KCSE Past Papers History 2014 

Click Here - Free KCSE Past Papers » KNEC Past Exams » Free Downloads » KCSE Papers & Marking Schemes

3.8 History & Government (311)

3.8.1 History & Government Paper 1 (311/1)

Section A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section.

1 Give two ways in which archaeologists identify a pre-historic site. (2 marks)

2 Identify one natural factor that caused the Abagusii to migrate from Mount Elgon region to their present homeland. (1 mark)

3 State the main factor that contributed to the growth of city-states along the Kenyan coast before 1500 A.D. (1 mark)

4 Give one way in which the translation of the Bible into vernacular languages facilitated the spread of Christianity in Kenya. ( 1 mark)

5 Give one economic responsibility of a Kenyan citizen. (1 mark)

6 Give one economic factor that promotes national unity in Kenya. (1 mark)

7 Identify one way in which elders resolve conflicts in the community. (1 mark)

8 State two similar grievances of the Taita Hills Association and the Ukamba Members Association to the colonial government. (2 marks)

9 Outline two ways in which the ex-soldiers of the second world war contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya. (2 marks)

10 What was the main contribution of Prof. Wangari Maathai to the development of Kenya‘? (1 mark)

11 State two functions of the Supreme Court in Kenya. (2 marks)

12 Give two qualifications that a person must fulfill in order to be allowed to register as a voter in Kenya. (2 marks)

13 State two functions of the secretary to the cabinet in Kenya. (2 marks)

14 Name the two branches of the national police service in Kenya. (2 marks)

15 Give one reason for the adoption of Harambee strategy in Kenya after independence. (1 mark)

16 Identify two types of land ownership in Kenya. (2 marks)

17 Give the main function of the Commission on Revenue Allocation in Kenya. (1 mark)

Section B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section.

18 (a)Identify the three Luo groups Which migrated into Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (3 marks)

(b)Describe the political organization of the Luo during the pre-colonial period. (12 marks)

19 (3)State three methods used by the British to establish colonial rule in Kenya. (3 marks)

(b)Explain six problems experienced by the Imperial British East African Company to establish colonial rule in Kenya. (12 marks)

20 (a)Give three reasons Why Africans Were put in reserves during the colonial period. (3 marks)

(b)Explain six problems faced by Africans working for the European settlers during the colonial period. (12 marks)

21 (a)State three challenges that have undermined government efforts to eradicate illiteracy in Kenya since independence. (3 marks)

(b)Discuss six factors that have facilitated industrialization in Kenya since independence. (12 marks)

Section C (30 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section.

22 (a)State five decisions reached at after the first Lancaster House Conference of 1960. (5 marks)

(b)Describe five main features of the Constitution of Kenya. (10 marks)

23 (a)Give five reasons why human rights are important. (5 marks)

(b)Explain five functions of the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights. ( 10 marks)

24 (a)State five qualifications of a presidential candidate in Kenya. (5 marks)

(b)Explain five functions of the National Assembly in Kenya.(10 marks)

3.8.2 History & Government Paper 2 (311/2)

Section A (25 marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

1 Give two methods used by elders to pass information to the young generation on History and Government in the traditional African communities. (2 marks)

2 State two disadvantages of using caves as shelters by the early human beings during the stone Age Period. (2 marks)

3 State two negative effects of the land enclosure system in Britain during the 18th century. (2 marks)

4 Give the main reason why camel was preferred as the means of transport during the Trans-Saharan Trade. (1 mark)

5 Outline one role that was played by the middlemen during the Trans-Atlantic Trade. (1 mark)

6 Give two benefits of the development of the railway transport in Europe during the 19th Century. (2 marks)

7 State two advantages of using fire and smoke signals to pass messages in traditional societies. (2 marks)

8 State two ways in which the growth of the city of Cairo was influenced by the River Nile. (2 marks)

9 Identify one symbol of unity in the Shona Kingdom during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)

10 State one way in which the acquisition of firearms enabled the king of Buganda to expand during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)

11 Name the leader of the Lozi who collaborated with the British in the late 19th Century. (1 mark)

12 Identify two European activities in Africa during the 19th century. (2 marks)

13 Outline two similar methods used to recruit African labor in the British and French colonies in Africa. (2 marks)

14 State one economic problem that was experienced by the British colonialists in Nigeria. (1 mark)

15 Name the political party that led Ghana to independence from Britain in 1957. (1 mark)

16 Name the country that was blamed for the outbreak of the First World War. (1 mark)

17 Give the main reason why the United States of America adopted the Marshall plan after the Second World War. (1 mark)

Section B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section.

