KCSE Past Papers History 2011 

Click Here - Free KCSE Past Papers » KNEC Past Exams » Free Downloads » KCSE Papers & Marking Schemes

3.1 HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT (311)

3.1.1 History and Government Paper 1 (311/1)

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

1 Give two unwritten sources of information on History and Government. (2 marks)

2 What was the main reason for the migration of the Eastern Bantu from Shungwaya during the pre-colonial period? (1 mark)

3 Give two reasons why Kenyan communities fought against each other during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)

4 Identify the two main items of trade from the interior of Kenya during the long distance trade.(2 marks)

5 Identify two contributions made by the early Christian missionaries in the field of education in Kenya. (2 marks)

6 Give the meaning of the term ‘national integration. (1 mark)

7 What constitutional amendment made Kenya return to a multi-party state? (1 mark)

8 Name the document which contains the rights of the child in Kenya. (1 mark)

9 Identify two economic benefits of the Kenya-Uganda railway during the colonial period. (2 marks)

10 Give two ways through which the white settlers acquired land in Kenya during the colonial period. (2 marks)

11 State two problems faced by trade union movement during the colonial period in Kenya. (2 marks)

12 State one change introduced by the Lyttleton Constitution of 1954 that benefited the Africans in the struggle for independence. (1 mark)

13 What was the main contribution of Thomas Joseph Mboya to the history of Kenya? (1 mark)

14 State the main function of parliament in Kenya. (1 mark)

15 Give one member of the AEMO at its inception in 1957. (l mark)

16 Name the education commission that recommended the introduction of the 824:4 system of education in Kenya. (1 mark)

17 Give two external sources of Government revenue in Kenya. (2 marks)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

18 (a) State five economic activities of the Borana during the pre—colonial period. (5 marks)

(b) Describe the social organisation of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)

19 (a) State three reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan Coast in the 15th Century. (3 marks)

(b) Explain six effects of the Portuguese rule on the East African Coast. (12 marks)

20 (a) Identify three methods used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya. (3 marks)

(b) Explain six results of the Nandi resistance against British occupation. (12 marks)

21 (a) State five demands made by the East African Association (EAA) to the British Colonial Government in Kenya. (5 marks)

(b) Explain five factors that promoted the rise of African nationalism in Kenya after 1945. (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

22 (a) State three circumstances that can make a Kenyan citizen to be denied the right to life. (3 marks)

(b) Explain six civic responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen. (12 marks)

23 (a) Give three reasons why general elections are important in Kenya. (3 marks)

(b) Explain six functions of the body incharge of elections in Kenya. (12 marks)

24 (a) Identify three social functions of local authorities. (3 marks)

(b) Explain six challenges facing local authorities in Kenya. (12 marks)

3.1.2 History and Government Paper 2 (311/2)

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

1 Give two archaeological sources of information on History and Government. (2 marks)

2 Give two reasons that made early human beings to live in groups during the Stone Age period. (2 marks)

3 Identify two ways through which early agriculture spread in Africa. (2 marks)

4 State two limitations of using animal transport. (2 marks)

S Why was ‘silent trade’ practised by Trans-saharan traders? (1 mark)

6 identify the main factor that led to the growth of the Ancient town of Meroe. (1 mark)

7 What was the main function of the Council of elders among African societies during the pre-colonial period? (1 mark)

8 State two social factors that led to the scramble for colonies in Africa by European powers. (2 marks)

9 Name one African country that was not colonized by the European powers. (1 mark)

10 State two roles played by the African chiefs in British Colonial administration in Nigeria. (2 marks)

11 Name the Chartered company that administered Zimbabwe during the process of colonization. (1 mark)

12 Give the main reason for the formation of the League of Nations in 1919. (1 mark)

13 Give two economic reasons for the growth of African Nationalism in Ghana. (2 marks)

14 Outline two factors that enabled Tanzania to maintain national unity since independence. (2 marks)

15 What is ‘veto power’ as used by the United Nations? (1 mark)

16 Name one major political party in the United States of America. (1 mark)

17 Name one type of election held for the House of Commons in Britain. (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

18 (a) Give three physical characteristics of the Homo erectus. (3 marks)

b) Explain six cultural practices of Homo sapiens during the New Stone Age. (12 marks)

19 (a) State three disadvantages of coal as a source of energy. (3 marks)

(b) Explain six effects of the Scientific inventions on industry. (12 marks)

