KCSE Past Papers CRE 2011 

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3.4 CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (313)

15.1 Christian Religious Education Paper 1 (313/1)

1 (a) Explain the benefits of learning Christian Religious Education in Secondary Schools in Kenya. (8 marks)

(b) Outline the major divisions of both the Old and New testament. (5 marks)

(C) Identify seven ways in which the Bible is misused in Kenya today. (7 marks)

2 (a) Describe how God prepared the Israelites for the making of the covenant at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 19). (8 marks)

(b) Give four reasons that made the Israelites to break the covenant while at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 32: l-35). (4 marks)

(c) What do Christians learn about the nature of God from the Exodus? (8 marks)

3 (a) Outline the failures of King Saul. (5 marks)

(b) Explain the achievements of David as King of Israel. (7 marks)

(c) Give four reasons why Christians in Kenya should build churches. (8 marks)

4 (a) Outline seven characteristics of the prophets in the Old Testament. (7 marks)

(b) Describe the call of Amos to become a prophet of God in Israel. (8 marks)

(c) Identify the five visions of prophet Amos. (5 marks)

5 (a) Outline the stages followed in the renewal of the covenant during the time of Nehemiah. (8 marks)

(b) Give six reasons why Nehemiah carried out religious reforms in Judah. (6 marks)

(c) What lessons do Christians learn from the renewal of the covenant by Nehemiah? (6 marks)

6 (a) Describe the traditional African view of a community. (8 marks)

(b) Explain six factors that have affected the traditional African peoples’ dependence on God. (6 marks)

(c) Outline six similarities between the Christian and traditional African ways of showing respect to God. (6 marks)

33.2 Christian Religious Education Paper 2 (313/2)

1 (a) Basing your answer on the infancy narratives in Luke 1:5-56, describe what took place when Mary visited Elizabeth. (6 marks)

(b) Identify six lessons that Christians learn from the lives of Zechariah and Elizabeth. (6 marks)

(c) State eight ways through which Christians in Kenya express their joy for the birth of Jesus. (8 marks)

2 (a) With reference to the sermon on the plain, outline five teachings of Jesus on how human beings should relate to one another. (5 marks)

(b) Describe the incident in which Jesus forgave the sinful woman in Luke 7:36 - 50. (8 marks)

(c) Give seven reasons why Christians should ask for forgiveness from God. (7 marks)

3 (a) Outline the instructions that Jesus gave to the seventy two disciples when he sent them on a mission. (8 marks)

(b) Relate the parable of the Pharisee and the tax collector (Luke 18:9-14). (5 marks)

(c) Give seven reasons that make Christians pray. (7 marks)

4 (a) Explain how Peter’s life was transformed on the day of pentecost (Acts 4:211-40). (8 marks)

(b) Outline Saint Paul’s teaching on how the gifts of the Holy Spirit should be used in the church. (5 marks)

(c) State seven reasons why some Christians find it difficult to help the sick. (7 marks)

5 (a) Give sevenreasons for the importance of manual work in Kenya today. (7 marks)

(b) List seven activities that the youth should engage in during their leisure time. (7 marks)

(c) State six consequences of denying employees rest. (6 marks)

6 (a) Explain seven ways in which Christians can contribute towards the maintenance of law and order in society. (7 marks)

(b) State seven methods of disciplining errant members in traditional African communities. (7 marks)

(c) Identify six obstacles to effective maintenance of law and order in Kenya today. (6 marks)

15.0 CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (313)

15.1 Christian Religious Education Paper 1 (313/1)

1 (a) The benefits of learning Christian Religious Education in secondary schools.

(i) It equips the learner with an understanding of God/spiritual growth.

(ii)The learner acquires life skills to handle challenges in life / critical thinking proper decisions.

(iii) It helps one to respect his / her own / other people’s religious beliefs / culture.

(iv) It helps one to acquire basic principles for christian living / moral values.

(vi) It enables one to understand how to relate with other people.

(vii) It gives answers to questions / mysteries of life / metaphysical world.

(viii) It explains the origin / purpose of human beings on earth.

(x) It leads to employment / career.

4 x 2 = 8 marks

(b) The major divisions of the old and new testament.

(i) Law books / Torah / pentateuch

(ii) Historical books.

(iii) Poetic books.

(iv) Prophetic books.

(v) The Gospels / Biographical books.

(vi) Epistles / letters.