18 (a)State three characteristics of microlithic tools used during the Late Stone Age Period. (3 marks)

(b)Explain six challenges faced by early humans in hunting and gathering activities. (12 marks)

19 (a)Give three uses of electricity in Europe during the l9th Century. (3 marks)

(b)Explain six factors Which promoted industrial development in lndia. (12 marks)

20 (a)Outline three reasons Why the policy of assimilation Was easily applied in the four communes in Senegal. (3 marks)

(b)Explain six effects of the British direct rule in Zimbabwe. (12 marks)

21 (a)State three political causes of instability in the Democratic Republic of Congo between 1960 and l965. (3 marks)

(b)Describe six social developments that have taken place in Tanzania since independence. (12 marks)

Section C (30 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section.

22 (a)Identify five main organs of the United Nations. (5 marks)

(b)Explain five Ways through Which the United Nations promotes peace in the World. (10 marks)

23 (a)State five functions of the Commission of the African Union. (5 marks)

(b)Discuss five achievements of the Pan-African Movement. (10 marks)

24 (a)Give five responsibilities of the state government in the United States of America (5 marks)

(b)Explain five functions of the cabinet in India. (10 marks)

4.8 History & Government (311)

4.8.1 History & Government Paper 1 (311/1)

Section A (25 marks)

1. Give two ways in which archaeologists identify a pre-historic site.

(i) Existence of a collection of artefacts/tectonic forces/erosion.

(ii) Evidence of burial sites/cultivation/construction/fossils.

(iii) Evidence of ruins of settlements/vision.

(iv) Evidence of alt/ paintings.

(v) Historical research and documentation.

(vi) Use of experience and skill.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

2. Identify one natural factor that caused the Abagusii to migrate from Mount Elgon region to their present homeland.

(i) Due to famine.

(ii) Due to disease.

(iii) Due to drought.

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

3. State the main factor that contributed to the growth of city-states along the Kenya coast before 1500 AD.

Trade between the Coast and the outside world. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

4. Give one way in which the translation of the Bible into vernacular languages facilitated the spread of Christianity in Kenya.

(i) The local people could read the Bible.

(ii) It created better understanding of the teaching of the Bible.

(iii) More Africans could identify themselves with Christianity.

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

5. Give one economic responsibility of a Kenyan citizen.

(i) Participating in development activities.

(ii) Paying taxes.

(iii) Engaging in income generation.

(iv) Protecting the environment.

(v) Fighting corruption.

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

6. Give one economic factor that promotes national unity in Kenya.

(i) Equitable distribution of resources.

(ii) Commercial interaction/ trade.

(iii) Equal employment opportunities.

(iv) Use of a common currency.

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

7. Identify one way in which elders resolve conflicts in the community.

(i) through arbitration.

(ii) through mediation.

(iii) through conciliation/reconciliation.

(iv) negotiation.

(Any 11 x 1 : 1 mark)

8. State two similar grievances of the Taita Hills Association and the Ukamba Members Association to the colonial government.

(i) They resented land alienation by the White settlers.

(ii) They were against destocking order by the government.

(iii) They protested forced labour.

(iv) They Were against taxation.

(Any 2 X 1 = 2 marks)

9. Outline two ways in which the ex-soldiers of the second world war contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya.

(i) They were instrumental in the formation of the Mau Mau movement.

(ii) They trained freedom fighters in war tactics.

(iii) They waged armed struggle against the colonial government.

(iv) They made Weapons used in the struggle.

(v) They dispelled the myth of European supremacy.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

10. What was the main contribution of Prof. Wangari Maathai to the development of Kenya?

Environmental conservation/ Tree planting. (Any 1 x 1 : 1 mark)

11. State two functions of the supreme court in Kenya.

(i) To hear/ determine disputes relating to the election of the President of Kenya.

(ii) To hear/ determine appeals from the Court of Appeal/ other courts/ tribunals.

(iii) To give an advisory opinion concerning County Governments.

(iv) To handle any case/ issue which has to do with the interpretation/ application of the constitution.

(v) To review the certification made by the Court of Appeal on a matter of general public importance.

(vi) To make rules for the exercise of its jurisdiction.

