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4.0 PART TWO: THE YEAR 2013 KCSE EXAMINATION QUESTION PAPERS

4.1 HISTORY & GOVERNMENT (311)

4.1.1 History & Government Paper 1 (311/1)

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer ALL the questions in this section.

1 State two ways in which the study of History and Govemment promotes a sense of patriotism in the leamer. (2 marks)

2 Name the community in Kenya that belongs to the Southem Cushites. (1 mark)

3 State two political functions of the Oloibon among the Maasai during the 19th century. (2 marks)

4 Give two ways through which knowledge in marine technology facilitated the coming of the early visitors to the Kenyan Coast. (2 marks)

5 Identify the town that was established by missionaries in Kenya as a centre for freed slaves during the 19th Century. (1 mark)

6 State two ways in which the National Accord and Reconciliation Act, 2008 affected the composition of the govemment in Kenya. (2 marks)

7 Give two reasons why the British used the Imperial British East African Company (I.B.E.A.C.) to administer its possessions in Kenya. (2 marks)

8 Identify two ways in which the results of the collaboration of the Maasai with British was similar to that of the Wanga. (2 marks)

9 Give one way in which the construction of the Uganda railway speeded up the colonization of Kenya. (1 mark)

10 Give the main political contribution of Christian Missionaries in Kenya during the struggle for independence upto 1939. (1 mark)

11 Name the first African to be appointed as minister in Kenya by the colonial government. V (1 mark)

12 State the main result of the Lyttleton Constitutional amendment of 1954. (1 mark) 13 Identify the leader who stepped down as the president of Kenya African Union for Jomo Kenyatta. (1 mark) 14 State two ways in which the harambee spirit promotes national unity in Kenya. (2 marks)

15 State two ways through which the Savings and Credit Co-operative Societies in Kenya benefit their members. (2 marks)

16.State one way through which the opposition political parties in Kenya check on the Government's excesses. (1 mark)

17.Give the main challenge facing the Free Primary Education programme since its introduction in 2003. (l mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer THREE questions from this section.

18. a)Give five reasons for the migration of the Mijikenda from Shungwaya during the pre-colonial period. ' (5 mark)

b)Explain five social effects of the migration and settlement of the Mijikenda in their present homeland. (10 marks)

19. a)State five factors which influenced the Akamba to participate in the long distance trade. (5 marks)

b)Describe five effects of the long distance trade on the people of Kenya. (10 marks)

20. a)Give five factors that influenced the location of urban centres in Kenya during the colonial period. (5 marks)

b)Explain five factors which led to the migration of Africans to the urban areas in Kenya during the colonial period. (10 marks)

21. a)Give five factors that undermined the activities of the Kenya African Union in the struggle for independence. (5 marks)

b)Describe five political roles played by the African elected members of parliament during the struggle for independence in Kenya. (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer TWO questions from this section.

22. a)Give three conditions that a person should meet to qualify to be a Kenyan citizen by birth. (3 marks)

b)Explain six social rights of an individual in Kenya. (12 marks) 23. a)State three qualifications for a person to be eligible for election as a member of the National Assembly in Kenya. (3 marks)

b) Explain six functions of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of Kenya. (12 marks)

24. a) State three objectives of devolving the government of Kenya. (3 marks)

b)Explain six ways in which the County governments raise their revenue. (12 marks)

4.1.2 History & Government Paper 2 (311/2)

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer ALL questions in this section.

1 Give the relationship between “History” and “Government”. (l mark)

2 Name two types of dwellings used by the early man during the Early Stone Age period.

3 Give two inventions that led to the Agrarian Revolution in Britain.

4 State one theory of origin about the knowledge of iron working in Africa.

5 Identify the earliest method of trade used during the Trans-Saharan Trade.

6 State two ways in which Africans participated in the Trans-Atlantic Trade.

7 Identify two modem means of print media.

8 State the main factor that led to the growth of the ancient town of Kilwa.

9 Give one reason why the ‘Golden stool’ was important in the Asante Empire.

10 Apart from an empire, name one other type of government that existed in Africa during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)

ll State two ways in which chief Lewanika of the Lozi collaborated with the British in the late 19th century. (2 marks)

12 Name one African community that took part in the Maji Maji uprising between 1905 and 1907. (1 mark)

13 Identify two roles played by ex-war soldiers in the growth of African nationalism after 1945. (2 marks)

14 Highlight one way in which economic rivalries between European powers contributed to the outbreak of the first world war. (1 mark)

15 Give the main incident which made Japan to surrender unconditionally to the allied powers in 1945.

16 State two factors which promote economic relations between nations.

17 State two ways in which Non-Aligned members safeguard their national security. (2 marks)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer THREE questions from this section.