5 x 1 = 5 marks

(c) Ways in which the Bible is misused in Kenya today.

(i) It is used to take oaths in courts / offices by people who may not be believers / not saying the truth.

(ii) It is kept in places associated with evil.

(iii) There is distortion of the Biblical teachings / specific verses are picked to fulfill individual demands / misinterpretation / selective.

(iv) Some people use the Bible like an ordinary text book / reference no spiritual connection /in schools / colleges.

(v) It is being used in witchcraft / cults to mislead people.

Some people are using it to enrich themselves I it is a tool of trade / financial aspect.

(vi) Some new versions translated have changed the original meaning of the Bible.

(v) The Bible is not read for spiritual growth but it is kept for display / leisure (vi) Some people use the Bible to threaten others source of conflict / administer curses.

7 x 1 = 7 marks

2 (a) How God prepared the Israelites for the making of the covenant at Mt. Sinai

(i) God told Moses to remind the people of Israel of how he had brought them out of Egypt.

(ii) God told Moses that He wanted to make a special relationship with Israel / make them a kingdom of priests / A holy nation.

(iii) Moses called all the elders / people and told them what God had said.

(iv) God told Moses that he wanted the Israelites to obey Him.

(v) The Israelites promised to do all that the Lord had said.

(vi) God promised to come down and meet with the people on the third day.

(vii) The people were instructed to consecrate themselves / wash their garments / clean.

(viii) Moses set bounds for the people not to go up the mountain / touch the border of it / boundaries.

(x) The people were to abstain from sexual relationships.

(xi)On the third day, there was a thick cloud upon the mountain / loud trumpet blast /an earth quake.

(xii) Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet with God/ they took their stand at the foot of the mountain.

(xiii) The Lord came down to the top of the mountain / called Moses to go up Him.

8 x 1 = 8 marks

(b) Reasons why the Israelite's broke the covenant while at Mt. Sinai (i) Moses their leader delayed to come down from the mountain imagined he had died.

(ii) Aaron who had been left in charge of the people was a Weak leader.

(ii) The people demanded for a god / gods they could see / feel.

(iv) The people were still influenced by the Egyptian way of worship / idolatry.

(v) Moses teaching / influence had faded / vanished from the people’s minds forgotten.

(vi) The people had lost faith in their invisible God.

4 x 1 = 4 marks

(c) Lessons learned by Christians about the nature of God from the Exodus.

(i) God is caring / a provider.

(ii) He communicates.

(iii) He provides.

(iv) He is powerful.

(v) He guides.

(vi) He protects.

(vii) He commands.

(viii) He is to be obeyed.

(x) He punishes those who disobey him / justice.

(xi) He is holy.

(xii) He is faithful / keeps promises.

(xiii) He is patient slow to anger.

(ix) Merciful.

Jealous.

8 x 1 = 8 marks

3 (a) The failures of King Saul.

(i) He offered the burnt offering / assumed priestly duties.

(ii) He lacked patience to wait for Samuel who was to offer burnt offering to God.

(iii) He disobeyed God's command to destroy the Amalekites completely by sparing the life of King Agag. / Herem.

(iv) He spared the best of the animals instead of destroying them.

(v) He lost faith in God / consulted a medium / necromancy.

(vi) He wanted to kill David / was jealous of David.

(vii) He was deceitful to the servant of God.

(viii) He committed suicide.

5 x 1 = 5 marks

(b) The achievements of David as king of Israel.

(i) David conquered / defeated the enemies of Israel.

(ii) He expanded the geographical boundaries of Israel / established boundaries.

(iii) He captured Jerusalem from the Jebusites.

(iv) He made Jerusalem the capital city of Israel.

(v) He made Jerusalem a religious center by bringing the ark of the covenant there.

(vi) He made peace treaties with his neighbors / Diplomatic ties / trade links

(vii) He composed psalms which are used during worship.

(viii) He united the twelve tribes of Israel under one ruler.

(ix) He made preparations for the construction of the Temple.

7 x 1 = 7 marks

(c) Reasons Why Christians build churches

(i) Churches are used for worshiping God / prayer

(ii) They signify God’s presence / house of God.

(iii) They are used for meetings / a place of gathering for members / unity / meetings.

(iv) Religious functions take place there / festivals.

(v) They are places where members receive religious instruction / preaching.