(Any 2 X 1 = 2 marks)

12. State two qualifications that a person must fulfill in order to be allowed to register as a voter in Kenya.

(i) Must be a Kenyan citizen.

(ii) Must be 18 years old or above.

(iii) Must be of sound mind.

(iv) Not been convicted of an election offence during the period preceding 5 years.

(Any 2 x 1 : 2 marks)

13. State two functions of the Secretary to the cabinet in Kenya.

(i) He/ she is in charge of cabinet office.

(ii) Keeps minutes of the cabinet.

(iii) Arranging the business of the cabinet/Agenda.

(iv) Convey decisions of the cabinet to appropriate authorities/ persons.

(v) Executes directives of the cabinet.

(Any 2 x 1 : 2 marks)

14. Name the two branches of National Police Service in Kenya.

(i) The Kenya Police Service.

(ii) The Administration Police Service.

(Any 2 x 1 : 2 marks)

15. Give one reason for the adoption of Harambee strategy in Kenya after independence.

(i) To pool the scarce resources together.

(ii) To eradicate poverty among the people.

(m) To promote unity among the people.

(Any 1 x 1 : 1 mark)

16. Identify two types of land ownership in Kenya.

(i) Public land.

(ii) Community land.

(iii) Private land.

(Any 2 x 1 : 2 marks)

17. Give the main function of the commission on Revenue Allocation in Kenya.

To ensure equitable sharing of revenue between National and County governments/ among County governments. (1 mark)

Section B (45 marks)

l8. (a) Identify the three Luo groups which migrated into Kenya during the pre-colonial period .

(i)Joka - Jok

(ii)Joka - Owiny

(iii)Joka - Omolo.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Describe the political organization of the Luo during the pre-colonial period.

(i)The family was the lowest unit and its head was the father who was referred to as Jaduong’.

(ii)Several related families formed a clan.

(iii)There were lineage councils (Buch Dhoot) which settled domestic issues.

(Iv)A council of elders existed in the clan which was responsible for settling inter- family disputes called Doho.

(v)Clans were grouped together to form Oganda headed by a chief elder (Ruoth/ Gweng’).

(vi)There existed a council of elders (Buch Piny) which comprised of representatives from each clan and mainly settled inter-clan disputes.

(vii)There was a class of warriors (Thuondi) headed by a war leader (Osumba Mrwayi) and its main responsibility was to defend the community.

(viii)The Luo was a decentralized community as they did not have an overall leader.

(IX)Religious leaders eg. diviners, medicine-men, healers, rainmakers etc influenced their politics.

(Any 6 points well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

19.(a)State three methods used by the British to establish colonial rule in Kenya.

(i)They used military force.

(ii)They signed treaties/ agreement with some African rulers/ collaborations diplomacy.

(III)They used divide and rule tactics.

(Iv)They lured Africans with gifts/ presents/treachery.

(v)They established bases of operation/company rule.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six problems experienced by the Imperial British East Africa Company in Kenya.

(i)There was scarcity of mineral wealth and profitable export commodities which made it difficult for the company to generate enough wealth to meet the cost of administration.

(ii)There was poor transport network which made movement of goods slow/ difficult/ expensive thereby making the enterprise less profitable.

(iii)There was lack of proper co-ordination between the company headrIIIa"ers in Britain and the officials in Kenya hence delays/ waste and mis

(iv) The company officials lacked the experience which was necessary for the success of the administration in the protectorate.

(v) Some of the company officials were corrupt and therefore concentrated on their personal enrichment at the expense of the enterprise.

(vi) Resistance from the local communities posed a great challenge to the company as it had to administer and at the same time suppress the communities.

(vii) There was inadequate capital to carry out its operations thus making the administration of the protectorate ineffective.

(viii) Unfavorable climatic conditions tropical diseases claimed lives of some of the company personnel.

(ix) Lack of enough personnel.

(x) Rivalry from German East Africa affected its operations.

(Any 6 points well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

20. (a) Give reasons Why Africans were put in reserves during the colonial period.

(i) To create a pool of African labour for settler farming Europeans/ public works.

(ii) To avail land/ create space for white settlement.

(iii) To restrict the movement of Africans.

(iv) For easy control/ monitoring of African activities.

(v) For easy control of African nationalism.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six problems faced by Africans working for the European settlers during the colonial period.

(i) They were paid low wages which could hardly meet their expenses thereby making them lead squalor/ impoverished lives.

