KCSE Past Papers IRE 2013
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4.4 ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (314)
4.4.1 Islamic Religious Education Paper 1 (314/1)
1. a) Discuss the challenges encountered in translating the Quran into other languages.
b) Describe the background to the revelation of Surah Al-ﬁi . (5 marks)
c) Describe how the Quran was preserved during the time of the four-rightly guided
Khalifas. - (6 marks)
2. a)State the moral teachings of Surah An-Nur. (10 marks)
b) Why is the Quran considered a perfect revelation? (5 marks)
c) State the importance of Surah Al-Fatiha. (5 marks)
3. a) Give ﬁve reasons that necessitated the collection and compilation of Hadizh after the
death of the Prophet (p .b.u.h). (5 marks)
b) State the methods used by the Prophet (p.b.u.h) to transmit Hadith. (8 marks)
c) The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said “seeking knowledge is an obligation on every Muslim”.
State the signiﬁcance of the above Hadith in eradicating illiteracy. (7 marks)
4. a) What are the beneﬁts of Swalatul Jamaa? (8 marks)
b) Describe the factors that led to the development of schools of thought (Madhahib).
c) Identify ﬁve items on which Zakat is not payable. (5 marks)
5. a)Discuss how the application of Hudud laws can reduce the rate of crime in the society.
b) Describe the various ways of performing Swalatul Musaﬁr. (6 marks)
c) State four contributions made by Imam Shafﬁ to Islamic Fiqh. (4 marks)
6. a)Give reasons why human beings need divine guidance. (8 marks)
b) Explain the importance of the belief in Qadar. (7 marks)
c)Outline ﬁve characteristics of the Angels of Allah.
4.4.2 Islamic Religious Education Paper 2 (314/2)
1. a) Discuss the effects of sexual perversions on the society. (8 marks)
b) State any ﬁve etiquettes of speech according to Islamic teachings. (5 marks)
c) Give the rationale for the prohibition of intoxicants in Islam. (7 marks)
2. a) Discuss the effects of terrorism on the society. (8 marks)
b) State the rights of a Muslim wife. (8 marks)
c) Identify four conditions to be fulﬁlled before the administration of the estate of a
deceased Muslim. (4 marks)
3.a) Explain the Islamic teachings on the acquisition and ownership of property.
b) Under what circumstances is a business contract considered invalid in Islam?
c) Describe ﬁve measures that can be taken to guard against hoarding. (5 marks)
4.a) Describe the lessons that Muslims can learn from the Prophet’s farewell speech.
b) In what ways did Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) encourage religious tolerance?
c) State the problems faced by Ali bin Abitalib during his caliphate. (6 marks)
5. a) Discuss the challenges faced by Muslims in practising Islam in Kenya. (7 marks)
b) State the achievements of the Fattimid dynasty. (7 marks)
c) Explain the contributions of Muslims to the development of culture in East Africa.
6. a)Discuss the contributions of Sheikh Al-Amin Mazrui to me development of Education
in East Africa. (10 marks)
b)Give a brief biography of Ibn Sina. (10 marks)
5.4 ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (314)
5.4.1 Islamic Religious Education Paper 1 (314/1)
l.(a) Challenges of translating the Quran into other languages.
Lack of competency in either of the languages.
Lack of competency in translation skills.
Inadequate vocabulary equal to the Arabic word in the other languages e.g.
Limitations in giving the full meaning of the word or phrase. -
Limited knowledge of other branches of Islam e.g. Seerah. hadith, ﬁqh. etc..
necessary for the translation of Quran.
Inability to capture the exact meaning of the Arabic text in the other languages.
Inability to maintain the rhythm. ﬂow and affection of Arabic text in the other
Subjectivity and personal prejudices of the translators(s).
Existence of certain words e.g. Kalala, (Q 4: 176), which do not have an
equivalent in other languages.
Existence of certain words e.g. ALIF LAAM MIIM which cannot be translated.
9 x l = 9 marks
(b) The background to the revelation of Surah Al-Fil.
This event happened in the year of Prophet‘s birth.