(vi) As a sign of prestige / recognition / identification.

(vii) To demonstrate their faith in the existence of God.

(viii) To follow the traditions of the Old Testament teachings on the temple as a house of God.

(x) It can be used as a place of refuge in times of danger / calamity.

(xi) Sign of growth in terms of numbers. .

4 x 2 = 8 marks

4 (a) Characteristics of prophets in the Old Testament

(i) They were God’s mouth piece / spokes people / mediators

(ii) They responded to God’s call in faith / they obeyed.

(iii) They were called by God.

(iv) They were given specific tasks to carry out.

(v) They communicated God’s messages with authority / without fear.

(vi) They spoke the truth in all circumstances.

(vii) Their prophecies came true / were fulfilled.

(viii) They never Worked for material gain / were not paid for their work.

(x) They called people to come back to the covenant way of life / monotheism.

(xi) They pronounced God’s punishment / judgement / restoration / hope.

(xi) They were persecuted for their Work.

(xii) They led exemplary lives / role models / prayerful / righteous.

(xiii) They understood the nature of their prophesies.

Any 7 x 1= 7 marks

(b) The call of Amos to become a prophet in Israel.

(i) Amos was a farmer tending sycamore trees / shepherd.

(ii) He came from a village called Tekoa in Judah.

(iii) He became a prophet during the reign of king Uzziah and Jeroboam II

(iv) God called him through a vision.

(v) He felt a strong compulsion to prophesy / strong feeling to prophesy

(vi) He responded to God’s call in faith / obedience.

Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks

(c) The five visions of prophet Amos

(i) He saw a swarm of locusts.

(ii) He saw a great fire sent by God.

(iii) He saw a crooked wall being measured using a plumbline.

(iv) He saw a basket full of ripe fruits / summer fruits

(v) He saw the destruction of the alter/ temple /

Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

5 (a) The stages followed during the renewal of the covenant at the time of Nehemiah. (i) The people gathered in the public square in Jerusalem.

(ii) The priest Ezra read the law to the people.

(iii) They performed repentance gestures of raising / lowering their hands / moaning/ wailing weeping / spontaneous reaction.

(iv) The people constructed makeshift tents / shelters to celebrate the feasts of the booths.

(v) There was national day of confession / fasting as they Wore sack clothes. (vi)Ezra led people in prayer of confession.

(vii) They sealed the covenant by signing an agreement under the leadership of Nehemiah and the priest.

(viii) The people promised not to go against the Mosaic law.

(x) The re-distribution of the people in Jerusalem and country side.

4 x 2 = 8 marks

(b) Reasons why Nehemiah carried out religious reforms in Judah

(i) To preserve the identity of the Jews as people of God / covenant way of life.

(ii) To separate the Jews from foreign influence.

(iii) To purify the temple which had been defiled by keeping a foreigner.

(iv) To reinstate the services of the levites as priests in the temple.

(v) To restore the tithing system that had been forgotten for the upkeep of the Temple.

(vi) To ensure that the sabbath day was free from business activities.

(vii) In order to cleanse the Jews who had intermarried with foreigners / exposed to idolatry.

(viii) Restore true worship

6 x 1 = 6 marks

(b) Lessons from the renewal of the covenant by Nehemiah

(i) Christians should ask for their sins to be forgiven.

(ii) They should lead righteous lives / be obedient.

(iii) Christians should always pray to God.

(iv) Christians should demonstrate humility.

(v) They should avoid groups that can negatively influence their faith in God.

(vi) They should teach others the Word of God / Sabbath.

(vii) They should set aside a day for worship.

(viii) They should respect the church as a place for prayer.

(x) They should read the word of God regularly.

(xi) They should share with the needy.

6 x 1 = 6 marks

6 (a) The traditional African view of a community (i) The members of the community include the unborn / the living / living dead / the ancestors.

(ii) The members speak one common language.

(iii) They are related either by blood / marriage / adoption / ancestry.

(iv) The community members occupy the same geographical area / region.

(v) They carry out similar economic activities.

(vi) The community is made up of smaller units / clans.

(vii) Each community has its own distinct rules / taboos / beliefs / customs / cultural practices.

(viii) Members of a community are expected to show concern for the well being of others / comrnunial ownership of property.

(x) The members are expected to participate in the life of the community.

Any 4 x 2= 8 marks (b) The factors that have affected the traditional African people’s dependence on God.