(ii) The living conditions were poor as they were crowded in residential houses with inadequate sanitation.

(iii) The working conditions were very difficult as they were sometimes mistreated whipped.

(iv) They were subjected to long working hours without compensation which made them develop negative attitude towards work.

(v) They were forced to pay taxes despite their poor remuneration/ low wages.

(vi) There were inadequate social amenities/ schools/ health facilities to cope with the large number of workers.

(vii) They were despised on the basis of their color/ race and this lowered their dignity.

(viii) They were not allowed to form workers’ union as the settlers feared that they would incite/ organize strikes against them.

(ix) They were provided with inadequate food rations which led to malnutrition.

(Any 6 points well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

21. (a)State three challenges that have contributed to high illiteracy levels in Kenya since independence.

(i)Traditional/ cultural beliefs in some communities discourage people from schooling.

(ii)Lack of schools inadequate educational facilities has made education inaccessible in some regions.

(iii)High poverty levels in the society has made education unaffordable.

(iv)Misconceptions that one can succeed without education.

(v)Nomadic Way of life in some communities has hampered provision of education.

(vi)Negative attitude towards adult education programmes has resulted in low enrollment.

(vii)Insecurity in some regions eg. Kapendo, Baragoi, Tana River etc.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Discuss six factors that have facilitated industrialization in Kenya since independence.

(i)The availability of modern sources of energy has enabled the establishment of more industries which process different products.

(ii)Availability of both skilled/ unskilled labour from large population provides the work force required in industries.

(iii)Good transport and communication infrastructure has created a viable environment for industrial development as the products can be transported with ease.

(iv)The rich agricultural country provides raw materials required in the processing of various products.

(v)The existence of mineral resources has given rise to industries which process them into finished products.

(vi)The existence of both natural and man-made forests has promoted the development of furniture industries in many parts of the country.

(vii)Availability of varied tourist attractions in the country has promoted tourism as many local and international tourists visit the countryside.

(viii)Availability of water resources rich in fish has given rise to fish processing industries in the country.

(IX)Government initiative through creation of ministries of trade, commerce and industry offering technical and financial aid/support.

(Any 6 points Well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

Section C (30 marks)

22(a)State five decisions reached after the first Lancaster House conference of 1960.

(i)Maintenance of the 12 elective seats in the LegCo.

(ii)Composition of the Council of Ministers was to be changed to include 4 Africans, 3 Europeans and l Asian.

(iii)There were to be 33 open seats in the LegCo, which were to be contested/ vied for on a common roll.

(Iv)20 seats would be reserved that is 10 for Europeans, 8 for Asians and 2 for Africans.

(v)Formation of countrywide political parties e.g. KANU and KADU was allowed.

(vi)The state of emergency was lifted.

(vii)A Bill of Rights would be included in the Constitution.

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Describe five main features of the Constitution of Kenya.

(i)It vests sovereign power on the people of Kenya who can exercise it directly or through their representatives.

(ii)It contains a comprehensive Bill of Rights which has been expanded to include socio-economic and cultural rights as well as group rights.

(iii)It spells out national values and principles of governance which guides/ binds all people / institutions.

(iv)It contains affirmative action for women/ the youth/ persons with disabilities/ marginalized communities as it protects them from all forms of discrimination.

(v)It defines the powers of the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary as it provides for checks/ balances in governance.

(vi)It provides a mechanism for its implementation by creating specific organs for that purpose.

(vii)It has provision for transitional requirements that ensure a smooth transition of government.

(viii)It provides stringent amendment procedures in order to safeguard peoples’ interests.

(iX)It provides for devolved government by creating forty seven counties.

(X)Citizenship - it describes what citizens are entitled to eg. acquisition and revocation of citizenship.

(Xi)It outlines the principles of Land Policy and classification.

(xii)Leadership and Integrity - it states the responsibilities, conduct and restriction on activities of state officers.

(xiii)National security - it establishes 3 national security organs ie. Kenya Defense (xiv)Forces, National Intelligence Service and National Police Service.

(Xv)It establishes a Bicameral Legislature composed of the National Assembly and the Senate.

(xvi)It creates an independent Judiciary composed of a system of courts with superior and subordinate courts.

(xvi)It provides for a Public Service which stipulates the values and principles of professional ethics and accountability.

(Any 5 points well explained x 2 = 10 marks)

23.(a)Give five reasons Why human rights are important.

(i)They give the general public access to information necessary for protection of democracy and accountability.

