KCSE Past Papers English 2013 

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4.1 ENGLISH (101)

4.1.1 English Paper 1 (101/1)

1.(a) Imagine that you are the caretaker of Fahari Children ‘s Home in Bahati. There is a heavy storm one evening. After the storm you discover that one of the children is missing. The child is hearing impaired (deaf). Write a notice appealing to the public for help to trace the child. There will be a handsome reward for information that will help locate the child. - (10 marks)

(b) Three days later, you receive a telephone call from the local police station informing you that the child has been found. Write a thank you note to the person who found and brought the child to the police station. giving details of how he/she will receive the reward‘ (10 marks)

2 Read the passage below and fill in each blank space with an appropriate word. (10 marks)

When people hurt you, should you lash out at them 1 .......................... .. give them a piece of your 2 .......................... ..? There are those that argue that 3 .......................... .. your emotions is much better than suppressing them. Perhaps the 4 .......................... .. lies in between.

What most people would readily agree 5.................... is the fact that it is 6......................to run away from the cause of your hurt because 7........................ .. is likely to breed resentment. Imagine that your cube mate in the dormitory has 8 .......................... .. damaged your reputation by telling blatant lies about you.
instead of 9 .......................... .. him or her to settle the matter, you move to the 10 .......................... .. cubicle. You may feel better for some time, but what if the teacher puts the two of you in a discussion group?

3. Read the poem below and then answer the questions that follows

FEBRUARY 6. 2009

i find myself
looking at Black men
with different eyes

thinking things like

Act right fool, don 't you know
we got a Black president.

i take Bamck’s
success & failure

i feel as if

i represent him
as much as
he does me

From Auction Block to Oval Office: 100 Poems in 100

Days of Obama’s Presidency by Kahlil Almustafa.

New York: MVMT Publishing, 2009.

(i) identify one instance of alliteration in this poem. (1 mark)

(ii) Give two examples of assonance in this poem. (2 marks)

(iii) How would you perform the lines in italics? (4 marks)

3 (a) Read the poem below and then answer the questions that follow.

(iv) Pronouns such as “him” and “me” are usually not stressed. Explain why you would stress them in the last stanza. (l mark)

(b) Identify any five pairs of words that are pronounced the same from the list below.

phloem mad
floors flaws
berry coarse
clause mud
course cause
close cloze
bold bald
floss flame
phlegm bury
(5 marks)

For each of the following words. underline the par! that is stressed


re.gis.ter (verb)

ap.proach (noun)

a.larm (noun)

a.buse (noun) (5 marks)

Your school has organized a farewell party for the fomar four students. You have been asked at short notice to move a vote of thanks.

This will take the form of an impromptu speech.

List the elements of your speech in the order in which they will appear. (6 marks)

Read the dialogue below and then answer the questions that follow.

REHEMA : Good morning, Aisha.

AISHA: Good morning.

REHEMA: ( frowning ) You don ’t look happy... What’s the matter?

AISHA:l have just received a call from home, and...

REHEMA : Ah, these fellows from home are always calling. My mother also called me.

AISHA: Well, in my case, it is bad news. My brother...

REHEMA: As I was saying. my mother called me, and all she wanted to tell me is that they’re fine. ( shaking her head absenrmindedly)

AISHA: My brother was involved in a car accident. But you’re not listening...

REHEMA: What did you say?

AISHA: ( despairingly ) I give up.

(i) What kind of listener is Rehema? Illustrate your answer. (4 marks)

(ii) What should Rehema do to improve her listening skills? (2 marks)

4.1.2 English Paper 2

1 Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. (20 marks) To understand garbage, both industrial and domestic. you have to touch it, feel it and smell it.

You have to pick through hundreds of tons of it, counting and weighing all the daily newspapers, the directories, the soiled diapers, the lipstick cylinders coated with grease, the medicine vials still encasing brightly coloured pills, the forsaken toys, and cigarette butts.

You have to sort and weigh the volume of all the organic matter, discards from thousands of plates: rice; ugali; fish heads to which justice has hardly been done; rotting water melons bleeding from gaping holes; the half eaten bananas, mostly still within their peels.

black and incomparably swcet in the embrace of the final decay.

To understand garbage, you need thick gloves, a mask and a vibrant immune system.

However, the knowledge harvested from a dumpsite makes up for the grim working conditions.

To an archaeologist, ancient garbage pits are among the happiest finds.

Every archaeologist dreams of discovering spectacular objects — but the bread and butter work of archaeology involves the most common and routine kinds of discards.

Interestingly, much conventional wisdom about garbage and its disposal consists of myths and assertions that tum out, upon investigation, to be misleading or dead wrong. For example, plastics are assumed to constitute the highest quantity of waste matter.

For the record, the item most frequently encountered in a dump site is plain old paper.

At one point, there was a lot of talk about how technology, computers in particular, would bring about “paperless office” — a risky prediction, given the way things have turned out.

Personal computers and printers grace many offices and homes today. Consequently, where the creation of paper waste is concerned, technology is proving to be a fertility drug rather than a contraceptive.

Concerning plastics, it is true that the number of plastic objects has been increasing over the years.

Nevertheless, the proportion of space they take up in a dump site has hardly changed.

The explanation appears to be the result of what is called “light-weighting" - making objects in such a way that they retain all their functional characteristics but require the use of less resin.