20 (a) State three factors that contributed to the development of the Trans-Atlantic trade. (3 marks)

(b)Explain six negative effects on Trans-Atlantic trade on African Communities. (12 marks)

21 (a) State three factors that enabled European powers to colonize Africa in the late 19“ Century. (3 marks)

(b) Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on the Africans. (12 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any TWO questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

22 (a) Give three functions of the Kabaka of Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period. (3 marks)

(b) Describe the political organization of the Shona during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)

23 (a) Identify five ways through which the United Nations (UN) promotes good governance in the World. (5 marks)

(b) Explain five achievements of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) since its formation. (10 marks)

24 (a) State three objectives for the formation of Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). (3 marks)

(b) Explain six challenges facing the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). (12 marks)

13.1 HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT (311)

13.1 History and Government Paper 1 (311/1)

SECTION A (25 marks)

1 Give two unwritten sources of information on History and Government. (2 marks)

(i) Oral traditions/oral sources/riddles/myths

(ii) Archaelogy/paleontology

(iii) Genetics

(iv) Linguistics

(v) Anthropology

Any 2 x 1=2 marks

2 What was the main reason for the migration of the Eastern Bantu from Shungwaya during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)

Due to attacks by the Galla/attacks

1 x 1 = 1 mark

3 Give two reasons why Kenyan Communities fought against each other during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)

(i) Competition for land for cultivation/settlement.

(ii) Competition for Water/pasture.

(m) To demonstrate their military power.

(iv) To raid for cattle.

Any 2 x 1=2 marks

4 Identify the two main item of trade from the interior of Kenya during the long distance trade.

(2 marks)

(i) Ivory

(ii) Slaves

Any 2 x 1=2 marks

5 Identify two contributions made by the early Christian missionaries in the field of education in Kenya. (2 marks)

(i) They set up schools/encouraged Africans to go to school.

(ii) They taught Africans how to read/write.

(iii) They taught Africans vocational skills

(iv) They translated the Bible into African languages

(v) They wrote books/dictionary

Any 2 X 1= 2 marks

6 Give the meaning of the term ‘national integration. (1 mark)

It is the process of bringing together people of diverse backgrounds in a country. 1 x 1 = 1 mark

7 What constitutional amendment made Kenya return to a multi-party state‘? (1 mark)

Repeal of section 2A of the constitution in 1991.

1 x l = 1 mark

8 Name the document which contain the Rights of the child in Kenya. (1 mark)

The Children's Act of 2001.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

9 Identify two economic benefits of the Kenya-Uganda railway during the colonial period. (2 marks)

(i) It facilitated the transportation of goods/services.

(ii) It led to the development of urban centres.

(iii) It facilitated the movement of traders/promoted trade.

(iv) It opened up the interior for economic development. eg. plantation agriculture and industry

(v) It led to the creation of employment opportunities.

(vi) It led to development of other forms of transport & communication eg. roads and telecommunication

(vii) It was a major source of revenue for the colonial authority.

Any 2 X 1=(2 marks)

10 Give two ways through which the white settlers acquired land in Kenya during the colonial period. (2 marks)

(i) The colonial government provided land to the settlers.

(ii) The white settlers bought land from the colonial government.

(m) The colonial govemment passed land legislations that encouraged white settlers to own land.

Any 2 x 1=2 marks

11 State two problems faced by trade union movement during the colonial period in Kenya. (2 marks)

(i) It had insufficient funds to run its activities.

(ii) The colonial government harassed its leaders.

(iii) Constant wrangling among the leaders which weakened the movement/poor leadership

(iv) Most people did not support trade unions due to ignorance.

Any2 x 1 =2marks 12 State one change introduced by the Lyttleton constitution of 1954 that benefitted the Africans in the struggle for independence. (1 mark)

(i) It led to the establishment of a multi-racial council of ministers to replace the Governor's executive council.

(ii) The ban on political organisations was lifted/allowed political organisations to operate at district level.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

13 What was the main contribution of Thomas Joseph Mboya to the History of Kenya?

He led/organised the trade union movement.

i 1 x 1 = 1 mark

14 State the main functions of parliament in Kenya. (1 mark)

To make laws.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

15 Give one member of the AEMO at its inception in 1957. (1 mark) - Daniel Arap Moi

- Masinde Muliro

- Lawrence Oguda

- James Muimi/James Nzau

- Tom Mboya

- Ronald Ngala

- Bemard Mate

- Oginga Odinga

Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark

16 Name the education commission that recommended the introduction of 814:4 education system in Kenya. (1 mark)

Mackay Report/Commission.