(ii)They assist in achieving a dignified life which respects human needs.

(iii)They guide organs of state on the exercise of state power.

(iv)They provide basis for granting special treatment to persons with special needs.

(v)When respected, these rights reduce conflicts and enhance national integration.

(v)They empower citizens by giving them control in decision making organs of the state.

(vi)Rights are inherent to human beings since one has rights because they are human. (Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Explain five functions of the Kenya National Commissions on Human Rights.

(i)To protect respect for human rights/ develop a culture of human rights in the country.

(ii)To receive complaints about alleged abuses of human rights from the citizens.

(iii)To monitor/ investigate on the observance of human rights in the country and take appropriate action.

(iv)To provide a shadow report to the United Nations on the status of observance of human rights in the country.

(v)To formulate/ implement programmes intended to create public awareness of the rights/ obligations of citizens.

(vi)To ensure that the country complies with international treaties/ conventions regarding human rights.

(vii)To work with the National Gender and Equality Commission and Commission on Administrative Justice to ensure efficiency/ effectiveness/ complementary in their activities.

(viii)To make recommendations to the state to improve the functioning of the state organs.

(Any 5 points well explained x 2 = 10 marks)

24.(a)State five qualifications of a presidential candidate in Kenya.

(i)Be of sound mind.

(ii)A Kenyan citizen by birth.

(iii)Not have served for more than 2 consecutive terms as president.

(iv)Nominated by a political party or is an independent candidate.

(v)Nominated by at least 2000 voters from each of majority of counties.

(vi)Not have been declared bankrupt by a court of law.

(Vii)Abide by the requirements of chapter 6 of the constitution on integrity.

(viii)Must be a registered voter.

(ix)Be qualified to stand for election as an MP.

(X)Does not owe allegiance to a foreign state.

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b)Explain five functions of the National Assembly in Kenya.

(i)It makes laws that govern the country so as to ensure smooth running of the country.

(ii)It determines the allocation of public revenue to all government sectors in order to promote development.

(iii)It approves funds for expenditure by the national government to ensure provision of services.

(iv)It exercises oversight over public revenue and expenditure thereby promoting accountability/ transparency.

(v)To review the conduct in office of the executive in order to check excesses in government.

(vi)To approve appointments made by the president to ensure merits professionalism integrity of the appointees.

(vii)To approve declaration of War and extension of states of emergency.

(viii)It represents peoples’ interests through their elected members of parliament.

(iX)Oversight of state organs i.e. it supervises and checks state organs ensuring proper and accountable handling of duties.

(Any 5 points Well explained x 2 = 10 marks)

4.8.2 History & Government Paper 2 (311/2)

Section A (25 marks)

1. Give two methods used by elders to pass information to the young generation on History and Government in the traditional African communities.

(i) Through proverbs;

(ii) Through legends;

(m) Through stories/folktales/narratives;

(iv) Through songs/poems;

(v) Through riddles;

(vi) Through myths;

(vii) Dances.

Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

2. State two disadvantages of using caves as shelters by the early human beings during the stone age period.

(i) The caves could collapse over them.

(ii) Wild creatures could bite them/animals.

(iii) Human enemies could easily attack them.

(iv) Caves were exposed to floods/wind/cold.

Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

3. State two negative effects of the land enclosure system in Britain during the 18th Century.

(i) It displaced the poor people/landlessness;

(ii) It forced the poor people to migrate to urban centres;

(iii) It increased pauperism/poverty in Europe;

(iv) It created immigrants to other parts of the world.

Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

4. Give the main reason why the camel was preferred as the means of transport during the Trans- Saharan Trade.

- It could withstand harsh desert conditions. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

5. Outline one role that was played by the middlemen during the Trans-Atlantic Trade. (1 mark)

(i) They transported goods to and from the interior/porters.

(ii) They obtained goods in the interior.

(iii) They exchanged/traded with European traders at the coast.

(1 x 1 = 1 mark)

6.Give two benefits of the development of the railway transport in Europe during the 19th century.

(i) Goods could be transported with ease.

(ii) It enabled trade to expand.

(iii) It led to the development of urban centres/towns.

(iv) It promoted industrialization.

(v) It created employment opportunities.

(vi) It eased the movement of people.

(vii) It was a source of government revenue.

(viii) It led to exploitation of natural resources such as mining, fisheries and forests.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

7. State two advantages of using fire and smoke signals to pass messages in traditional societies. (2 marks)

(i) Messages could only be understood by the communities using them] messages were limited to the users.