These days, even the plastic in disposable diapers ensures that they enter the house very light but leave it much heavier than ever before.

The result is that many more plastic items can be squeezed into a given volume.

Plastics are the Great Satan: gaudy, cheap, a convenient scapegoat for people who claim we waste and consume too much.

Although it is paper more than anything else that is filling up the dumpsites, in its defense one frequently hears the claim that paper biodegrades while plastic remains inert and will take up space until the end of time. Not really.

The reality is that the dynamics of a modem dumpsite are very nearly the opposite of what most people think.

Biologically and chemically, a dumpsite is much more static than we commonly assume.

For some kinds of garbage, biodegradation goes on for a while and then slows down to a virtual standstill.

For other kinds, biodegradation never gets underway at all.

[Adapted from "Five Major Myths about Garbage , and Why they Are Wrong" by William Rathje and Cullen Murphy, appearing in The Presence of Others (1994).

New York: St Martins Press]

1.a)From paragraph one, name two examples of industrial waste and two examples of domestic waste. ( l mark)

b)According to the passage, how does a banana change as it rots? (2 marks)

c)Why do you think a vibrant immune system is said to be important in understanding garbage? (2 marks)

d)In the following sentence, replace the underlined expression with one word. (l mark)

e)However, the knowledge harvested from a dump site makes up for the grim working conditions.Why do you think the author puts the words “paperless office" in quotation marks? (2 marks)

f)Explain how technology has become a fertility drug rather than a contraceptive. (3 marks)

g)What can we infer about resin? (2 marks)

h)ln point form, summarize the reasons why the author feels paper waste poses a greater danger to the environment than plastics. (4 marks)

i)Explain the meaning of each of the following expressions as used in the passage. (3 marks)

bread and butter work;


gets underway.

Read the excerpt below and then answer the questions that follow.

PETER STOCKMANN: By the way, Hovstad was telling me he was going to print another of your articles.

DR. STOCKMANN: One of my articles?

PETER STOCKMANN: Yes, about the Baths. An article you apparently wrote during the winter.

DR. STOCKMANN: Oh. that one! No 1 wouldn‘t want that to appear now.

PETER STOCKMANN: Why not? l should have thought that this would be the most opportune moment.

DR. STOCKMANN: Yes, very likely — under normal conditions.

(crosses the room.)

PETER STOCKMANN :(Following him with his eyes) Is there anything extraordinary about the present conditions.

DR. STOCKMANN: (standing still) : To tell you the truth, Peter, l can’t tell you just at this moment — at least not tonight. There may be much that is very abnormal about the present conditions — and it is possible there may be nothing extraordinary about them at all. lt might very well be just my imagination.

PETER STOCKMANN: I must say it all sounds most mysterious. ls there something going

DR. STOCKMANN: on that I am not supposed to know? l should have imagined that l, as Chairman of the governing body of the Baths And l should have imagined that I Oh, "come, don’! let us fly often the handle at one another, Peter.

PETER STOCKMANN: Heaven forbid! I am not in the habit of flying off the handle, as

DR. STOCKMANN: you call it. But I am entitled to request most emphatically that all arrangements shall be made in a businesslike manner, through the proper channels and shall be dealt with by the proper authorities. I can allow no dubious or underhand methods. Have l ever at any time used dubious or underhand methods?

PETER STOCKMANN: You have an ingrained tendency to take things into your own hands,

DR. STOCKMANN: at least; and, that is almost equally inadmissible in a well-ordered community. The individual ought undoubtedly to subordinate himself or herself to the community — or, to be more accurate, to the authorities who have the care of the community ‘s welfare. Very likely. But what the devil has all this got to do with me?

PETER STOCKMANN: That is exactly what you never seem to learn my dear Thomas. But, mark my words, some day you will have to suffer for it — sooner or later.

a)Explain why the brothers, Peter and Thomas Stockmann, differ over the timing of publication of the article mentioned in this excerpt. (2 marks)

b)Give two reasons why Dr. Stockmann is reluctant to discuss the “present conditions” of the Baths with the mayor. (2 marks)

c)Identify and illustrate three character traits of Peter Stockmann evident in this excerpt. (6 marks)

d)In the light of what happens later in the play, say to what extent each of the two brothers has got “the care of the community’s welfare”. (4 marks)

e)What is it that Dr. Stockmann “never seems to learn” according to the mayor? (2 marks)

(i) “l-lave 1 ever at any time used dubious or underhand methods?“

(Rewrite in reported speech) (1 mark)

(g) ldentify and explain three aspects of foregrounding the author uses in this excerpt. (6 marks)

(h) Pick out a phrase in this excerpt that may suggest that Peter Stockmann exaggerates or even falsely accuses Dr. Stockmann of insubordination. Explain your answer. (2 marks)

Read the poem below and answer the questions that follow. '


They met by accident
He proposed the idea
She gave her consent
All the way to the altar

The casualty was male
And his pigment was pale
Unlike his alleged sire
Who was black with ire

The recourse was legitimate
He disclaimed responsibility
So they had to separate
The boy remains illegitimate

Last month, not long ago
They both took their go
Coincidentally by accident
No will, no estate
Nothing to inherit

The poor boy is hardly ten
And knows no next-of-kin
He roams the streets of town
Like a wind-sown out-cast

G. Gathemia

(F mm: Boundless Voices).
Edited by Arthur l. Luvai
(a) Briefly explain what the poem is about. (4 marks)

(b) Describe two character traits of the mother in the poem. (4 marks)

(c) Explain the meaning of the following as used in the poem. (3 marks)

(i) disclaimed

(ii) unlike his alleged sire who was black with ire

(d)Identify and explain one instance of irony in the poem.