1 x 1 = 1 mark

17 Give two external sources of Government revenue in Kenya. (2 marks)

(i) Loans.

(ii) Grants.

(iii) Donations

Any 2 x 1 =2 marks

SECTION B (45 marks)

18 (a) State five economic activities of the Borana during the pre-colonial period.

(5 marks)

They participated in trade.

They kept livestock.

They hunted wild animals.

They were gatherers.

They practised crafts.

They practised fishing.

They made iron tools.

They grew food crops.

Any 5 points x 1 = 5 marks

(b) Describe the social organisation of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)

The lowest social unit was the family which comprised of the father, his wife/wives and children.

Several related families formed a clan.

The Maasai were organised into age groups/age sets which were made up of people who were circumcised at the same period.

There was a warrior class whose duty was to defend the community/conduct raids.

The Maasai believed in the existence of a supreme God Enkai, who was the creator of the universe.

There was a religious leader, Laibon who mediated between the community and Enkai.

Theyoffered sacrifices to God in special places/celebrated the Eunoto ceremony that marked graduation into Moranhood..

They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits whom they revered.

Any 5 points x 2 = 10 marks

19 (a) State three reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan Coast in the 15th Century. (3 marks)

They wanted to find a sea route to India.

They wanted to spread Christianity/reduce the Muslim influence.

They wanted to take part in the Coastal trade.

To control strategic points on the East African Coast from other European rivals/to act as a supply basis for their sailing vessels.

Due to desire for exploration/adventure. Any 3 X 1 = 3 marks

(b) Explain six effects of the Portuguese rule on the East African Coast. (12 marks)

The Portuguese built Fort Jesus for defence purpose which later became a tourist attraction.

Their harsh and cruel manner of suppressing rebellions led to loss of lives.

They introduced new food crops which are staple foods for many Kenyans.

Constant rebellions against the Portuguese rule interfered which the trading activities leading to its decline.

The coastal towns that resisted Portuguese rule were destroyed and left in ruins.

They educated the coastal people on how to use animal manure in farming and thus increasing crop yields.

Some words borrowed from Portuguese language were used to enrich Kiswahili language.

The Portuguese imposed heavy taxation which impoverished the coastal people.

They fostered good relations between the EA coast and India.

Any 6 x 2 =12 marks

20 (a) Identify three methods used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya. (3 marks)

Signing treaties between colonial agents and African rulers/collaboration.

Use of military attacks against unfriendly communities/use of force.

Establishing administrative stations/operational basis.

Offering gifts to friendly chiefs/treachery.

Use of missionaries to pacify Africans through preaching.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

(b) Explain six results of the Nandi resistance against British occupation. (12 marks)

The land belonging to the Nandi was alienated for white settlement.

The Nandi lost their independence as the British established their rule.

The Nandi were resettled in reserves where they could not carry out their farming activities.

They were forced to live as squatters on European farms where they provided cheap labour.

There was massive loss of life as the British forces raided/carried out punitive expeditions.

The Nandi lost property which was either destroyed or confiscated by the British.

The Nandi lost their military superiority in the region as they were subdued by the British.

The Nandi warriors were conscripted into the colonial security forces.

Any 6 x 2 =12 marks

21 (a) State five demands made by the East African Association (EAA) to the British Colonial Government in Kenya. (5 marks)

They demanded for the retum of alienated land.

They wanted the colonial government to abolish hut/poll tax.

They demanded for the abolition of the Kipande.

They demanded for better working and living conditions.

They demanded that elections to the legislative council be on a common roll.

They demanded for the abolition of forced labour.

They demanded for more education for Africans.

They demanded an end to compulsory dc-stocking.

They demanded for the revocation of the colonial status in Kenya.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

(b) Explain five factors that promoted the rise of African nationalism in Kenya after 1945. (10 marks)

Acquisition of Western Education by many Africans enabled them to understand political developments at international level and forcefully demanded for independence.

The experiences of the ex-soldiers in the second world war made them realize that Europeans were not superior hence the demand for self rule.

The realization by Britain that colonies were expensive to administer hence the need to grant them self rule/ The rise to power of the British Labour Party.

The granting of independence to India in 1947 inspired Africans to demand for political independence.