18.a)Give five reasons why hunting of wild animals was mainly a group activity during the Stone Age Period. (5 marks)

b) Describe five ways in which the development of the upright posture improved the early man’s way of life. (10 marks)

19.a)Identify five uses of coal during the Industrial Revolution in Europe. (5 marks) b)Explain five effects of scientific inventions on medicine. (10 marks)

20 a)Outline five European activities in Africa during the 19th century. (5 marks)

b)Explain five effects of the Mandinka resistance against the French invasion in the late 19th Century. (l0 marks)

21. a)Identify five contributions made by Kwarne Nkrumah of Ghana in promoting Pan-Africanism. (5 marks)

b)Describe five factors undermining the activities of the African Union (AU) since its formation in 2001. (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer TWO questions from this section.

22.a)State three similarities between the French and the British structure of administration in b)Africa during colonial period. (3 marks)

23.a)Explain six problems experienced by the French administration in Senegal. (12 marks)

b)State three ways in which the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) promoted the education of Africans after independence. (3 marks)

24.a)Explain six political challenges faced by the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) during the reign of Mobutu Sese Seko. (12 marks)

b)Identify three circumstances that may make the vice president assume presidency in India. (3 marks)

24 .Explain six functions of the president in India. (12 marks)

5.0 THE YEAR 2013 KCSE EXAMINATION MARKING SCHEMES

5.1 HISTORY & GOVERNMENT (311)

5.1.1 History & Government Paper 1 (311/1)

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

1.State two ways in which the study of History and Government promotes a sense of patriotism in the learner. . (2 marks)

(i) It enables one to acquire a positive attitude towards the country.

(ii) It enables one to be a responsible citizen.

(iii) It enables one to become loyal to his/her country.

(iv) It helps one to develop positive values.

Any2xl=2marks

2.Name the community in Kenya that belongs to the Southern Cushites. (1 mark)

- the Dahallo (Sanye) 1 x 1 = 1 mark

3.State two political functions of the Oloibon among the Maasai during the 19th century. (2 marks)

(i) He administered the Maasai land/acted as unifying factor.

(ii) He settled disputes

(iii) He declared war against his enemies/Adviced and blessed worriors.

(iv) Advised the Council of Elders.

Any2x 1 =2marks

4.Give two ways through which knowledge in marine technology facilitated the coming of the early visitors to the Kenya Coast. (2 marks)

(i) It enabled them to use the compass to sail.

(ii) It facilitated the construction/use of boats.

(iii) It enabled them to develop/apply the skills of map reading.

Any2x 1=2marks

5.Identify the town that was established by missionaries in Kenya as a centre for freed slaves during the 19th century. (1 mark)

- Freetown

l x 1 = 1 mark

6.State two ways in which the National Accord and Reconciliation Act, 2008 affected the com position of the Government in Kenya. (2 marks)

(i) It created a coalition government.

(ii) It created the office/position of the Prime Minister.

(iii) It created the offices/positions of the two deputy prime ministers.

(iv) It increased the number of ministers/cabinet ministers.

Any 2 x 1- 2 marks

7.Give two reasons why the British used the Imperial British East African Company (IBEA) to administer its possessions in Kenya. (2 marks)

(i) It was familiar with the area.

(ii) They lacked a clear policy on the administration of colonial possessions.

(iii) They lacked enough personnel.

(iv) They lacked sufficient funds/inadequate funds.

Any 2 x 1- 2 marks

8.Identify two ways in which the results of the collaboration of the Maasai with the British was similar to that of the Wanga. (2 marks)

(i) The British recognized their leaders.

(ii) Both communities lost their independence.

(iii) The people of both communities were hired as mercenaries.

(iv) Both communities got material gains/rewards.

Any2x 1 =2marks

9.Give one way in which the construction of the Uganda railway speeded up the colonization of Kenya. (1 mark)

(i) It enhanced the transportation of troops/administration.

(ii) It open up the country to European settlers.

(iii) It led to forceful displacement/loss of land by some communities.

Any1x1=1mark

10. Give the main political contribution of Christian missionaries in Kenya during the struggle for independence upto 1939. (1 mark)

- They represented the Africans in the Legislative Council (LegCo).

11.Name the first African to be appointed a minister in Kenya by the colonial govemment;

'(1 mark)

- B. A. Ohanga

1 X 1 = 1 mark

12.State the main result of the Lyttleton constitutional amendment of 1954. (1 mark)

- It allowed for the formation of Multi-racial govemmcnl/society.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

13 .Identify the leader who stepped down as the president of Kenya African Union for Jomo Kenyatta. (1 mark)

- James Gichuru

14. State two ways in which the Harambee spirit promotes national unity in Kenya. (2 marks)

(i) It encourages people to work together.

(ii) It promotes cooperation.