(e)What is the persona’s attitude towards the boy in the poem?

(f)Rewrite the following in your own words.

(‘They both took their go’)

(g)Give a proverb which appropriately summarizes this poem.

(h)Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions after each. (i) It was difficult but we completed the task. (Begin: Difficult ...)

(ii) He said that he had not insulted me. (Use: ‘denied’ ...)

(iii) l will not at any cost support your evil plans. (Begin: At no cost ...)

(iv) She is renovating her house so that she may sell it. (Rewrite using: ‘with a view’ ...)

Explain the difference in meaning of each of the following pairs of sentences. (2 marks)

(i) I. Even I attended the ceremony.

ll. l even attended the ceremony.

(ii) l. Bring an umbrella if it rains.

ll. Bring an umbrella in case it rains.

Replace each of the underlined words with a phrasal verb.

(i) The meeting was postponed to a later date. ........................................... ..

(ii) After consultations the man agreed to assume the role of manager. (3 marks)

(iii) The number of smokers has decreased because of the cancer awareness campaign.

Fill in each of the blank spaces with the appropriate form of the wand in brackets. (3 marks)

(i) The chairman expressed doubts about the .......................................... .. of showing the film on children’s television. (suit)

(ii) We could not understand him. His actions were completely ...... .. (explain).

(iii) Wearing a mask, he was totally ........................................................... .. (recognize)

e) Fill in each of the blank spaces with the appropriate form of the ward in brackets. (i) If they had worked hard, they ...................... .. examination. (pass)

(ii) If the athlete had maintained the pace, she ................................ (overtake)

(iii) Unless the ambulance arrives in time, his life ......................... .. (save>

4.1.3 English Paper 3 (101/3)

Answer THREE questions only.

Imaginative Composition (compulsory) (20 marks)


1.(a) Write a story to illustrate the saying:

“A stitch in time saves nine.”


(b) Write a story ending with: _

...This is when l realised that it is noble to have and keep friends. The Compulsory Set Text (20 marks)

Ngugi wa Thiong’o, The River Between?

“Although change is inevitable, it comes with a lot of challenges.”

Drawing illustrations from the novel The River Between, write an essay illustrating the truth of this statement.

The Optional Set Texts (20 marks)

Answer any ONE of the following questions.


(a) The Short Story

llieva and Olembo (Ed.), When the Sun Goes Down and Other Stories With illustrations from Haruki Murakami’s short story “The Minor”, explain the problem of superstition in human life.


(b) Drama

John Ruganda, Shreds of Tenderness

“ln the opening section of the play Shreds of Tenderness, Odie engages in a one-sided dialogue with His Highness, The King of Termites. Much of it is diversionary, even verging on a ‘madman ’s’ gimmick. Yet it makes its contribution to the play.” Write an essay on the use Ruganda makes of these episodes both as a prologue to the play and as a commentary on the situation depicted in the play Shreds of Tenderness.


(c) The Novel

Witi lhimaera, The Whale Rider

“A seedling that will grow into a big tree can be spotted early." Using examples from the character of Kahu in the novel The Whale Rider, write a composition in support of this statement.


5.1 ENGLISH (101)

5.1.1 English Paper 1 (101/1)

1. Points of interpretation

(a) Must be a notice if not deduct 2 marks.

Format (3 marks)

  • Headings and subheadings - must be written clearly in catchy bold print to attract the attention of the reader.

  • Overall presentation -attractive design, use of capital letters e.t.c.

  • Include the following


    Name of Institution


    Format - name of a person/official designation

    Border line

    Date of notice

    Language (3 marks)v

  • Language accuracy - should communicate clearly and accurately

  • Use short clear phrases

    Content (4 marks)

  • Description of the child (2 marks)

    e.g. - height

  • Offer a handsome amount of money for information that will help locate the child. (1 mark)

  • Give contact details e.g. phone number. (1 mark)

  • complexion

  • age (mandatory)

  • clothing

  • indicate child is deaf (mandatory)

    (b) Expect an informal letter if not deduct 2 marks.

    The letter need not be long, it is the sincerity of the tone that matters. Format (3 marks)

  • Senders address and date

  • Salutation e.g. Dear Mrj Mrs e.t.c

  • Signing off e.g. yours sincerely e.t.c ,

    Language (4 marks)

  • Ability to communicate accurately

  • proficient use of language structures

  • coherency

  • appropriate punctuation

  • Tone - should adopt a relaxed formal tone since the addressee is not known by the sender.

  • Paragraphing

    Content (3 marks)

  • Sincere expression of thanks.

  • Details of how the person who found the child will receive their reward.

    (appreciation (1), reward (1), how, where and when (1))

    (1) and

    (2) mind

    (3) expressing

    (4) truth

    (5) on

    (6) cowardly wrong/ bad

    (7) this/ that! it

    (8) badly/ deliberately/ purposely/ intentionally

    (9) confronting

    ( 10) farthest! next/adjacent.