(i) The introduction of western culture

(ii) Some people rely on witchcraft to solve their problems.

(iii) Greed for power / materialism without the fear of God.

(iv) Some people rely on science and technology

(v) Money economy where success now depends on how much money one earns.

(vi)Abject poverty has made people loose hope / faith in God.

(vii) Negative peer pressure influences the members to rely on themselves other than God.

(viii) Pressure of modern living makes people too busy to serve God / urbanization. (x) Modern education that has made people ignore God.

6 x 1 = 6 marks

(c) Similarities between the Christian and traditional African ways of showing respect to God.

(i) Members pray to God.

(ii) They give offerings.

(iii) Members sing songs.

(iv) Members show respect to God by helping those in need.

(v) They use God’s name sparingly / avoid mentioning God’s name carelessly.

(vi) Members use the God given resources / environment carefully.

(vii) They build / maintain / honour places of worship.

(viii) Members take care of religious leaders.

(x) Members obey the laws / commands of God

6 x 1 = 6 marks

15.2 Christian Religious Education Paper 2 (313/2)

1 (a) What took place when Mary visited Elizabeth.

(i) She entered Zechariah ‘s home.

(ii) She greeted Elizabeth.

(iii) When Elizabeth heard Mary’s greetings the baby in her Womb leaped.

(iv) Elizabeth was filled with the Holy spirit.

(v) Elizabeth exclaimed with a loud cry.

(vi) She blessed Mary and the child in the womb.

(vii) Elizabeth wondered why Mary the mother of her Lord had visited her.

(viii) Elizabeth informed Mary that the baby in her womb had leaped for joy in her greetings.

(ix) Mary responded by praising God/sung the magnificent.

(x) Mary stayed with Elizabeth for three months.

6 x 1 = 6 marks

(b) Lessons that Christians learn from the lives of Zechariah and Elizabeth

(i) Christians should be righteous / upright / blameless.

(ii) They should obey God ’s commandments / instructions

(iii) They should persevere / be patient.

(iv) They should serve God faithfully / with commitment.

(v) They should be prayerful.

(vi) They should depend on God / ask God for their needs / Have faith in God.

(vii) They should believe God’s word.

(viii) They should thank God for blessings.

(ix) They should praise / worship the Lord.

(x) They should desire to be led by the Holy spirit.

(xi) Christians should rejoice at the blessing of others.

6 x 1 = 6 marks

(c) Ways through which Christians in Kenya express their joy for the birth of Jesus.

(i) They sing / listen to Christian songs / carols.

(ii) They attend Christmas worship / service / mass.

(iii) They partake of the Holy communion / Eucharist.

(iv) They exchange gifts / cards / messages of goodwill.

(v) They visit friends / relatives / invite friends / relatives

(vi) They decorate their homes / churches.

(viii) They buy / wear new clothes.

(x) They prepare special dishes / drinks.

(ix) They rest from normal duties.

(x) They hold Christmas concerts / drama.

(xi) They watch movies / films on the birth of Jesus.

(xii) They read Christmas stories / the bible.

(xiii) They help the needy / acts of charity.

(xiv) They repent / rededicate themselves to God.

8 x 1 = 8 marks

2 (a) The teachings of Jesus on the sermon on the plain on how human beings should relate to one another.

(i) Human beings should love one another / their enemies.

(ii) They should practise sharing / kind to help others / be generous.

(iii) They should be merciful to each other.

(iv) They not judge / condemn others.

(v) They forgive one another / not to revenge.

(vi) Pray for those who wrong them .

(vii) They should not discriminate against one another.

(viii) Do good to those that hate them.

5 x 1 = 5 marks

(b) A description of the incident in which Jesus forgave the sinful woman.

(i) Jesus had been invited by a Pharisee for dinner.

(ii) While he was at the table a sinful woman came with an alabaster flask of ointment.

(iii) She stood at Jesus’ feet weeping /wet his feet with her tears.

(iv) She used her hair to wipe the feet of Jesus.

(v) She kissed the feet of Jesus

(vi) She then anointed the feet of Jesus with the ointment.

(vii) The Pharisee who had invited Jesus questioned in his heart whether Jesus was a prophet.

(viii) Jesus knew the thoughts of Simon / told him the parable of the creditor and the two debtors.

(x) Jesus asked Simon who of the two debtors would love the creditor more.