The support given by pan-Africanists in demanding for political independence gave Africans confidence to press for political freedom.

The decolonization policy by the United Nations inspired African nationalists to press on for independence.

The failure by the colonial government to reward the ex-world war II soldiers increased the agitation for independence.

The signing of the Atlantic charter in 1941.

Any 5 x 2 =10 marks

SECTION C (30 marks)

22 (a) State three circumstances that can make a Kenyan citizen to be denied the right to life. (3 marks)

When defending one self/property.

When effecting a lawful arrest.

When preventing escape of a lawfully detained person.

When preventing a person from committing a crime/felony.

In a situation of war.

When suppressing a riot/rebellion/mutiny.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

(b) Explain six civic responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen. (12 marks)

A responsible citizen pays tax to enable the government meet its financial obligation.

To participate in community development activities to improve the welfare of people in the community.

To participate in the democratic process by electing leaders/being elected to ensure good governance.

To obey laws so as to enhance peace in the society.

Takes care of the environment in order to promote healthy living.

Prevents/fights corruption to promote proper utilization of resources by all.

Promotes/protects the rights and freedom of all people in society for harmonious co- existence.

Promotes the rule of law by reporting wrong doers/law breakers to the police.

Participate in National debates.

Any 6 x 2 =12 marks

23 (a) Give three reasons why general elections are important in Kenya. (3 marks)

They provide Kenyans with an opportunity to choose political leaders.

They enable Kenyans to exercise their democratic rights.

They offer alternative ideas of running the government through different political parties manifestos/removal of leaders who have failed.

It is a constitutional requirement.

They make elected leaders/prospective leaders work hard to ensure that they are re- elected/elected.

Any3 x 1=3 marks (b) Explain six functions of the body in charge of elections in Kenya. (12 marks)

To maintain and revise the voters() register to ensure it is up to date.

To prepare, distribute and ensure safety of election materials/polling’ stations.

To conduct voter education in the country in order to prepare citizens for the voting exercise.

To conduct and supervise elections so as to ensure they are free and fair/appoint and train election officials.

To conduct language proficiency tests for candidates interested in vying for different posts before nomination is carried out.

To announce and provide a time-table to be followed during the election period.

To receive nomination papers fi-om the candidates cleared to vie by their political parties.

To announce the results and declare the winners for the respective seats.

Divides/delimits,names and review of electoral areas.

Any 6 x 2= 12 marks

24 (a) Identify three social functions of local authorities. (3 marks)

They issue trade licenses.

They provide market areas.

They provide employment opportunities.

They approve building plans/provision of housing services.

They impose cess/other levies.

Provision of education services eg. nursery and Primary education.

Provision of health/sanitation services eg. hospitals & mortuary services.

Provision of entertainment facilities eg. stadiums, social hall & parks.

Provision of security and fire brigade services.

Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks

(b) Explain six challenges facing local authorities in Kenya. (12 marks)

Most local authorities have inadequate funds hence not able to provide quality services.

Increased population has led to congestion in urban centres hence overstretching the social amenities.

Corruption/mismanagement of funds by some officers has made it difficult for the local authorities to pay its employees and provide quality services.

Some local authorities are too small to be able to sustain themselves.

Influential politicians interfere with the running of the local authorities hence making it difficult for them to operate efficiently/lack of authority from central government.

Increased crime rate has led to vandalization of properties belonging to local authorities hence leading to heavy losses.

The presence of street families/children has contributed to insecurity/puts strain on provision of social services

Slums have mushroomed which have interfered with proper planning leading to poor service delivery/poverty eradication.

Poor disposal of waste has resulted to environmental degradation leading to outbreaks of diseases/epidemics.

Shortage of qualified manpower/personnel.

Traffic congestion.

Any 6 x 2= 12 marks

13.2 History and Government Paper 2 (311/2)

SECTION A (25 marks)

1. Give two archaeological sources of information on History and Government. (2 marks)

(i) Tools/utensils used by man;

(ii) Weapons used by man;

(iii) Settlements/ruins of the past/rock painting;

(iv) Remains of human/animals;

(v) Plant remains

(vi) Garments/Ornaments

(vi) Coins used by man

(any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

2.Give two reasons that made early human beings to live in groups during the Stone Age period.