(ii) They conveyed messages faster.

(iii) It was a cheaper method of sending messages.

(iv) Messages could reach many people/visibility.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

8. State two ways in which the growth of the city of Cairo was influenced by the River Nile. (2 marks)

(i) It was used for transport.

(ii) It provided Water for domestic/industrial use.

(iii) The Nile Valley was fertile/agriculture.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

9. Identify one symbol of unity in the Shona kingdom during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)

(i) Mwene Mutapa/king/emperor.

(ii) The Royal fire.

(1 x 1 = 1 mark)

10. State one way in which the acquisition of firearms enabled the king of Buganda to expand during the pre-colonial period. ( 1 mark)

(i) They were used to conquer/suppress neighboring kingdoms/enemies.

(ii) To protect the kingdom.

(1 x 1 = 1 mark)

ll. Name the leader of the Lozi who collaborated with the British in the late 19th Century. (1 mark)

- Lewanika.

12. Identify two European activities in Africa during the 19th Century. (2 marks)

(i) trading/legitimate trade;

(ii) spreading Christianity;

(iii) exploring;

(iv) establishing settlements;

(v) establishing colonial rule/colonization.

(vi) establishing Western education.

(vii) establishing health facilities. (viii) mining.

(ix) Agricultural activities.

(x) stopping slave trade and slavery.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

13. Outline two similar methods used to recruit African labour in the British and French colonies in Africa. (2 marks)

(i) Imposition of taxes on Africans;

(ii) They used chiefs to recruit labour;

(iii) They introduced forced labour.

(Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

14. State one economic problem that was experienced by the British colonialists in Nigeria. (1 marks)

(i) They lacked adequate funds;

(ii) Poor transport/communication undermined their work;

(iii) They lacked adequate skilled labour.

(Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

15. Name the political party that led Ghana to independence from Britain in 1957. (1 mark)

- The Convention People’s Party (C .P.P.)

(1 x 1 = 1 mark)

16. Name the country that was blamed for the outbreak of the First World War. (1 mark)

- Germany.

(1 x 1 = 1 mark)

17. Give the main reason why the United States of America adopted the Marshall Plan after the Second World War. (1 mark)

- In order to influence many countries adopt capitalist ideology/economic recovery in Europe.

(1 x 1 = 1 mark)

Section B (45 marks)

l8. (a)State three characteristics of microlithic tools used during the Late Stone Age Period. (3 marks)

(i)They Were small in size;

(ii)They were more efficient;

(iii)They Were crafted/fitted with handles;

(Iv)They Were used to perform multiple tasks;

(v)They Were sharp.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six challenges faced by early humans in hunting and gathering activities.

(i)Attacks/injuries by animals discouraged them as it posed threats to their lives.

(ii)Scarcity of animals/fruits in some cases denied them regular supply of food / calamities.

(iii)Unfavourable Weather conditions made it difficult to carry out the activities.

(iv)Locating animals/fruits was difficult as it would involve combing large areas.

(v)It was time consuming as it involved chasing the animals for long distances.

(vi)Many people Were required for the success of the activities.

(vii)It was tedious as animals ran faster than human beings/wild fruits /roots could be found in far off areas.

(viii)Poisonous fruits/roots could be gathered leading to loss of life.

(IX)Stiff competition with wild animals/ among human beings for food.

(Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

19.(a)Give three uses of electricity in Europe during the 19th Century. (3 marks)

(i)Driving machines in factories;

(ii)Providing light;

(iii)Heating/cooking;

(Iv)Powering locomotives/trains;

(v)Powering communication gadgets.

(12 marks)

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six factors which promoted industrial development in India. (12 marks)

(i)The existence of mineral resources which were used as raw materials to establish industries.

(ii)The existence of cottage industries/industrial base laid the foundation for industrial development as people had acquired relevant skills.

(iii)The availability of funds/loans provided by foreign governments enabled the country to set up industries.

(iv)Provision of technical/scientific education emphasized by the produced skilled labour required in the industries.

(v) Good transport/communication system made transportation of goods/services easier/cheaper thereby encouraging investment.

(vi) The availability of various sources of energy required enabled the establishment of more industries.

(vii) The provision of credit facilities/loans to local investors facilitated expansion of industries.

(viii) The development plans adopted by the government emphasized industrialization thereby giving impetus to the sector.