(xi) Simon said the debtor with more debt would love the creditor more.

(xii) He told Simon that the woman had shown much love because her many sins had been forgiven.

(xiii) Jesus then told the woman that her sins had been forgiven.

(ix) The other guests began to question who Jesus was to have the power to forgive sin.

(ixi) Jesus told the woman that her faith had saved her.

(ixii) He told her to go in peace.

8 x 1= 8 marks

(c) Reasons why Christians should ask for forgiveness from God.

(i) To be at peace with God.

(ii) To show obedience to the teachings of Jesus.

(iii) To improve their relationship with others.

(iv) It gives them confidence to serve God.

(v) To acknowledge their weakness / a sign of humility.

(vi) It shows their desire to lead a righteous life.

(vii) It is a sign of appreciation of God’s mercy.

(viii) It is a way of self reproach / self criticism / self disapproval/self guilt /self blame

(x) It is a demonstration of their faith in God.

(xi) So as to be forgiven by God.

7 x 1 = 7 marks

3 (a) The instructions that Jesus gave to the seventy two disciples when he sent them on a mission.

(i) The disciples were to pray for more labourers to be sent for the harvest.

(ii) The disciples were not to carry any pulse / bag / sandals.

(iii)They were not to salute anyone on the road.

(iv) They were to say peace to any house they entered.

(v) They were to remain in the same house / not to go from house to house.

(vi) They were to eat / drink whatever was provided.

(vii) They were to heal the sick.

(viii) They were to tell the people that the kingdom of God has come near.

(ix) They were to wipe off the dust on their feet against the people if not received.

4 x 2 = 8 marks

(b) The parable of the Pharisee and the tax collector.

(i) Two men went into the Temple to pray, a Pharisee and a tax collector.

(ii) The pharisee praised himself in prayer.

(iii) He said he was holy / better than others / the tax collector.

(iv) The tax collector also prayed but could not lift his eyes to heaven.

(v) The tax collector beat his breast saying he is a sinner / asked for God’s mercy.

(vi) It was the prayer of the tax collector that was accepted / the tax collector was justified.

(vii) Jesus concluded by saying fliat whoever exalts himself will be humbled / who ever humbles himself will be exalted,

5 x 1 = 5 marks.

(c) Reasons why Christians pray.

(i) To show their dependence on God / faith in God.

(ii) To express the power / greatness of God / adore / honour God.

(iii) They pray to ask for their needs / seek guidance.

(iv) Through prayer, they confess their sins / ask for forgiveness.

(v) To thank God for his faithfulness / goodness / blessings.

(vi) Prayer helps to relieve fears / anxiety / worries.

(vii) It is an instrument through which the work of satan is destroyed.

(vii) To communicate with God / have fellowship with God.

(ix) To follow the example of Jesus.

(x) It is a command from God / a sign of obedience.

(xi) To intercede.

(xii) To seek protection from God.

7 x 1 = 7 marks

4 (a) How Peter’s life was transformed on the Day of Pentecost.

(2 marks)

(i) Peter was filled with the Holy spirit.

(ii) He started speaking in tongues.

(iii) He became courageous / defended the disciples that they were not drunk.

(iv) He Was able to remember Old Testament prophecies / teachings.

(v) He began witnessing the life, death and resurrection of Jesus.

(vi) He called people to repentance.

(vii) He was empowered to perform miracles.

(viii) He took leadership role.

4 x 2 = 8 marks

(b) Saint Paul ’s teaching on how the gifts of the Holy Spirit should be used in the church.

(i) The gifts of the Holy Spirit should be used for the common good of all.

(ii) They should be used to strengthen / encourage / comfort members.

(iii) They should be used to bring unity / not to discriminate / divide members.

(iv) There is need to respect / appreciate all the gifts.

(v) They should be used in an orderly way / no confusion.

(vi) The gifts should be used in love.

(vii) The gift of speaking in tongues should be minimised in public worship.

(viii) There is need to have interpretation of tongues for them to he meaningful / helpful.

(ix) Prophecies should be carefully evaluated / weighted.

5 X 1 = 5 marks

(c) Reasons why some Christians find it difficult to help the sick.

(i) Some Christians lack the gift of healing.

(ii) They are afraid of being infected.

(iii) Because of religious / denominational barriers.

(iv) They lack knowledge / skills of handling the sick.

(v) They have no time for the sick.