    (a) (i) thinking things - must underline sound

    (ii) i, find, myself

    with, different

    thinking, things

    don’t, know

    he, me

    (iii) stress “fool” (which comes before a pause in the first utterance); also stress “black” (to distinguish it from “white” presidents); the whole group of words is an exclamation, and it would be said at a particularly high pitch/rising and falling intonation. The words would also be spoken with a knowing, comic smile.

    Use gestures and a stem ironic facial expression.

    (iv) ' Pronouns like other function words are stressed when they occur in a final

    position. b) Contextually the pronouns indicate a shared identity black.

  • Berry - bury
  • Cloze - clause
  • Coarse - course
  • Flaws - floors

    c ) c. ol.league





    (<1) (i) d)(i)Acknowledgement (2 marks)

    Acknowledgement + greet the important people at the party: chair BOG, chair PTA, Principal, Deputy principal, Senior Teacher, Class teachers, Subject teachers, other members of the teaching staff, fellow students - greetings.

    (should follow a hierarchical order).

    (ii)Appreciation (3 marks)

  • Thank God (optional)
  • Thank the teachers/principal (mandatory)
  • Thank parents and guardians (optional)
  • Thank the organizers of the party (mandatory)
  • Thank the cooks, servers and other support staff (mandatory)
  • Thank form four students for behaving well (iii)Concluding remarks (e .g Thank you for listening to me + goodbye till we meet again - when we come for our results) (mandatory) God bless you. (1 mark)

    < e>Non - empathetic listener/callous/inconsiderate/insensitive/unfriendly.

  • Inattentive - absent minded
  • Impatient - interrupts Aisha’s speeches
  • Absent - minded - “what did your say?" Any two well illustrated points.

    (ii)Should try to enter Aisha’s world and look at things from her point of view.

  • Improve on her tum - taking and stop interrupting.
  • Should be more attentive stop being absent - minded.
  • Should stop being selfish.

    5.1.2 English Paper 2 (101/2)

    1. a)- Domestic waste: left~over rice, ugali, fish heads, rotting water melons and half-eaten bananas. (Any 2 = 1 mark)

    Industrial: newspapers, directories, soiled drape, lipstick cylinders, medicine vials, toys and cigarette butts. (Any 2 = 1 mark)

    (b) As it rots, a banana turns black and then becomes abnormally sweet. (2 marks)

    (c) Garbage harbours all manner of germs which could easily compromise an immune system that is already weak. (2 marks)

    (d) However, the knowledge han/ested from a dump-site compensates for the grim working conditions. (1 marks)

    (e)This is because the term is not the author’s. It has simply been borrowed from elsewhere. He is sarcastic about it. There is no office without paper.

    (2 marks)

    (f) Usually, whatever is processed on the computer needs to be printed. This spurs the generation of paper waste since the printed matter will eventually be discarded. This is quite contrary to the predicted reduction of paper waste. There is more creation of paper waste rather than its reduction. (2 marks)

    (g)Resin is a raw material used in manufacturing products and it makes them heavy. (2 marks)

  • paper products occupy too much space.

  • Unlike plastic products, paper waste has been increasing in dump-sites.
  • bread and butter work - basic;
  • static - unchanging/constant;
  • gets under way - begins/takes place. (3 marks)

    2. a)Peter Stockmann/the Mayor, is eager to have the article published at the time to attract more people to the Baths; more revenue (and therefore more profits for the shareholders of whom he is one) for the town. Dr. Stockmann on the other hand, is awaiting the confirmation of his suspicion of the contamination of the baths (pgs 50, 38, 86). Dr. is waiting for the lab reports, hence the need to delay. (2 marks)

    b)He is suspicious that the baths may be contaminated. Secondly, he is compelled to await the result analysis of samples sent to the University laboratories before he can commit to a final informed stand. ( 2 marks)

    c) Peter Stockmann comes through as:

    (i) bossy/a bully/intimidating - he attempts to threaten Dr. Stockmann by using his superior position; “.... someday you will ....”

    (ii) suspicious/impatient - he does not give Dr. Stockmann any chance to explain, but jumps to conclusion that Thomas is dealing unfaithfully and is withholding relevant infonnation from him;

    (iii) conceited - He fancies himself superior to Thomas and presumes to understand him better.

    (iv) Fastidious /stickler for protocol - he insists things must be done with due decorum and through the established authority.

    (v) Bureaucratic: “... through the proper channels and shall ...”

    (vi) Suspicious: “is there something going on ...”

    (vii) Impatient: “I should have thought that this ...."

    (viii) Vain/arrogant/conceited: I, as Chairman of the

    (Any three traits. 1 mark for trait, 1 mark for illustration = 6 marks)

    d)Peter Stockmann is conceded about the economic welfare of the community. (He opposes anything that may jeopardize livelihoods, but essentially he is protecting the economic class interests, not those of the common man. He is ready to sacrifice some for economic gain). Thomas Stockmann, on the other hand, is concerned about the health implications of the baths to the community and the visitors (tourists). He is ready to sacrifice short term gains for long term, sustainable gains. (4 marks)

    e) (i) That he needs to be careful to transact everything through the established authority/follow proper channels.