Abraha who was the govemor of Yemen on behalf of the King of Abyssinia.
built a house like the Kaaba and asked Arabs to go to it for pilgrimage instead of
An Arab man deﬁled the inside walls of the newly built structure with human
This angered Abraha and made him invade the Kaaba with his army using
The Makkans couldn't stop Abraha from attempting to destroy the Kaaba.
Abraha and his army were destroyed by Allah near Makka with birds carrying
stones of baked clay.
5 x 1 = 5 marks
(c) Preservation of the Quran during the time of the Khalifas.
Living companions of the Prophet had committed Quran into memory and that served
as the living copies of the Quran.
Individual companions had written portions of the Quran for personal use.
Quran, written on parchments and other materials was collected and compiled into one
copy during the time of Abubakar. This copy was kept under the custody of Hafswa.
Muslim scholars were sent by Caliph Umar (R.A) to different pans of Islamic state to
teach the Quran.
The Quran was harmonised using the Quraish dialect to overcome variations in
recitation and the copies thus produced and distributed to different cities during the time
of Caliph Uthman (R.A).
All un-ofﬁcial copies of the Quran in circulation were collected and bumt under the
instruction of Caliph Uthman.
The companions living in the era of the Caliphs recited, memorised into practice and
constantly taught the tabiun the Quran.
6 x 1 = 6 marks
2 a) Moral teachings of Surah An-Nur
The Surah highlights chastity which is a virtue for both men and women Q 24: 15 -16
highlights the punishment for sex offences e.g. fornicators to be given 100 lashes and
there must be witnesses when the punishment is being carried out.
Adultery is discouraged and Muslims are called upon to boycott adulterers and should
not have any relations with them Q 24:3.
Those who slander or create false allegations about sexual misconduct. those who
accuse others of adultery without evidence to be given 80 lashes and if they repent
thereafter then Allah will forgive them Q 24:4 - 5.
Husbands who accuse their wives of inﬁdelity without evidence should swear 4 times
and invoke the curse of Allah on themselves if the wives swear in the same way, then
they are acquitted. Q 24: 6 - 10.
The Surah lays down general principles regarding relations between Muslims that
should be based on faith and not suspicions. Q 24: 26
Believers are forbidden from entering houses of other people unless with permission.
Q24: 27 - 29.
Believers are wamed to be careful about false rumours because they can cause pain and
divisions among them. those who spread evil rumours deserve punishment and not
encouragement. Q 24: 11 - 16.
Marriage is encouraged among the single and pious even if they are slaves or poor as
Allah will enrich them.
Slavery is discouraged. Slave owners are asked to give ﬁnancial help to the slaves so
that they can eam their freedom. Prostitution by slave girls is also forbidden. Q 24:33
Muslim men and women should lower their gaze from looking at forbidden things and
shun illegal sexual acts.
Women are forbidden from revealing their adomment except to their husband and
Mahrim. Q 24: 30 - 31
Rules regarding coexistence and social relations are established, e.g privacy in the
home is encouraged servants and under age children should not enter private rooms
without permission especially before Fajr prayers, at noon and after Isha prayers.
Q 24: 58 - 59 -
Old women past child bearing age are permitted to set aside their outer garment within
the house. Q 24: 60.
Muslims are encouraged to treat the disabled kindly e.g. the blind, lame, crippled and
sick. are allowed to eat in other people‘s houses.
When entering other people's houses. it is good to offer greetings.
5 x 2 10 marks
b) Why the Quran is considered a perfect revelation.
It is a comprehensive legislation goveming all aspects of human life.
Its language and style are unique and cannot be imitated.
It lacks contradictions in its teachings.
It lacks human manipulation/omissions or additions.
The copies of the Quran in existence are all unifomi.
Allah promised to preserve it from all alterations or loss.
It has balanced teachings which answer to all human needs and problems.
lt addresses the past. present and future with all its prophecies coming true.
It is a divine miracle that ascenains the truth in the mission of all the revealed
It was revealed in its precise meaning and wording and transmitted by numerous
persons both verbally and in writing.
5 x 1 = 5 marks
Importance of Surah Al-Fatiha
It is the opening chapter of the Quran.