(2 marks)

(i) For companionship;

(ii) For security;

(iii) To share resources;

(iv) To help one another. (any 2 X 1 = 2 marks)

3. Identify two ways through which early agriculture spread in Africa. (2 marks)

(i) through migration;

(ii) through trade;

(iii) through intermarriages;

(iv) through wars. (any 2 x 4 = 2 marks)

4. State two limitations of using animal transport. (2 marks)

(i) Animals are affected by poor health/injuries/attacks by wild animals;

(ii) Rugged terrain/extreme weather conditions hampers the movement of animals;

(iii) Animal transport has limited carrying capacity;

(iv) Animal transport is time consuming/slow;

(v) Some animals are stubborn;

(vi) Animal transport is limited to daytime and not night time.

(any 2 X 1 = 2 marks)

5. Why was silent trade practised by Trans-Saharan traders? (1 mark)

- Due to language barrier/lack of common language.

6. Identify the main factor that led to the growth of the ancient town of Meroe. (1 mark)

- Existence of iron ore.

7. What was the main function of the Council of elders among Africa societies during the pre-colonial period? (1 mark)

- They mediated/settled disputes/made peace in the community.

8. State two social factors that led to the scramble for colonies in Africa by European powers. (2 marks)

(i) The need to abolish slave trade;

(ii) The desire to spread Christianity/protect missionaries;

(m) The desire to spread western civilization/education;

(iv) The need to settle surplus population. (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

9. Name one African country that was not colonised by the European powers. (1 mark)

(i) Ethiopia

(ii) Liberia (any 1 x l = 1 marks)

10. State two roles played by the African Chiefs in the British Colonial administration in Nigeria.

(i) They represented the colonial government at the local level; (2 marks) (ii) They recmited labour for public Works;

(m) They collected taxes for the colonial government;

(iv) They communicated colonial government policies to the people;

(v) They tried/heard cases in the local courts. (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

11. Name the chartered company that administered Zimbabwe during the process of colonization. (1 mark)

- The British South Africa Company (BSAC). (1 mark)

12. Give the main reason for the formation of the League of Nations in 1919. (1 mark)

- To promote/sustain world peace/security. (1 mark)

13. Give two economic reasons for the growth of African nationalism in Ghana. (2 marks)

(i) The order by the colonial government that Africans uproot cocoa trees affected by diseases;

(ii) The colonial government denied Africans trading licences;

(iii) African farmers earned low incomes from the sale of cocoa to European firms;

(iv) High unemployment rate for the Africans.

(v) Sharp increase in prices of goods. (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

14. Outline two factors that enabled Tanzania to maintain national unity since independence. (2 marks)

(i) Adherence to the policy of socialism (ujamaa);

(ii) Application of the constitution;

(iii) Use of Kiswahili as a national language;

(iv) Leadership that was willing to embrace changes/good leadership

(any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

15. What is ‘veto power’ as used by the United N ations? (1 mark)

A decision cannot be adopted if any of the permanent members of the Security Council votes against it. - (1 mark)

16. Name one major political party in the united states of America. (1 mark)

(i) Republican party;

(ii) Democratic party. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

17. Name one type of election held for the House of Common in Britain. (1 mark)

(i) General election;

(ii) By-election. (any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

18. (a) Give three physical characteristics of the Homo erectus. (3 marks)

(i) had upright posture/bipedal;

(ii) had protruding jaws;

(iii) was about 5 feet tall/1.52m;

(iv) had slopping forehead.

(v) had deep set eyes/deep eye socket;

(vi) Had hairy body. i (any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six cultural practices of Homo Sapiens during the New Stone Age. (12 marks)

(i) made microlithic tools which were small and more efficient than the earlier tools;

(ii) lived in rock shelters/caves/huts to protect themselves from harsh weather/wild animals;

(iii) Decorated shelters with animal paintings/hunting scenes;

Began to domesticate animals/plants in order to ensure regular food supply;

(v) Developed speech which made communication easier;

(vi) Developed government by setting up rules/laws;

(vii) Developed religion as evidence by the practice of burying the dead with their possessions.

They practised simple Art and Craft work/pottery/basketry/weaving;

They started a settled way of life where they established villages;

They wore a variety of garments/clothings;

They decorated bodies with red ochre/wore ornaments.

(any 6 x 2 = 12 marks)

19. (a) State three disadvantages of coal as a source of energy. (3 marks)

(i) Coal is bulky to transport;

(ii) Coal causes pollution;

(iii) Mining of coal can lead to injuries/death;

(iv) It is a non-renewable source of energy;

(v) Coal was expensive to mine and transport.