    (ii) The fact that his actions have consequences, some of which may be nasty. (Expect both, points = 2 marks)

    f) Dr. Stockmann challenged the Mayor to prove that he had ever used dubious or underhand methods] Dr. Stockmann demanded that the Mayor name even one instance when he had used dubious or underhand methods. Dr/He asked him if he had at any time used dubious or underhand methods. (1 marks)

    g) Foregrounding is the action of emphasizing/making something stand out using linguistic devices. It is used to highlight important aspects of a text l invite interpretation.


  • at least not tonight
  • He is waiting for the report.
  • “... or, to be more accurate ..." Respect or obey the authority (Mayor)
  • sooner or later The Mayor is threatening the Doctor.
  • “....I, as the Chairman of the ...." He is reminding the Doctor of his surbodinate position.
  • “at least”
  • “Never seem to learn .....";
  • “Dubious or underhand methods";
  • “ingrained tendency”. (2 marks)

    3.a)The poem is about a couple who rushed into marriage before they knew each other. The man discovers that he has been cheated when a child who is supposedly his offspring is of a different colour. The couple separate/Both die in an accident living the child helpless. (4 marks)

    b) The mother is unreliable/deceitful/unfaithful/dishonest/prorniscous/irnmoral/ untrustworthy. - She wants the man to accept responsibility for a child that he obviously has not fathered.

  • She’s calculating/scheming/conning.
  • She is irresponsible
  • She leaves no inheritance for the child - she has not introduced the child to any of his or her kin.

    1 mark for identification 1 marks for illustration. (Any two traits = 4 marks)

    c.(i) disclaimed - denied. (1 mark)

    (ii) The mother's husband is not the biological father of the child. (1 mark) This infuriated him for being cheated.

    (l mark)

    d) The birth of a child should have consolidated the manage yet it led to separation.

  • A pale child from a black father.
  • It is ironical that the child who is innocent is seen as illegitimate/He has not done anything wrong yet he is declared an out-cast.
  • An illegitimate child from a legitimate marriage.

    (Any one instance. 1 mark for identification 2 marks for explanation = 3 marks)

    (e)Attitude - pities/sympathetic: the casualty “the poor boy"

    The persona recognizes that the poor boy suffers because of other peoples mistakes.

    (2 marks for identification, 1 mark for explanation)=(3 marks)

    (f)They both died/they both passed on. (Any - 1 mark)


  • All that glitters is not gold.

    (h) - Hurry hurry has no blessing.

  • Look before you leap.

  • When two bulls fight, the grass suffers.
  • Marry in a hurry, repent at leisure. (Any one proverb - 2 marks)

    4.a) (i) Difficult as it was, we completed the task. (comma missing = V2 a mark)

    (ii) He denied insulting me ll-le denied having insulted me! he had insulted me.

    (iii) At no cost will I support your evil plans.

    (iv) She is renovating her house with a view to selling it. (4 marks)

    b)(I)The first sentence means “ the person also attended the ceremony in addition to those others cited while the second sentence means the person attended the ceremony in addition to doing those other things she did and which were previously mentioned. (1 mark)

    (ii) The first sentence advises the person to bring the umbrella only when it rains; the second one advises the person to bring an umbrella just to be on the safe side should it rain. (1 mark)


  • put off;
  • take up;
  • gone down. (3 marks)


  • suitability ;
  • inexplicable
  • unrecognisable. (3 marks)


  • would have passed;
  • would not have been overtaken;
  • will not be saved. (3 marks)

    (15 marks)

    5.13 English Paper 3 (101/3)


    Paper 101/3 is intended to test the candidates’ ability to communicate in writing. Communication is established at different levels of intelligibility, correctness, accuracy, fluency, pleasantness and originality. Within the constraints set by each question, it is the linguistic competence shown by the candidate that should carry most of the marks.

    Examiners should not hesitate to use the full range of marks for each essay.

    It is important to determine first how each essay communicates and in which category A, B, C or D it fits. D CLASS The candidate either does not communicate at all or his langiage ability is so (01 — O5) minimal that the examiner practically has to guess what the candidate wants to say. The candidate fails to fit the English words he knows into meaningful sentences. The subject is glanced at or distorted. Practically no valid punctuation. All kinds of errors (“Broken English").

    D - 01- 02 Chaotic, little meaning whatsoever. Question paper or some words from it simply copied. D 03 Flow of thought almost impossible to follow. The errors are continuous. D+ 04-05 Although the English is often broken and the essay is full of errors of all types, we can at least guess what the candidate wants to say.

    C CLASS The candidate communicates understandably but only more or less clearly. (06 - 10) He is not confident with his language. The subject is often undeveloped. There may be some digressions. Unnecessary repetitions are frequent. The arrangement is weak and the flow jerky. There is no economy of language; mother tongue influence is felt.

    C - 06-07 The candidate obviously finds it difficult to communicate his/her ideas. He/she is seriously hampered by his/her very limited knowledge of structure and vocabulary. This results in many gross errors of agreement, spelling, misuse of prepositions, tenses, verb agreement and sentence construction.

    C 08 The candidate communicates but not with consistent clarity. His/her linguistic abilities being very limited, he/she cannot avoid frequent errors in sentence structure. There is little variety or originality. Very bookish English, links are weak, incorrect, repeated at times.

    c+ 09-10 The candidate communicates clearly but in a fiat and uncertain manner. Simple concepts sentence forms are often strained. There may be an overuse of clinches, and unsuitable idioms. Proverbs are misquoted or misinterpreted. The flow is still jerky. There are some errors of agreement, tenses and spelling.