(ix) Political stability in the country gave people confidence to invest in industries.

(x) Availability of market for industrial goods provided by the large population encouraged more people to venture into industrialization.

(xi) Protective tariffs were applied in order to protect the local industries from unfair competition thereby promoting growth of industries.

(xii) Availability of external markets/trade.

(xiii) India’s large population which provided unskilled labour.

(Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 2 marks)

20. (a) Outline three reasons why the policy of assimilation was easily applied in the four communes of Senegal. (3 marks)

(i) The people had earlier interacted with the Europeans.

(ii) They had inter-married with the Europeans.

(iii) Most of the people were Christians.

(iv) People were exposed to the outside world due to the proximity to the Coast.

(v) People were detribalised/of mixed origin/mulatoes.

(vi) People in the communes had learnt how to speak French.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six effects of the British direct rule in Zimbabwe. (12 marks)

(i) Africans lost large tracts of land to the White settlers thereby straining relations between the two groups.

(ii) Introduction of forced labour as the White settlers required cheap labour in their farms.

(iii) Formation of African Nationalist movements to address their grievances against White domination.

(iv) Loss of power by traditional rulers as the British appointed their own administrators who ruled the people directly.

(v) Imposition of taxes on Africans in order to force them to provide labour to the Whites so as to raise money.

(vi) Africans were exposed to deplorable working conditions which exposed them to risks.

(vii) Introduction of pass laws which restricted the movement of Africans.

(viii) Africans were confined into reserves thereby creating room for European settlement.

(ix) Exploitation of mineral resources/agricultural resources for the benefit of the colonial government at the expense of African development.

(x) Loss of independence by Africans as they were subjected to British colonial rule.

(xi) It undermined African culture/introduction of Western education/Christianity and separation of families.

(xii) Africans were subjected to racial segregation.

(xiii) It led to the development of transport and communication network.

(xiv) Africans were subjected to poverty and suffering.

(Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

21. (a) State three political causes of instability in the Democratic Republic of Congo between 1960-1965. (3 marks)

(i) Tribalism/ethnic differences created conflicts among communities.

(ii) Domination of public service/army by the Belgians/foreigners

(iii) Kasai/Katanga secession from the rest of the country.

(iv) The assassination of Patrice Lumumba.

(v) Ideological differences between leaders divided the country.

(vi) The army mutiny.

(vii) Military coup in 1965 by Mobutu Sese Seko.

(viii) Dictatorship.

(ix) Interference by the UNO in the internal affairs of the Congo.

(Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Describe six social developments that have taken place in Tanzania since independence.

(12 marks)

(i) The establishment of more schools/colleges/universities has enabled many people to access education.

(ii) The introduction of free universal primary education has reduced illiteracy levels among the people.

(iii) Education system geared towards promoting socialism ideals has created an egalitarian/selfless society thus promoting equity.

(iv) Improvement of health through the expansion/establishment of more health facilities/hospitals/dispensaries thereby promoting quality of life.

(v) Social cohesion/unity of diverse elements has been promoted by the socialist ideology (Ujamaa) thereby creating a more stable society.

(vi) Kiswahili has been made the national language and given more emphasis in the education system thereby breaking communication barriers/promoting interaction among the people.

(vii) Theater and sports have been promoted through the establishment of sporting facilities.

(viii) Promotion of African cultural values leading to preservation of African heritage.

(ix) The country guarantees freedom of worship.

(x) The role of women in society was greatly appreciated eg. in educational opportunities, senior positions in government and in party leadership.

(Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 12 marks)

Section C (30 marks)

22. (a) Identify five main organs of the United Nations. (5 marks)

(i) The General Assembly;

(ii) The Security Council;

(iii) The Secretariat;

(iv) The International Court of Justice;

(v) The Economic and Social Council;

(vi) The Trusteeship Council.

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Explain five ways through which the United Nation promotes peace in the World.

(10 marks)

(i) It sends peace-keeping missions to conflict areas in order to enforce ceasefires prevent further confrontation.

(ii) It uses envoys to mediate disputes between warring groups so as to find amicable solutions to problems.

(iii) It hears cases through the International Court of Justice between states/ individuals with a view of administering justice.

(iv) It imposes sanctions against states that defy its resolutions in order to force them to comply.

(v) It uses peace messengers to sensitize people on importance of peace/encourage peaceful co-existence.