(any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six effects of the scientific inventions on industry. (12 marks)

(i) Machines have been improved which produce goods on a large scale;

(ii) Alternative sources of energy have been developed for use in industries;

(iii) Invention of steam engine has improved transportation of raw materials to the industries finished goods to the market;

The development of the printing press has enabled people to read and acquire knowledge/information about industrialization;

there has been loss of lives through industrial accidents;

Data processing/storage has been improved by use of computers;

Robots have been developed which have reduced over reliance on human labour/reduced labour costs.

Development of telecommunication has led to buying/selling of goods on the internet/e~commerce;

Research has enabled industries to recycle waste products in manufacturing usable goods. (any 6 x 2 = 12 marks)

20. (a) State three factors that contributed to the development of the Trans-Atlantic trade. (3 marks)

availability of trade items;

demand for slaves in the New World;

availability of sailing ships;

the discovery of the compass;

availability of fire arms;

existence of trade routes/trade links. (3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six negative effects of Trans-Atlantic trade on African Communities. (12 marks)

There was increased instability/conflicts among communities as traders raided for slaves;

Many Africans lost their live during the slave raids;

Traditional industries declined as Africans acquired a taste of European goods;

There was increased suffering among families as their loved ones were separated/sold to slavery;

Some kingdoms declined due to continuous attacks from their neighbours in search of trading items;

There was destruction of property as communities raided each other for trade items;

It contributed to the decline of the Trans-saharan trade as many people found it more profitable;

There was a decline in agricultural production as the able bodied people were taken away into slavery.

There was serious depopulation in west and parts of Central Africa due to slave'~ trade;

Trade exposed west Africa to new diseases;

There was fear and insecurity due to frequent raids on African settlements;

Weakened African Communities - could not resist colonisation;

African lost confidence in their chiefs who sold them to slave dealers.

(any 6 x 2 = 12 marks)

21. (a) State three factors that enabled Europeans powers to colonize Africa in the late 19 Century. (3 marks)

Disunity among African communities;

Superior weapons used by European armies;

Weak African communities due to wars/natural calamities;

Some communities collaborated with the Europeans;

African ignorance about Europeans intentions;

(any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six effects of the partition of Africa on African communities.

Africans lost independence as Europeans established colonies;

African economies weakened by the European exploitation of the resources;

the African system of government were replaced by European system;

Africans adopted European language which became official languages in the colonies;

Modem African states were created by the boundaries drawn during the partition;

Some African communities were split by the boundaries which were drawn during the partition;

Africans lost land as Europeans established permanent settlements.

Africans lost their lives/property as they resisted occupation.

African cultures were undermined through the introduction of Western education/spread of Christianity/health;

Closer ties were forged between Africans and Europeans which

created over-dependance on Europe;

Intensification of warfare among African communities;

Infrastructure was developed to link major mining and agricultural areas;

Introduction of new policies eg. forced labour, taxation which were unpopular among Africans.

(any 6 x 2 =12 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

22. (a) Give three functions of the Kabaka of Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period- (3 marks)

(i) He was the Commander in-Chief of the armed forces;

(ii) Kabaka appointed/dismissed Saza chiefs/senior government official;

(iii) He was head of traditional religion;

(iv) He was the head of judiciary/final court of appeal;

(v) He awarded honotus to officers who offered distinguished service;

(any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Describe the political organisation of the Shona during the pre-colonial period. (12 marks)

(i) The Shona were ruled by an emperor/King who had absolute authority over the subjects;

(ii) The emperorfis position was hereditary so as to reduce succession disputes;

(iii) The emperor was assisted in the administration by the queen mother, the queen sister, army commander, head drummer, head door keeper or head cook ;

(iv) There was an advisory council whose work was to advise the emperor.

(v) there empire was divided into provinces which were headed by Provincial/lesser kings;

(vi) the provinces were divided into Chiefdoms ruled by chief;

(vii) Under the chief were headmen Who were in charge of the villages.

(viii) The empire had a standing army whose main duty was to defend/expand the empire.

(ix) The king/emperor was symbol of unity as he was semi-divine .

(x) there existed priests who acted as spies for the emperor/king.

(any 6 x 2 = 12 marks)

23. (a) Identify five ways through which the United Nations (U.N) promotes good govemance in the world. (5 marks)

(i) Sends observers to monitor national elections in various states.