It must be read in each portion (Raka) of Salah without which Salah will be invalid.
It is the summary of the Quran. It contains all fundamental objectives of Islam.
It is a supplication which is an integral part of Muslim’s daily prayer.
Reciting it earns one rewards from Allah.
It was the ﬁrst Surah to be revealed as a whole.
It contains the seven most recited verses of the Quran.
5 x l 5 marks
3. a)Reasons that necessitated the collection and compilation of Hadith after the death of the
Memorises of hadith were dying of old age thus it was feared that hadith would perish
and thus it had to be compiled.
There was need to study hadith especially for the people who were not there during the
time of the Prophet (p.b.u.h).
The compilation of the Quran was complete thus there was no fear of tampering with
the purity of the Quran.
The Quran was already stored in people‘s memories and also copies circulated to the
There was need to compile Hadith so as to safeguard its purity and to avoid false hadith.
There was need to distinguish between authentic and weak hadith.
5 x 1 = 5 marks
b)Method used by the Prophet(p.b.u.h) "to transmit Hadith.
Through establishment of informal schools in the mosque where he taught his Sunnah.
Instructing his Sabahas to pass on knowledge to others e.g. He said, “pass on
knowledge from me even if it is only one verse". During the Hijatul Wida, He said,
“For those who are present should convey the message to those who are absent.”
It was common practice of the companions of the Prophet to tell those who are absent
about the Prophet‘s deeds and sayings. Delegates coming to Madina to see the Prophet
were ordered to teach their people when they retum.
Sending teachers to distant lands to teach Islam, e.g. Abdulla Ibn Makhtan and Musab
Ibn Umayr were sent to Madina before Hijrah to teach Islam. There were delegates also
delegates sent to Yemen in 9 A.H. to teach Islam.
Writing letters to various rulers explaining the fundamentals of religion and inviting
them to Islam.
Through practically demonstrating to his Sabahas e.g. how to perform Wudhu, Swalat,
Offering incentives for teachers and students which motivated them to leam and
practice his sunnah. e.g. on reward for students he said “that whoever searches for
knowledge. he will be forgiven his past sins“, on reward for teachers, he said, when
a man dies, all his actions comes to an end with three exceptions and one of them is
knowledge from which beneﬁts continues to be repeated. I
The prophet used threat of punishment e.g. he wamed people of dire consequences if
they remained ignorant, he also indicated punishment which will come on as a result of
being taught and not learning.
The prophet used to sit in the mosque and answer questions and he would at times test
the companions on different aspects of Islam.
He encouraged the Swahabas to learn his Sunnah through memorisation and practice of
his sayings and deeds.
8=x 1 8 marks
Signiﬁcance of the stated Hadith in eradicating illiteracy.
It makes education compulsory on everyone.
It makes it the duty of parents to teach their children or take them to school.
Islamic govemment and all stakeholders have a duty to avail education to the people.
Acquiring education merits reward.
One is rewarded for teaching.
Seeking knowledge is higher in status than ritual worship.
Islam encourages its followers to acquire all forms of beneﬁcial knowledge.
The learned person in Islam is considered superior to the illiterate person.
7 x l = 7 marks
Beneﬁts of Swalatul Jamaa.
Jamaa prayer rewarded more than prayers performed individually. (27 times more).
It enhances brotherhood in Islam.
It fosters a sense of unity among the Muslims.
It helps to break social classes or even racial barriers among worshippers.
Helps in promoting a higher sense of spiritual development. Muslims’ faith is
strengthened in Swalatul Jamaa.
Helps in development of punctuality and discipline in worshippers.
Builds a sense of collective responsibility among Muslims.
Praying in Jamaa is very much recommended in Islam.
It helps in strengthening social relations as people socialize and get to know each
' 8 x 1 8 marks
Factors that led to the development of schools of thought.
Differences in linguistic interpretation of the Quran where some scholars interpreted
some Quranic verses differently. This led to the evolvement of schools of thought.
The geographical spread of leading Muhadithin, these were spread all over the
Muslim world and taught people around them their views thus leading to the
evolvement of the schools of thought.