(vi) It encourages disarmament by signing arms control treaties/agreements with a view of reducing tension/suspicion between states.

(vii) It promotes human rights/freedoms by enforcing international laws which protect people against abuse.

(viii) It provides humanitarian assistance to the needy by giving them protection/basic needs.

(ix) It promotes democracy and good governance in countries by providing electoral assistance/sending observers to monitor elections in order to ensure fairness/ credibility.

(x) It condemns all forms of terrorism/putting in place mechanism of combating it through international agreements.

(Any 5 points, well explained X 2 = 10 marks)

23. (a) State five functions of the Commission of the African Union. (5 marks)

(i) It implements the decision of the union;

(ii) It co-ordinates African Union activities/meetings;

(iii) It receives application for membership;

(iv) It performs administrative functions of the A.U.;

(v) It makes/initiates proposals to other organs.

(Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Discuss five achievements of the Pan-African movements. (10 marks)

(i)It promoted African nationalism by encouraging Africans to unite against colonial injustices.

(ii)It restored African dignity/confidence by demanding respect for African values.

(iii)It led to the formation of Organization of African Union.

(iv)It condemned/mobilized people to protest against European colonization/ domination of Africans eg. Mussolini in Ethiopia in 1935.

(v)It made Africans aware of their status in society thereby encouraging them to struggle for their rights.

(vi)It created a sense of unity among people of African descent by enlightening them on their common origin/similar prejudices from the Europeans.

(vii)It appealed/put pressure on international community to act against apartheid regime in South Africa.

(viii)It encouraged the formation of nationalist movements which liberated Africans from colonial rule.

(IX)Provided a forum for the African people to discuss their common problems both internal and external.

(X)It laid the basis for interest in research on African cultures.

(Any 5 points, well explained x 2 = 10 marks)

24.(a)Give five responsibilities of the state governments in the United States of America.

(5 marks)

(i)To maintain law and order.

(ii)To generate revenue.

(iii)To provide educational facilities.

(Iv)To administer justice.

(v)To provide health facilities.

(vi)To provide recreational facilities.

(vii)To make/pass laws. (Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Explain five functions of the cabinet in India. (10 marks)

(i)It formulates policy matters that are followed by the state/federal governments in the provision of services.

(ii)It recommends all the major appointments made by the president in the various sectors of the government.

(iii)It advises the president/prime minister on various matters of the state/federal government.

(iv)It settles interdepartmental disputes in order to ensure harmonious working relations between them.

(v)It co-ordinates activities/programmes/functions of the departments in their respective ministries.

(vi)It defends government policies/decisions both within and outside the parliament, thereby popularizing those policies.

(vii)It approves all proposals for the legislative enactment of the government policies.

(viii)It oversees the execution/implementation of government policies so as to ensure service delivery to the people.

Any 5, well explained


KCSE Results » KCSE Results Top 100 Schools - Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education – KCSE » KCSE Top 100 Candidates » Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education – KCSE » KNEC - Kenya National Examinations Council » Secondary Schools in Kenya » KNEC - Kenya National Examinations Council » Free KNEC KCSE Past Papers

Kenya Scholarships for Undergraduate Students » Kenya Scholarships for Postgraduate Students » Undergraduate Scholarships for Kenyan Students » Kenya Undergraduate Scholarships » Full Undergraduate Scholarships for Kenyans » Kenya Postgraduate Scholarships » Scholarships & Grants » Undergraduate Scholarships » Universities in Kenya » Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS) » Colleges in Kenya » KASNEB Registration & Results » Secondary Schools Scholarships in Kenya » Undergraduate & Graduate Scholarships for Kenyans

Scholarships for African Students » Undergraduate Scholarships » African Women Scholarships & Grants » Developing Countries Scholarships » Erasmus Mundus Scholarships for Developing Countries » Fellowship Programs » Funding Grants for NGOs » Government Scholarships » LLM Scholarships » MBA Scholarships » PhD and Masters by Research Scholarships » Public Health Scholarships - MPH Scholarships » Refugees Scholarships » Research Grants » Scholarships and Grants

Scholarships in Australia » Scholarships in Belgium » Scholarships in Canada » Scholarships in Germany » Scholarships in Italy » Scholarships in Japan » Scholarships in Korea » Scholarships in Netherlands » Scholarships in UK » Scholarships in USA

Scholarship 2017/18

Undergraduate Scholarships,
Masters Scholarships,
PhD Scholarships,
International Scholarships.