(m) It promotes equity in the distribution of resources.

(iv) It enhances interaction of the people.

(v) It promotes patriotism.

Any2x 1 =2marks

15.State two ways through which the Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies in Kenya benefit their members. (2 marks)

(i) They give loans/credit facilities.

(ii) They provide banking facilities/saving facilities.

(m) They provide benevolent/insurance services.

(iv) They invest on behalf of members.

(v) They create employment.

(vi) They educate members on financial management/investment.

Any 2 x 1= 2 marks

16 .State one way through which the opposition political parties in Kenya check on the Govemment excesses. (1 mark)

(i) They point out the mistakes made by the govemment.

(ii) They point out misuse of public resources.

1 x 1 = l mark

17. Give the main challenge facing Free Primary Education Programme in Kenya since its introduction in 2003. (1 mark)

- Over enrollment of the pupils

1 x l = 1 mark

SECTION B - (45 marks)

18.(a) Give five reasons for the migration of the Mijikenda from Shungwaya during the pre- colonial period. (5 marks)

(i) Due to attacks by the Oromo/Cushitic speakers.

(ii) Due to increased population.

(iii) Due to intemal conflicts/family/clan feuds.

(iv) In search for land for cultivation.

(v) Due to drought/famine.

(vi) Due to outbreak of diseases/epidemics.

(vii) Due to love for adventure.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

b)Explain five social effects of the migration and settlement of the Mijikenda in their present homeland. (10 marks)

  • They interrnarried with other groups thereby strengthening relationships.
  • There was cultural exchange due to their interaction with other pe0ple/ assimilation/absorption.
  • There was an increase in population in the areas where they settled.
  • There were inter-community conflicts/wars in the areas they settled.
  • It caused redistribution of people in the areas they settled leading to further migration/displacement. ' .
  • Some were converted to Islam due to their interaction with Arabs.
  • It led to the establishment of Kaya/villages which were fortified in order to protect themselves against extemal attacks.

    Any 5 x 2 =10 marks

    19 a) State five factors which influenced the Akamba to panicipate in the long distance trade.

  • The central/strategic location of the community between the coast and the interior.
  • There existed items of trade.
  • The existence of merchants/leaders/entrepreneurs.
  • There existed trade routes between the coast and the interior.
  • There existed markets for trade goods.
  • The establishment of trade links with their neighbours/experience.
  • There was demand for goods.
  • Drought/unreliable rainfall experienced in their area/poor soils. Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

    b)Describe five effects of the long distance trade on the people of Kenya. (10 marks)

  • It let the settling of people in urban centres that developed along trade routes.
  • It led to the emergence of a class of wealthy people along the coastjin the
  • interior of Kenya/emergence of powerful chiefs & kingdoms.
  • It led to acquisition of foreign/new goods through trade/traditional industries.
  • People acquired /cultivated new crops leading to increased food production.
  • Some people were converted into Islam by Muslim traders.
  • People were introduced to money economy thereby making transactions easy.
  • African slave labour led to the development of plantation agriculture along the coast.
  • There was depopulation as many Africans were captured/sold as slaves.
  • It caused untold suffering/misery as people were raided/captured as slaves.
  • It opened up the interior leading to colonization.
  • The trade routes later developed into roads and highways. Any 5 x 2 =10 marks

    20. a)Give five factors that influenced the location of urban centres in Kenya during the colonial period. (5 marks)

  • Existence of administrative centres.
  • Existence of social amenities eg, mission stations.
  • Availability of minerals/mining activities/industries.
  • Availability of security.
  • Agricultural activities.
  • Commercial activities/trading activities.
  • Availability of transport/communication. Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

    b)Explain five factors which led to the migration African to the urban areas in Kenya during the colonial period. (10 marks)

  • The overcrowded/unproductive reserves created by the colonial govemment made living conditions difficult/unbearable thereby resulting into migrations to towns.
  • Availability of better social services/amenities/health centres/education provided in towns attracted them.
  • The taxes imposed on Africans forced them to migrate to towns in search of jobs.
  • Availability of infrastructure/piped water/paved roads/electricity attracted many people to towns as they hoped for a better life.
  • Employment/job opportunities attracted people to towns as it promised them better wages.
  • Mistreatment/frustrations by the labour/public works forced them to move to towns.
  • The widespread poverty in rural/reserves caused untold suffering thereby making them to migrate to town.
  • Loss of land/landlessness caused by the colonial land policies resulted into a state of despair thereby forcing people to move to towns.
  • African enterprenuers wanted to take advantage of wider markets in towns. Any 5 x 2 =10 marks

    21. a)Give five factors that undermined the activities of the Kenya African Union in the struggle for independence? (5marks)