The question of who should be depended upon for authority, either those who grew up
in Madina and were conversant with the prophetic traditions of those from Kufa with
the best Sahabas and Tabiuns, in the interpretation of the Quran and Sunnah. This
created 2 groups which later grew into the 4 schools of thought. P
Issues came up and solutions could not be found either in the Quran or Sunnah; this led
to the scholars to exercise their ijmah so as to solve these issues and this led to the rise
of the schools of thought.
The expansion of Muslim empire where Islam spread far and wide and many people
converted to Islam. This led to the rise of different ideas which gave rise to the schools
Different scholars had their own views on various issues in Islam, this also contributed
to the rise of schools of thought.
Competition in acquiring knowledge which gave rise to different opinions among the
scholars also contributed to the rise of the schools of thought.
Spread of authentic hadith which led to the different applications and issues also
contributed to the rise of different applications and issues also contributed to the rise of
schools of thought.
Spread of hadith to different areas where weak/forged hadith came up and difference in
7 x 1 7 marks
Items on which Zakat is not payable.
Machine or engine used for manufacturing goods.
Animals used for transportation.
Women s jewellery for personal use which is below Nisab.
Personal clothes, fumiture, weapons, tools which are not for sale.
Books which are not for trade.
5 x l 5 marks
b)How the application of Hudud Laws can reduce the rate of crime in the society.
Punishments given for the sexual offences e.g. stoning for adultery and 100 lashes for
fomicators will act as a deterrent for these immoral acts.
Chopping off the hand will serve as a lesson to potential thieves and hence reduce the
vice. This will also act as a shame to the offender before the public thus minimizing a
repeat of the same.
Punishing the murderers by killing them will serve as a lesson that no human being has
the right to take the life of the other.
Since the murderer has to be killed, it will remain as a living lesson to the society not to
commit the crime.
The punishment for slander (80 lashes), which is carried out in public creates
awareness to all those who witness it of the severity of the crime and thus no one
would wish to be subjected to the same.
The punishment awarded for robbery with violence will instil not only fear but respect
for other peoples’ properties.
The fact that Hudud Laws cannot be manipulated by the state or individuals makes
people to refrain completely from such crimes.
5 x 2 10 marks
5 a) Ways of performing Swalatul Musaﬁr T
This is to bring foward a later prayer and performing it with the present prayer at the
time of the latter, e.g. bringing foward Asr prayer and performing it with Dhur prayer
or bringing foward Isha and praying it with Maghrib at Maghrib time with the intention
of Jam’u Taqdim.
This is delaying a present prayer and perfonning it with a later prayer at the time of
the latter e.g. delaying Dhuhr prayer and performing it with Asr prayer at the time of
Asr or delaying Maghrib and praying it with Isha prayer with the intention of J am‘u
This is the act of shortening four Ra.kaat prayers to two Rakaats with the intention of
3 x 2 = 6 marks
c) Contributors of Imam Shafﬁ to Islamic Fiqh
He was recognized as a scholar at the age of 15 years and was authorised by the
prominent scholars of Makka to give fatwa on religious issues.
He was a well-known teacher and used to give lectures in the grand mosque in
Makkah, he also travelled to Egypt where he taught students.
He was the founder of the Shafﬁ Madh’hab (Shafﬁ School of Thought).
He wrote several books which include Kitab-al-Risala, Kitab-al-Umm.
He accepted Ijmah as a source of Shariah as long at it involves the whole community.
He also looked at religious matters with an independent legal reasoning.
He was a distinguished scholar in Arabic language and commentary on the Quran. a
skillful debater and a keen teacher.
He studied the viewpoints of the Hanaﬁ school of thought and the Muhtazilite doctrines
which contributed to the development of Fiqh.
4 x 1 = 4 marks
6. (a) Reasons for divine guidance.
To guide mankind to the will of Allah.
To provide mankind with the knowledge of Tawheed and the attributes of Allah. Such
knowledge helps mankind to avoid false worship/Shirk.
To provide mankind with the knowledge of the Unseen e.g. hereafter, Angels. Paradise
To direct people to the true worship of Allah.
To provide believers with hope for the future and wam the disbelievers of the
punishment of Allah.