(ii) Provides financial/logistical assistance to countries during national elections;

(iii) Helps countries to attain independence/establish democratic governments;

(iv) Sends peace keeping forces to war torn countries;

(v) Ensures representation of member states in the General Assembly;

(vi) Arbitrates disputes between countries/warring groups;

(vu) Monitors/condemns violation of human rights.

(any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Explain five achievements of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) since its formation. (10 marks)

(i) Provided a platform where member countries would speak with one voice in international fora.;

(ii) Has encouraged member countries to articulate their national interests before those of the super powers;

(iii) Enables the member countries to exert their voting power/influence in world affairs.;

(iv) Hastened the attainment of independence to those countries that were still under colonial rule;

(v) Has promoted peace/security by encouraging member countries to observe neutrality in super power conflicts;

(vi) Has played a key role in disarmament by condemning the arms race.

(vii) Has promoted the creation of a new international economic order by encouraging member countries to trade with any of the two super power blocs/ financial assistance from both power blockers.

(viii) Has given funds to the needy countries through a fund, created to address , demanding circumstances.

(any 5 x 2 = 10 marks)

24. (a) State three objectives for the formation of Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). (3 marks)

(i) to cooperate in creating a conducive environment for foreign/cross border/domestic investment;

(ii) to cooperate in the promotion of peace/security/stability among member states;

(iii) to strengthen relations between COMESA members and the rest of the world/adopt a common position in international fora;

(iv) to cooperate in realizing the objectives of the African economic community; (v) to promote a more balanced/harmonious development of its production marketing structures;

(vi) to promote joint development in all economic fields in order to raise the living standards of the people.

(any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

(b) Explain six challenges facing the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. (COMESA). (12 marks)

(i) poor transport network has hampered movement of goods/services between member states;

(ii) The member countries produce similar goods thus limiting the market;

(iii) Some member countries belong to other regional economic blocks/hence not fully committed to COMESA/divided loyalty;

(iv) Civil wars in some member states hamper smooth flow of goods due to insecurity hence lowering the volume of trade;

(v) Border disputes among some member states make it difficult for them to cooperate;

(vi) Some member states prefer trading with their former colonial masters thus posing stiff competition to products from COMESA region;

(vii) Failure of some member states to harmonise tariffs has undermined free flow of goods /services;

(viii) withdrawal of some member states has undermined the planning/financing of COMESA operations;

(ix) Member states pursue their national interests thereby working against the objectives of COMESA;

(X) Personality differences between the leaders eg. Museveni and Albashir;

(xi) Quarrels over trading rights eg. Egypt and Kenya;

(xii) Natural calamities eg. floods, drought leading to massive food shortages and famine

(any 6 x 2 = 12 marks)

KCSE Results » KCSE Results Top 100 Schools - Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education – KCSE » KCSE Top 100 Candidates » Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education – KCSE » KNEC - Kenya National Examinations Council » Secondary Schools in Kenya » KNEC - Kenya National Examinations Council » Free KNEC KCSE Past Papers

Kenya Scholarships for Undergraduate Students » Kenya Scholarships for Postgraduate Students » Undergraduate Scholarships for Kenyan Students » Kenya Undergraduate Scholarships » Full Undergraduate Scholarships for Kenyans » Kenya Postgraduate Scholarships » Scholarships & Grants » Undergraduate Scholarships » Universities in Kenya » Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS) » Colleges in Kenya » KASNEB Registration & Results » Secondary Schools Scholarships in Kenya » Undergraduate & Graduate Scholarships for Kenyans

Scholarships for African Students » Undergraduate Scholarships » African Women Scholarships & Grants » Developing Countries Scholarships » Erasmus Mundus Scholarships for Developing Countries » Fellowship Programs » Funding Grants for NGOs » Government Scholarships » LLM Scholarships » MBA Scholarships » PhD and Masters by Research Scholarships » Public Health Scholarships - MPH Scholarships » Refugees Scholarships » Research Grants » Scholarships and Grants

Scholarships in Australia » Scholarships in Belgium » Scholarships in Canada » Scholarships in Germany » Scholarships in Italy » Scholarships in Japan » Scholarships in Korea » Scholarships in Netherlands » Scholarships in UK » Scholarships in USA

Scholarship 2017/18

Undergraduate Scholarships,
Masters Scholarships,
PhD Scholarships,
International Scholarships.