  • Betrayal by some Africans undermined its activities/wrangles between moderates and radicals.
  • Insufficientlinadequate funds hampered its activities.
  • Opposition from the colonial govcmment/settlers.
  • Repressive laws restricted its activities.
  • Arrest/detention of its leaders after the declaration of a state of emergency frustrated its members.
  • Lack of proper communication channels.
  • Banning of the party in 1953.
  • Ethnic divisions/fear of dominance by larger communities.
  • Lack of political awareness due to illiteracy. Any 5 x l = 5 marks

    b) Describe five political roles played by the African elected members of parliament during the struggle for independence in Kenya. (10 marks)

    (i) They demanded for the release of detained/imprisoned African nationalists. (ii) They networked with other Pan-Africanists to haste_n the achievement of independence. "

    (iii) They aired/presented African grievances in intemational fora.

    (iv) They fonned political parties/movements to demand for independence/rights of Africans.

    (v) They popularized Kenyatta thereby making him acceptable as a national leader.

    (vi) They took part in the writing of the independence constitution/Lancaster House.

    (vii) They enlightened/educated other Africans on the need to struggle for independence.

    (viii) They advocated for an increase in African representation in the LegCo.

    Any 5 x 2 =10 marks

    SECTION C (30 marks)

    22 a)Give three conditions that a person should meet to qualify to be a Kenyan citizen by birth. (3 marks)

    (i) If the father or mother of the person is a Kenyan citizen.

    (ii) A child found in Kenya who is/appears to be less than eight years of age and whose nationality and parents are not known.

    (iii) A former Kenyan citizen by birth who reapplies to regain Kenya citizenship. 3 x 1 = 3 marks

    b)Explain six social rights of the individual in Kenya. (12 marks)

    (i) The right to health care services which are of a reasonable standards.

    (ii) The right to housing facilities which are accessible and adequate.

    (iii) The right to have adequate food which is of acceptable quality.

    (iv) The right to regular supply of water which is clean and safe.

    (v) The right to appropriate social security to persons who are unable to support themselves and their dependants.

    (vi) The right to accessible formal education inorder to promote literacy.

    (vii) The right to embrace culture/language of one’s choice regardless of his/her background.

    (viii) The right to clean environment/sanitation which is free from pollution. Any 6 x 2 =12 marks

    23 a)State three qualifications for a person to be eligible for election as a member of the National Assembly in Kenya. (3 marks)

  • Must be a registered voter.
  • Must be literate.
  • Must be supported by at least 1.000 registered voters in the constituency/must be nominated by a political or an independent candidate.
  • Should uphold good moral values.

    Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

    b) b)Explain six functions of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of Kenya. (12 marks)

  • It registers prospective citizens who intend to participate in the elections.
  • It draws the boundaries of the constituencies/wards in all parts of the country inorder to ensure equitable representation of the people.
  • It regulates nomination of candidates by political parties so as to ensure proportional nomination of members.
  • It settles electoral disputes other than petitions arising from the electoral process in order to ensure smooth/fair elections.
  • It registers that all candidates who intend to contest for positions during elections/announces and provides an election timetable.
  • It educates voters on their rights/importance of participating in the electoral process so as to make informed decisions.
  • It monitors/observes the elections in order to ensure transparency/honesty.
  • It regulates the amount of money spent by a candidate/political parties to prevent some candidates from influencing the voters.
  • It develops code of conduct for candidates/parties participating in elections with the view of checking malpractices.
  • It ensures compliance with the electoral laws by all the parties involved in order to promote free and fair elections.
  • It distributes/transports electoral materials to all polling stations.
  • It appoints election officials.
  • It announces the results and declares the winners.

    Any 6 x 2 =12 marks

    24.a)State three objectives of devolving the govemment of Kenya. (3 marks)

  • To promote democratic exercise of power.
  • To promote unity in the country.
  • To empower the people to participate in decision making /to make informed decisions.
  • To protect the interests of the minority/marginalised groups.
  • To promote equitable development in the country.
  • To enable people access services/take services closer to the people.
  • To decentralize state organs/functions from the capital.
  • to enhance checks and balances/accountability. Any3xl=3marks

    b)Explain six ways in which the county governments raise their revenue.

  • They impose property rates within their territories to enable them raise revenue for their operations.
  • They charge for the services they render to the residents of the counties in order to generate income.
  • They are allocated part of the annual national revenue in order to supplement their supplement.
  • By borrowing loans from the national govemment intemational organizations to finance development projects.
  • They levy taxes on the services/goods generated in the county to finance their activities.
  • Through licences granted to businesses/services operating in the counties.
  • By charging fees for the use of the counties property/fines.
  • By renting property/houses to people inorder to raise funds for development.
  • Through grants eg. local and external sources. Any 6 x 2 =12 marks

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