To restore the authentic message of God to humanity and guard it against corruption
Provide regulations in human life that guarantee prosperity in this world and in the
To provide mankind with skills and knowledge so as to execute his mandate as Allah's
vicegerent on earth.
Helps man to understand and appreciate God as the essence behind all the events that
8 x l= 8 marks
Importance of the belief in Qadar.
It makes one to recognize the power and authority of Allah over His creatures.
It brings about acceptance of life situations whether good or bad as being part of the
will of Allah.
It encourages Muslims to exercise patience when afﬂicted by calamities.
It encourages Muslims to be contented with what they get in life as part of Allah's
As one of the pillars of Imam. believers in Qadar earn rewards from Allah.
It makes Muslims distinguish what is in human's domain and what is in the realm of
Allah S.W. e.g. human beings plant crops but whether the crops will grow and mature
is left to Allah.
It helps the believers to rely solely on Allah.
Understanding the concept of Qadar frees a believer from the danger of resigning to
Qadr, is a pillar of Imam without which one’s beliefs is incomplete.
7 x l 7 marks
.(c) Characteristics of the Angels of Allah
They are free from sins.
They are created from light.
They are gender neutral.
They neither drink nor eat.
They have no material bodies.
They cannot deviate from God's commands.
They have no physical desire, e.g. sleep.
They don’t have a will of their own.
5 x 1 = 5 marks
5.4.2 Islamic Religious Education Paper 2 (314/2)
1. (a) Effects of Sexual perversions on the society:
Moral decadence in the society, because people engage in immoral acts such as
Zina which is fulﬁlling one ’s desires outside the acceptable llOl‘lTlS e.g. sexual
desires should only he fulﬁlled when one is legally married.
Sexual perversions neglects the noble objectives of sex to a mere gratiﬁcation of
It reduces reproduction since sexual perverts may not play their role as spouses
according to the Shariah. -
It leads to the breakdown of marriage as the basic unit of the Muslim family’;
It leads to the spread of sexual transmitted (Stds) such as I-IIV/AIDS
It causes poverty in the society as resources are diverted from their proper use;
It reduces economic productivity since many parents spend working hours in
their pursuits of fulﬁlling their desires e.g. watching pomography.
It increases the number of crimes in the society eg. rape, incest. etc.
It is a major reason for incest.
Innocent children are abused to satisfy such perversions e.g child prostitutions.
pomography and paedophile.
lt attracts punishment from Allah in this world and in the hereafter
Children whose parents engage in immoral acts may suffer due to negligence.
8 x l = 8 marks
Etiquettes of speech according to Islamic teachings.
A person should either say what is good and beneﬁcial or remain silent:
A person‘s speech should be based on truth. The prophet (p .b.u.h) said "speak
the truth even if it is bitter’;
A person‘s speech should guarantee the safety of others;
Speech should be used for remembrance of Allah (dhikr) and promotion of
general good e.g giving of charity and reconciliation;
Speech should not involve slander, lies, back biting or giving false witnesses or
Two people should not speak alone isolating a third person when they are
together to avoid suspicion or ill feeling;
In speech, Muslims should avoid useless and hurtful jokes and vain talks:
Avoid use of obscene language such as abuses and insults;
Avoid using curses in speech.
Avoid harsh speech or speaking in a loud voice or tone except when forbidding
wrong or enforcing laws of Allah.
5 x I =5 marks
(c) Rationale for the prohibition of intoxicants in Islam:
Intoxicants are the mother of all vices and since those who consume intoxicants
are prone to vices such as adultery, fomication, theft as a result of addiction
2 (a) Effects of terrorism on the society
Prayers of a Muslim who consumes alcohol (khamr) will not be accepted by
many families are destroyed by intoxicants e.g. absentee and irresponsible
parents who spend their time drinking alcohol hence neglecting their parental
drunkards and drunk addicts commit crimes e.g theft so as to sustain their
intoxicants are harmful to the health and well being of a human being e.g. can
lead to diseases such as liver cirrhosis, anxiety, brain damage e.t.c.