    B CLASS -This class is characterized by greater fluency and ease of expression.

    The (ll - 15) candidate demonstrates that he/she can use English as a normal way of expressing himself/herself. Sentences are varied and usually well constructed. Some candidates become ambitious and even over-ambitious. There may be items of merit of the one word or one expression type. Many essays in this category may be just clean and unassuming but they still show that the candidate is at ease with the language. There may be a tendency to under mark such essays. Give credit for tone.

    B - 11-12 The candidate communicates fairly and with some fluency. There may be little variety in sentence structure. Gross errors are still found occasionally, but this must not be over punished by the examiner.

    B (13)The sentences are varied but rather simple and straight forward. The candidate does not strain himself in an effort to impress. There is a fair range of vocabulary and idiom. Natural and effortless. Some items of merit, economy of language.

    B+( 14-15 ) The candidate communicates his ideas pleasantly and without strain. There are errors and slips. Tenses, spellings and punctuation are quite good. A number of items of merit of the “whole sentence" or the “whole expression” type.

    CLASS A (16-20) The candidate communicates not only fluently, but attractively, with originality and efficiency. He/She has the ability to make us share his deep feelings, emotions and, enthusiasm. He/She expresses himself freely and without any visible constraint. The script gives evidence of maturity, good planning and often humour. Many items of merit which indicate that the candidate has complete command of the language. There is no strain, just pleasantness, clever arrangement, felicity of expression.

    A- (16-17) The candidate shows competence and fluency in using the language. He may lack imagination or originality which usually provide the “spark” in such essays. Vocabulary, idiom, sentence structure, links, and variety are impressive. Gross errors are very rare.

    A (18) Positive ability. A few errors that are felt to be slips. The story or argument has a definite impact. No grammar problem. A variety of structures. A definite spark. Many margin ticks.

    A+( 19-20) The candidate communicates not only information and meaning, but also and especially the candidate’s whole self: his/her feelings, tastes, points of view, youth, culture. This ability to communicate deeply may express itself in a wide range of effective vocabulary, original approach, vivid and sustained account in the case of a narrative, well developed and ordered argument in the case of a debate or discussion. Errors and slips should not deprive the candidate of the full marks he deserves. A very definite spark.

    I The main signs indicate three degrees of seriousness of error.






    __, /\


    ‘ This sign in the margin is used only when a construction error affects more than one line.

    I The following symbols may also be used


    REPET_ITI_QN - (of words) a circle around the word

    R ' - (of ideas) usually in the margin


    l L.L

    VAGUENESS obscure/vague (in margin)

    \/ Obsc. . Ls

    WRONG WORD ORDER Underline once and write W.O. in margin


    ILLOGICAL or CONTRADICTORY ‘\/\/\.. ILL (in margin)

    BROKEN ENGLISH when the candidate fails to communicate BR in margin.


    COW to indicate that a candidate has used a pencil to make a correction.

    BRACKETS [ ] indicate a part of a D script that communicates.

    * Use an asterisk to indicate an item or a sentence that the rubrics indicate should be used

    II TO INDICATE AN ITEM OF MERIT use a tick (\/ ) either above a word or in the margin for the whole sentence.


    (a) Almost any error of agreement

    (b) Serious tense error -

    (c) Errors of elementary vocabulary: spelling and misuse

    (d) Punctuation errors or missing punctuation which causes serious lack of communication.

    (e) Elementary errors of sentence construction.

    (f) Ridiculous use of an idiom that affects communication.

    (g) Misuse of common prepositions

    (h) Misuse of capital letters - Use CAPS underline the first page

    (i) Contracted forms and use CAPS on subsequent pages

    where the mistake persists.


    (a) Decide on the degree of communication achieved, A - D

    (b) After underlining decide on the mark category

    (c) Allocate a numerical mark to the essay.


    All problem scripts must be marked by the examiner and then sent to the Team Leader with comments.


    (a) Consistent distortion of question, evasion of question, writing on a totally different subject with a clumsy attempt at connecting the essay to the subject given, inclusion of memorised passages, etc.

    (b) The question is given an unacceptable or questionable interpretation.

    (c) Essays contain long, semi-relevant digressions or lack coherence.


    The examiner marks the essay, gives a linguistic mark and comments on the nature of the irrelevancy. The essay is then passed over to the team leader who judges whether the irrelevancy should be judged as a deliberate attempt to deceive or should be attributed to the candidateOs poor understanding of the subject. Deduct up to 4 marks for irrelevancy in the essay. If dishonesty is suspected, the Chief Examiner should be informed. Any deduction of 3 marks or more should be referred to the Chief Examiner.


    Since the rubrics may change from year to year, the POINTS OF INTERPRETATION that are part of this MARKING SCHEME must be consulted and adhered to faithfully.


    (a) Decide on the category D+ D or D-.

    (b) Mark the errors on the whole essay.

    (c) Team leaders should look at a good number of those scripts and ensure that the mark given is fair.


