin its pivot at the rocker arm shaft thus pushing the valve downwards to open it (D at the same time compressing the valve spring .

As the valve opens, gases are allowed to either enter or exit the cylinder. Further rotation of the camshaft makes the cam to release pressure on the tappet and so both the tappet and the push rod and the valve are retumed to normal p0sition®by the pressure of the released valve spring. (8 marks)

14.

A (intake) -

- intake valve open

- exhaust valve closed

piston moving down

- air drawn in

B (compression) - Both valves close

- Piston moving up

- Air compressed

C (power) - Fuel injected in

- Both valves closed

- Piston moves downwards

D (Exhaust)

Diagram

- High combustion experienced (3 marks)

- Exhaust valve open

- Inlet closed

- Piston moves upwards

- Exhaust gases expelled

15

Piston

Culiper

Exposed to the atmosphere hence better at heat dissipation.

Are light in weight.

Are self cleaning on the surface due to the centrifugal forces.

Slower wear.

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