consumption of alcohol has led to loss of many lives through road accidents;
consumption of intoxicants leads to wastage of time and money as much time is
wasted in bars and money wasted in buying the intoxicants.
leads to negligence of children by parents, the children become delinquents and
a burden of society.
leads to divorce as a result of failure to fulﬁll conjugal rights and providing
one who uses intoxicants is cursed according to the Prophet (S.A.W)
7 x 1 = 7 marks
Terrorist actions create fear and despondence in the society. Members of the
society remain constantly threatened by the fact that terrorist attacks have no
speciﬁc time or place and hence are downcasted;
Members of the society lose trust in each other and some take this opportunity to
strike others because of suspicion rather than concrete reasons;
Different segments of the society may end up hating each other hence creating
permanent hatred in the society which may lead to ﬁghts;
members of the society are deprived the right of living peacefully and in
tranquillity because of the ﬁghts which may erupt as a result of the hatred;
Development in the society is hindered as people who are subjected to this
hatred due to terrorist actions cannot join hands in building the nation.
As a result of the attacks from the terrorists, innocent people are victimised
either by the govemment or other quarters in the name of ﬁghting terrorism.
Property is destroyed and lives are lost in the case of a terrorist attack. e.g
Investors are threatened by the attacks as a result of which they run away from
our societies hence melting down the economy.
People who practice terrorism portray themselves as bad people and are aways
cut off from the society.
certain fundamental rights and freedom are deprived of the people who
deserve them e.g. subjecting extra vetting to people who want to have their
identity cards, passports and other documents or even denying them completely.
8 x 1 = 8 marks
Rights of a Muslim wife
To receive Mahr (dowry) from the husband.
To receive maintenance (nafaqah) in form of food, clothing, shelter and medical
Equal and fair treatment from the husband especially, if he is married to more
than one wife (Q 2:228).
Right to conjugal intimacy.
Has a greater right to the custody of children (especially minors) at the
dissolution of marriage and to receive maintenance of this service.
Right to keep and dispose any property she earns through her effort or that i
which she may have inherited from her relatives.
Right to inherit from her deceased husband.
Right to be consulted on decisions that affect her. e.g marriage of the daughters.
Respect for her close relatives. e.g her parents, siblings etc.
Right to retain her identity i.e retain her sumame.
b) Conditions to be fulﬁlled before the administration of the estate
Payment of debts;
Payment of funeral expenses;
Execution of the will left by the deceased;
Settlement of personal liabilities;
Settlement of Zakat which is due.
4 x 1 = 4 marks
Islamic teachings on the acquisition and ownership of property
Every person has aright to acquire and own property legally;
Islam sanctions acceptable ways of acquiring property i.e, in trade, inheritance,
gifts and work.
Islam prohibits illegal ways of acquiring property e.g hoarding, monopoly and
Islam forbids one to take what belongs to others without their permission e.g
stealing, robbery or deceit.
All property belongs to Allah and is held in trust by mankind.
One should pay religious dues on property such as Zakat.
A person should avoid extravagant use of resources and property.
One should use his property for the beneﬁt of the community.
A person should avoid the usage of property for harmful purposes.
One should not acquire harmful things and substances e.g wine, narcotics,
magical tools etc.
One should abide by the rules and laws of the country in ownership and
acquisition of property e.g. in Kenya it is prohibited to own elephant tusks.
8 x 1= 8 marks
(b) Circumstances under which a business contract is considered invalid in Islam
c) A sale is not valid unless there is an offer by the seller and acceptance by the
buyer or his agent.
The transaction is invalid ‘if the offer and acceptance do not correspond i.e if
the offered ‘price’ is one thousand and the buyer ‘accepts’ for ﬁve hundred.
A sale is invalid if the offer or acceptance is made conditional upon an event
outside the agreement e.g ‘I sell it to you. should the rain fall.’
Parties to the contract must have reached the age of puberty and are sane. It is
not a must that both are Muslims. _
Parties to the contract must not be forced to make the business contract. c
A business contract should not involve something that is impure in itself
(najasa) e.g sale of pigs.
It is invalid to transact something which is not useful or unlawful e.g poison,
It is not valid to sell other people’s properties without their permission.