    It should be remembered that the main quality of an essay is how effectively it communicates. If an essay looks too short, the examiner should take the time to count the exact number of words. If it exceeds 450 words - 2 pages - 2 AD KENYAN Efl§il,l§H

    A good number of words and expressions are understood and currently used by all Kenyans. They can be used in essays without any need for quotation marks or explanations. We can include among those:

    panga, rungu, shamba, murram, matatu

    wananchi, ugali, madarasa, harambee, matoke

    maendeleo ya Wanawake, salaam, ayah, askari

    debe, duka, Nyayo, boma, sukumawiki, goat party, manyatta, magendo.

    AM§RlQAfl §PELLIN§i

    Although “English” spelling is more common than “American” spelling in Kenya, examiners should accept both spellings and no penalty should be given for such variations. Penalize for lack of consistency in usage of either.


    1 (a) Must be a story. If not deduct 4 marks AD.

    Must be illustrative of a situation in which timely intervention saves the day. The situation could be a crack in a building, flying in bad weather etc. Some candidates may write on a situation gone awry because quick action is not taken.

    (b) Expect a story

    Must be a narrative or descriptive composition. If not deduct 4 marks AD

    Must end with the given sentence. If not deduct 2 marks AD Must be a personal account detailing a situation in which a friend offers assistance/advice that makes a significant difference in the life of the writer.

    2. The compulsory set text


    Change, even when it beneficial, is usually resisted, This is because people are more comfort- able with what is familiar than what they do not know / In fact there is a saying that “It is better the devil you know than the angel you don't know” / In The River Between, there is plenty of evidence to show that people will not accept change passively; they resist it. (Accept any other relevant introduction = 2 mark)


  • Education is resisted. Those who are loyal to the traditions fear that it will corrupt their c h il- dren. They are afraid that abandoning the traditions may have grave consequences for the com- munity.
  • Waiyaki who advocates for change and the introduction of westem education faces much 1 opposition from Kabonyi and others. They accuse him of being a traitor, His crime? Trying to reconcile the new and the old ways of life. pgs 14-15, 69-70, 85 - 88, 105-106, 113-114,124,126, 138 etc.
  • Joshua embraces the new religion with fanatical zeal, but some members of his household reject his brand of Christianity and rebel. His family disintegrates.
  • The changes brought about by the missionaries and the white men tear the community apart. There is rivalry and hatred. Some members of the Kiama even bum some homes belonging to Christians. pgs 5, 7-8, 28-29, 32, 67, 82-84, 96-97 etc
  • One of the changes that evokes tension in the community is the attempt to proscribe female circumcision. Muthoni refuses to abandon this custom although she knows the consequences - her father disowns her. Nevertheless, she dies a fulfilled woman. pgs22, 24, 25, 32, 54, 56-57, 65, 66 etc Colonial/new administration introduces tax, a government position and allienates land which is resisted by the Kiama who want to maintain the traditional governance through the Council of elders. pgs 30,60.61,1l4,123-124, 138,143 etc Leadership was a preserve of the elders but in the new order, younger people like Waiyaki take up leadership roles despite resistance from some elders like Kabonyi. This is eventually accepted. Pgs. 2, 3, 6-7, 20-21, 37-38, 78-79, 81, 91-93, 120-125 etc.


    Changes that are introduced in Kameno and Makuyu by the coming of the European are not embraced without a fight. It is tnie that some people accept the changes but on the whole, the society is deeply divided. A once cohesive community is facing disintegration. Even a person like Waiyaki who is committed to serving the people is rejected.

    (Accept any other valid conclusion = 2 marks)

    Accept any 4 developed points = 12 marks

    Grammar and presentation = 4 marks

    The Short story (20 marks)

    3 (a) Introduction

    Superstition does cause all manner of problems in society and in human life as we can see in Haruki Murakami's story "The mirror."

    (Accept any other relevant introduction = 2 marks). .

  • Outlook: The narrator talks of "ghosts and the like" as the link between the world of the living and the dead. People who claim they have seen ghosts are superstitious. Others have premonitions and can predict the future. page 64.
  • Elevator: When the narrator is in the elevator with two friends, the friends claim there was a woman standing next to him, the narrator. The narrator doesn't see the woman, but he wonders about the friends because he doesn't think they can play tricks on him.
  • Superstitions probably reflect our wishful thinking and our desires. These friends
  • conveniently" see a woman wearing a grey suit (grey being a colour of ambiguous significance). page 64
  • Fear/weird night events: The story seems to imply that superstition is associated with our fears. The narrator is a watchman" working at night (a time associated with fear). Before his strange encounter, he wakes up at 3 a.m. feeling (under stably?) weird. Pages 66 - 67
  • Carefree: Superstition could also be associated with an aimless and wandering life. The narrator drops out of school, becomes a hippie, and roams the country, doing unstable jobs. And for two months, he works as a watchman in a school in a tiny town. These are ideal conditions for superstitious thinking. page 65
  • The gate: Then there is the climate autumn. It is windy and hot. It is a time like this when your imagination can run away with you. The gate at the swimming pool keeps opening and closing, creating a rhythm that enhances the narrator's superstitious fear. I Denial: Superstition makes us do unreasonable things. The narrator has not talked about this incident for ten years for fear that it might happen again. The narrator has lived without a mirror; he shaves without it. Pages 64-65, 70
  • The Mirror: Superstition can make one hate himself/herself. In this story, it leads to a mild form of the so-called split personality. When the narrator is looking at him- self in the non—existent mirror, he hates what he sees and the "other" loathes him. He fears that if he looked in the mirror, he would have to confront something of himself that he doesn't want to confront. Pages 66 - 67, 68 Conclusion

    Ghosts are products of our imagination and conditions in the physical environment. In the final analysis, the narrator is saying we need to come to terms with our inner selves in order to deal with the problem of superstition and fear associated with it. To deal with the problem of ghosts in particular and superstition in general, we need to understand our inner selves, resolve our internal conflicts, and come to with the external environment.

