4.4.1 Building Construction Paper 1 (446/1)
SECTION A (40 marks)
1. a) Deﬁne the term “shelter”.
b) State two environmental factors that inﬂuence the type of shelter.
2.a) Outline three qualities of each of the following safety attire:
b) State one reason for proper storage of each of the following:
3. a) List four regulations that are considered in site selection.
b) State one purpose of each of the following activities on site:
(i) site clearing;
(ii) site stripping.
4. Figure 1, shows an outline of a ﬂoor plan of a building.
5 State two functions of each of the following materials in concrete:
(a) water; (1 mark)
(b) coarse aggregate. (1 mark)
6 (a) Outline four functions of foundations in buildings. (4 marks)
(b) State four factors that are considered when choosing a type of a foundation. (2 marks)
7 State four ways of controlling termites on site. (2 marks)
8 (a) Give four reasons for bonding a wall. (4 marks)
(b) Sketch an elevation of a wall built in English bond to show four courses high and four bricks in length with a stopped end. (2 marks)
9 (a) State four factors which inﬂuence the selection of a roof of a building. (2 marks)
(b) Sketch and label a section through a lean-to roof. (2 marks)
10 Figure 2 shows the views of a shaped block in 3"‘ angle projection.
SECTION B (60 marks)
11 Figure 3 shows a pictorial view of a shaped block.
Draw full size, in ﬁrst angle projection the following views of the block:
12. a) (i) front elevation in the direction of arrow Y;
(ii) end elevation in the direction of arrow Z;
(iii) plan. (15 marks)
b) Explain each of the following purposes of ﬁnishes in buildings:
(i) protection of surfaces;
(iii) insulation. (6 marks)
13 a) Outline the procedure of preparing a newly plastered surface to receive emulsion paint. (9 marks)
b) Outline the procedure of laying a raised concrete ﬂoor slab. (8 marks)
14. a) Sketch and label a cross section of a timber stair to show the joint details of two steps. - (7 marks)
b) Using a vertical sectional sketch, show four positions where damp prooﬁng is provided in a building. (6 marks)
b) Sketch and label a vertical section of a dependent scaffold. (9 marks)
15 Sketch and label a cross-section of a direct domestic hot water supply system, up to the ﬁrst ﬂoor by incorporating an immersion heater. (15 marks)
5.4.1 Building Construction Paper 1 (446/1)
1 a) Shelter is an enclosure which excludes weather elements, provides security and privacy. (2 marks)
b) The environment inﬂuences the type of shelter in the following ways:
- availability of materials.
- weather conditions. (2 marks)
2 a) Qualities of safety attire:
metal toe caps.
stiff hard leather.
covers the whole head.
b) Reasons for storage
- tools: avoid damage, easy access, avoid theft.
- materials: wastage, damage, theft.
3 a) Regulations
- service lines.
- access roads (road reserve).
- local authority by-laws.
(b) Purposes for:
(i) Site clearing:
- removal of vegetation
- removal of existing structures.
(ii) Site stripping:
- removal of top soil
- site levelling
4. Positions of proﬁle boards:
- used for hydration.
- for lubrication.
(b) Coarse aggregate
- provides density.
- provides volume.
6. a) Functions of foundations:
load distribution over a wide area.
support the building.
provide a level base for walls.
transfer the loads to a ﬁrm base.
cover soft area in the ﬁrm base.
(b) Factors considered when choosing a types of foundation:
total loads of the building.
nature and bearing capacity of the sub soils.
type of building.
nature of ground.
7. Ways of controlling termites:
removing termite mounds.
treating the area below the hard core.
removing organic matter from backﬁlls.
use of DPM on hard core.
using densely compacted ﬂoor slab.
treating the backﬁll.
8 a) Strength - vertical joints, load distribution.
Beauty - staggered joints enhance beauty.
Economy - some bonding pattems use few units.
Lateral stability - thicker walls provide more lateral stability.
type of building.
availability of materials.
b) Lean- to - roof:
Prozection of surfaces is an act of using different materials as ﬁnishes to provide protection against weather, damage, wearing out and becoming dirty.
Hygiene: refers to using ﬁnishes which make the surface easy to clean like paints, lacquers, varnishes or finishes that give hard surfaces such as granite and marble, which can be scrubbed without wearing out.
lnsulaﬁon: is the art of using ﬁnishes that provide comfort in a building by excluding extreme weather, unnecessary sound and insulation against heat. -
3 X 2 = 6 marks
b) Procedure of preparing a new background for painting:
Explanation to contain the following key points:
remove any din on the surface.
sanding and cleaning.
ﬁlling the cracks, sanding and cleaning.
applying second coat.
13. a) The procedure of laying a raised concrete ﬂoor:
erect form work.
mix the concrete.
transport the concrete.
pour the concrete.
spread the concrete.
compact the concrete.
level the concrete.
cure the concrete.
Line of nosing
At window sill.
150 mm above GL. -
On or within ﬂoor slab.
Kenya Scholarships for Undergraduate Students » Kenya Scholarships for Postgraduate Students » Undergraduate Scholarships for Kenyan Students » Kenya Undergraduate Scholarships » Full Undergraduate Scholarships for Kenyans » Kenya Postgraduate Scholarships » Scholarships & Grants » Undergraduate Scholarships » Universities in Kenya » Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS) » Colleges in Kenya » KASNEB Registration & Results » Secondary Schools Scholarships in Kenya » Undergraduate & Graduate Scholarships for Kenyans
Scholarships for African Students » Undergraduate Scholarships » African Women Scholarships & Grants » Developing Countries Scholarships » Erasmus Mundus Scholarships for Developing Countries » Fellowship Programs » Funding Grants for NGOs » Government Scholarships » LLM Scholarships » MBA Scholarships » PhD and Masters by Research Scholarships » Public Health Scholarships - MPH Scholarships » Refugees Scholarships » Research Grants » Scholarships and Grants
Scholarships in Australia » Scholarships in Belgium » Scholarships in Canada » Scholarships in Germany » Scholarships in Italy » Scholarships in Japan » Scholarships in Korea » Scholarships in Netherlands » Scholarships in UK » Scholarships in USA