Any business contract or transaction that involves riba (interest) is invalid
It is not valid to make a transaction or contract that includes an invalid
stipulation e.g I buy your house provided you divorce your wife.
7 x 1 = 7 marks
Measures taken to guard against hoarding
Open markets for competition and avoid monopoly.
Creating awareness in the society on the hannful effects of hoarding.
Introduction of stiff penalties (Taazir) against hoarders.
Boycotting businesses of the people who practice hoarding.
Naming and shaming hoarders.
Instilling values such as honesty and fair business practices in the people
Reminding business people on the importance of fearing Allah (Taqwa) in all
their transactions and the punishment that await the hoarders in the hereafter.
5 x 1 = 5 marks
Lessons from the farewell speech of the Prophet
Taking of interest is unlawful.
All blood feuds were abolished.
Kind treatment to wives.
Brotherhood among Muslims was encouraged.
Sanctity of private property.
Oppression and injustice are prohibited.
Adherence to the teaching of the Quran and Sunnah.
Fair treatment of Servants and Slaves.
Equality of all believers in the sight of Allah.
Propagation of Islamic teachings to others.
Avoidance of all sins.
8 x 1 = 8 marks
(b) Ways in which Prophet Muhammad (P.b.u.h) encouraged religious tolerance
He accorded non Muslims freedom of worship expression association and
He did not compel others to change their religion.
He was a living example of nobility and humanity to both Muslims and non
He projected his exemplary character and actions that won the hearts of non
The prophet never insulted anyone or retaliated even u_nder extreme provocation.
He never oppressed or persecuted anyone because of their faiths. ’
He declared that other peoples’ places of worship are sacred.
He taught against abusing other religions and their gods.
He advocated for fair treatment of prisoners of war.
6 x 1 = 6 marks
(c) Problems faced by Caliph Ali (R.A)
The strong opposition from Muawiya and his group.
Lack of support from the govemors who were appointed by Uthman (R.A).
The emergence of different groups in Islam e.g Kharijites, Shias et.c.
Civil wars which broke out during his caliphate i.e battle of Jamal. battle of
The underground activities of the Munaﬁqun to undem1ine the Caliph.
Neutrality of many companions which led to lack of support for Ali e.g Ibn
Abbas. Ibn Umar e.t.c.
Existence of the Murderers of Uthman (R .A) in Alis camp denied him support of
The support of Aisha. the widow of the prophet, to Muawiyah made many
people to join the camp of Muawiyah.
6 x l = 6 marks
(a) Challenges faced by Muslims in practising Islam in Kenya.
Infringement of freedom to practice Islam among students in some schools. For
example some schools ban the wearing of hijab by Muslim girls. Others schools
do not allow their students to go for prayers or force them to go to church.
Muslims are denied full rights as citizens of this country e.g denial of l.D cards.
passport and birth certiﬁcates to genuine Kenyan citizens who are Muslims.
Sometimes the govemment imposes strict conditions for Muslims in acquiring
Discrimination on employment opportunities, both in the public and private
Lack of education institutions to promote Muslim educational needs such as
Muslim schools. colleges and universities.
Harassment by state organs such as police on suspected Muslim.
Scarcity of of Muslim-owned mass-media to cater for publicity and propagation
needs e.g Newspapers, radio and T.V stations.
Scarcity of Muslim professionals and trained manpower in all disciplines
including I.R.E teachers.
Closure of Muslim intemational charity and NGOs by the govemment which
left a vacuum in meeting the needs of Muslims in education and social welfare.
False accusation of Muslims as terrorists by virtue of their dress code or
Muslims being arrested without the due process of law being followed e,g being
conﬁned in police custody without charge in court or legal representation.
Illegal rendition to foreign countries without due process of law.
7 x l = 7 marks
The achievements of the Fattimid dynasty
Improvement of infrastructure e.g. the building of bridges, buildings and canals
The fatimids established Al-Azhar University, which became one of the earliest
institutions of higher learning in the world.
They founded Darull-likma which had a library and facilitated the growth of
Muslim scholars and Islamic scholarship.