    (Accept any other valid conclusion = 2 marks)

    Accept any 4 developed points = 12 marks

    Grammar and presentation = 4 marks

    (b) The Play


    Ruganda interwcaves the King of Termites story with the main story. Much of what Odie says of the King of Termites applies to and is representative of what the powers that be are and have wrought upon the populace.

    (Accept any other relevant introduction = 2 marks)


    (i) Crashing opposition: Odie, the captor, addresses a captured and not quite van quished King of Termites (opponent tribe of Termites) (p.43).

    Social comment: Odie accuses the regime of annihilation of the opposition. pages l4, 46-47.

    (ii) Indifference: Odie relates the events happening outside in the real world, directly to and perhaps attributes them to the King of Termites. (pp2 -3)

    Social comment: Odie accuses the regime of indifference to the suffering of the people.

    (iii) Brutality: Odie‘s brutality and torture machines seem to mirror and exceed the torment and torture he underwent. He even ascribes it to the colonial masters in the regimes previous to the neo-colonial regimes now toppled. (p. 3-6)

    Social comment: Odie accuses the regime of brutalizing the people ) p13-18)

    Odie attributes his current circumstances to the regime. (p12-l5,l8)

    (iv) Torturing Wak; It represents and mirrors Odie‘s mental state and expresses what he could do with the now retumed half-brother Wak. The possibility of imprisoning Wak permanently and subjecting him to a slow bloodless death. (p3, 22> (PP 9,15,24)

    Social comment: Odie has tools of torture: ice cubes, bumsen bumer, which brings out what he intends to mete out on Wak. Just as the regime tortures its citizens.

    (v) Wak's insensitivity: Odie compares and even equates the retumee brother, Wak,

    to the King of Termites and declares he should be shot. (pl 3) Odie accuses the regime of being insensitive to their suffering.

    (vi) Projection: It is a projection - What Odie cannot do to the current regime he metes out to the King of Temites.

    Social comment: Odie harbours resentment and anger against the regime in what he says of Major General Ali. (p29 - 32). Conclusion

    Although the episodes involving Odie with the King of Termites may seem irrelevant diversions of a person mentally deranged, they provide a clue to and point to the main action of the play. They also provide relevant points and commentary on the situation obtaining in the general society. and provide the characters with occasion to comment on and play out their roles.

    (Accept any other relevant conclusion = 2 marks)

    Expect 4 well developed points marks = 12 marks)

    Prologue and commentary must correspond

    Grammar and presentation = 4 marks

    The Novel


    This saying illustrates that there are usually clear early signs of what a child will grow into. There is an aura of mystery about Kahu‘s life, and as she grows she distinguishes herself by exhibiting unique qualities.

    (Accept any other relevant introduction = 2 marks)

    ' Birth: Kahu's birth caused a stir. Koro Apirana was disappointed it was a girl, but Nani Flowers was happy. Her mother died after she was born but she survived. Pages 12 - I3, 22, 26

    ' Naming: Though a girl, she was given the name Kahutia Te Rangi - a man's name. This was the name of the great ancestral whale rider. ‘Her birth cord was buried "in the sight of Kahutia Te Rangi" - for the great ancestor to watch over her (pg l7).

    After the burial of her birth cord, Rawiri saw something like a small spear flying through the air, and he heard the whale sounding. Pages l4- 18, 22, 1 l8

    ' Love: Kahu had a very strong attraction to her great-grand father that could not be

    cut by the latter‘s negative attitude. She also resembled her great-grandfather.

    ~ Big Toe: She bit the big toe of her great grandfather -which is what the great grand- father did as part of the test to qualify as the leader. Pages 26-28. 177-1 l8.

    ' Instructions: She was interested in the instructions that Koro Apirana was giving to the men and boys. Pages 30, 37, 38.

    Sea creatures: From very early she seems to have a connection with sea creatures - for example: when Koro Apirana tells the ancestral tale about whales, and when she attends the movie. Pages 34, 35, 72-73, 80, 116.

    - The Stone: When Koro Apirana gives the boys the test of finding a stone dropped in the ocean and they can't find it, it is Kahu who finds it.

    ~ The Sacred Whale: Finally it is Kahu who communicates with the whales and rid- ing the sacred whale leads the whales to safety/saves the tribe. Pages 80, 85-86, 92 -93, 101 - 103,10, 107,117-118, 120 -122.

    - Culture: Kahu has a special liking for Maori food (p26) and she also shines in the cultural event at school that is based on the Maori culture (p68-69)

    The candidate should demonstrate awareness not only of the events but of the significance of the events to culture and leadership.

    Conclusion Right from birth there are indicators that Kahu, though a girl, is set apart for something big.

    It's no wander then that she finally rescues the whales and brings hope to her people.

    Accept any other valid conclusion = 2 marks

    Accept any four well developed points = 12 marks

    Grammar and conclusion = 4 marks

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