(vi) Lack of faith in healing / miracles.

(vii) Because of poverty / may not have enough resources to share.

(viii) Lack of love for the needy/ sick.

(x) It is difficult for some Christians to determine those who are genuinely sick/ feigning.

(ix) Due to social differences / status / educational background.

(xii) Due to nepotism /ethnic affiliations.

(xiii) Due to gender biases.

7 X 1 = 7 marks

5 (a) Reasons why manual work is important in Kenya today.

(i) Through manual work human being emulate God as a worker.

(ii) It is a sign of being obedient to God’s instructions to work.

(iii) It enables human beings to look after / preserve the environment / be co-creators with God.

(iv) It keeps the body physically fit.

(v) Human beings are able to obtain their basic needs / earn their living through manual work.

(vi) It is a way of serving others / community / infrastructure / Economic development

(vii) It enables human beings to develop their talents / abilities.

(viii) Manual work gives satisfaction / fulfillment.

(x) It keeps one busy / active / reduces crime.

Any 7 x 1 = 7 marks

(b) Activities that the youth should engage in during their leisure time.

(i) Taking part in church choir/ singing.

(ii) Helping the sick / needy / works of charity.

(iii) Taking part in retreats / seminars / camps.

(iv) Reading Christian literature.

(v) Playing games.

(vi) Planting flowers / trees / cleaning the compound.

(vii) Watching television / listening to Christian music / messages.

(viii) Taking part in Bible study / reading the Bible.

(x) Visiting their friends / relatives.

(xi) Evangelizing / preaching / praying / involvement in peer counselling.

Any 7 x 1 = 7 marks

(c) Consequences of denying employees rest

(i) It may lead to poor working relations.

(ii) The organization may realize low output.

(iii) The workers may resort to a strike action / go slow.

(iv) Some of the employees may lose their job through sacking / resignation.

(v) It can lead to poor health / death.

(vi) It may lead to breaks up of families.

(vii) It can lead to labour conflicts between the employer / employee.

(vii) Mistrust may arise leading to close supervision.

(ix) Employees may develop negative attitudes towards work.

(x) Accidents are likely to occur.

(xi) Deliberate destruction of property / vandalism.

6 x 1 = 6 marks

6 (a) Ways in which Christians can contribute towards maintenance of law and order in society.

(i) By obeying the law of the land / leading exemplary lives.

(ii) By respecting the lawful authority.

(iii) Through rehabilitating criminals.

(iv) By condemning acts which violate human rights/unjust laws.

(v) Through educating the masses on their rights and responsibilities.

(vi) By sharing what they have with the needy.

(vii) By praying for peace /national leaders / citizens.

(viii) By preaching on the importance of law / order / peace.

(ix) Forgiving others freely.

(x) Reporting criminals to the relevant authorities.

(xi) Through reconciling the Waring parties.

(xii) Through guidance and counselling services.

7 x 1 = 7 marks

(b) Methods of disciplinary errant members in traditional African communities.

(i) Paying fines.

(ii) Denying children food for sometime.

(iii) Reprimanding wrong doers.

(iv) Giving unpleasant names to reflect the wrong that the person has done / ridicule.

(v) Denying culprits access to social occasions / being detained / isolation.

(vi) Summoning an indisciplined member before the council of elders.

(vii) Excommunicating wrong doers from the community.

(vii) Through caning / beating.

(ix) Disowning by parents / relative / friends.

(x) Being cursed by elders.

(xi) Refusing to name children after them.

(xii) Demotion / Denial of responsibility.

7 x 1 = 7 marks

(c) Obstacles to effective maintenance of law and order in Kenya today.

(i) There is an increase in the rate of crime / the law enforcement officers can not cope with the work load.

(ii) Due to unequal distribution of resources.

(iii) Permissiveness in the society /lack of morals don’t care altitude.

(iv) Due to political instability / incitement by politicians.

(v) Extreme poverty.

(vi) Social discrimination.

(vii) Some cultural beliefs / practices hinder effective maintenance of law / concealing criminals information.

(viii) High rate of unemployment.

(ix) Bribery / corruption.

(x) Greed for material wealth.

(xi) Inadequate modem equipment to combat crime.

(xii) Delay in the delivery of justice to the offended.

(xiii) The citizens lack knowledge on the procedures for the effective maintenance of law and order.

6 x 1 = 6 marks

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