They patronized Muslim scholars in various sciences e.g Ali b. Hassan al-
Haitham who became a great physist and Optician.
They promoted the development of Islamic architecture with great distinction
e.g. the great mosque of Al-Azhar.
The fattimids also excelled in other aesthetic sciences such as arts, Muslim
drawings, design, ceramics and curvings.
They established a strong naval force which helped in defending the dynasty
from extemal threats.
Fatimids extended the territorial spread of Islam to other countries such as to
Syria, Palestine and Hijaz.
The fattimids distinguished themselves as most tolerant to other Muslims who
did not belong to shia faith.
’ 7 x 1 = 7 marks
The contributions of Muslims to the development of culture in East Africa
They have contributed towards the growth of Kiswahili language which is
greatly inﬂuenced by Arabic spoken by the early Muslims.
) Muslim have shaped the dietary habits and regulation of East Africa e.g the
eating of halal foods and the introduction of Muslim recipes.
The manner of dressing of East African peoples has been signiﬁcantly
inﬂuenced by Muslims. For example the introduction of Koﬁa and Kanzu for
males as well as buibui or hijab for women. A new concept of covering
nakedness (awrah) was also put in place.
Muslims have also inﬂuenced the material culture of this region e.g architectural
designs (such as minaret), art and craft, music, songs e.g poems and didactic
compositions (maulid barzanji).
Muslims have intermarried with other East African, people. This has promoted good
neighbourliness and peaceful co-existence.
Introducing new regulations on interpersonal relations such as mahrim (close relatives).
Introduction of new calibre of leaders and specialists who replaced the old/traditional
ones e.g ulama, kadhis and political leaders.
Introduction of new ceremonies and festivals such as Idd, Juma, nikah ceremonies.
Introduction of new belief system and ritual worship e.g belief in Allah alone; salat,
6 x 1 = 6 marks
The contribution of Sheikh AL-Amin Mazrui to the development of education in
He was a Muslim scholar and are former, Shiekh Al-Amin carried out
educational work to change the educational backwardness of Muslims in the
He opened his own private school where he taught students from all- over East
Africa on various disciplines of Islamic studies. Examples of his students
include Sheikh Abdallah Sale] al-Farsy and Sheikh Muhammad Kasim Mazrui.
He used to offer mosque darsas to urge Muslims not only to take Islamic
education seriously but also westem education. He also taught many students in
madrasas and mosques at the coast.
He defended the pursuit of westem education as being not contrary to Islamic
teaching by arguing on the basis of such hadith of the prophet which urged
Muslims to seek knowledge even if in China.
He encouraged Muslim women to seek education, especially religious
He is credited for the opening of the ﬁrst Arab school for the teaching of
He championed for the inclusion of Arabic in public schools.
He had in his personal library many books on Islam and donated most of them
to public libraries.
He wrote many books both in Arabic and Kiswahili on a variety of Islamic
topics to meet the educational needs of the Muslims. Examples include
Hidayatul Atfal (“Guidance of Children) and Masoma Ya Dini (“Religious
He promoted the teaching of Islamic Religious Education in Schools.
5 x 2 = 10 marks
b)Biography of Ibn Sina
His full names are Abu Ali al-Hussein Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina.
He was bom in 980 A.D at Afshana near Bukhara.
He received his early education in Bukhara.
By the age of 10. he was well versed in the study of the Quran and other
He studied philosophy by reading various Greek and Islamic books.
He also studied logic from a famous Philosopher called Abu Abdalla Natili.
He attained the degree of expertise in medicine while still young.
He mastered theology. physics, medicine and maths at the age of I6.
He gained wide fame for physics.
He was consulted by medical practitioners on the profession
He taught medicine and philosophy at Asfahan. _
He wrote extensively both in medicine and philosophy .eg AL-Qanun-Fi-tib
(canon of Medicine) which was a reference book in european
universities until the 17"‘ century.
He harmonised the Greek based Philosophy with Islamic teachings.
? He died in the year 1037 A.D at the age of 57 years and buried at Hamadan.
He is considered to be the greatest philosopher of Islam.
5 x 2 = 10 marks
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