Candidate’s Signature....... ...
Time: 1 % Hours.
The Kenya Certiﬁcate of Secondary Education — Trial Examination
1 3/4 Hours
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Write your name and index number in the spaces provided above
Sign and write the date of examination in the spaces provided above.
Answer ALL questions in the spaces provided in this question paper.
You are supposed to spend the ﬁrst 15 minutes of the 1 3/4 hours allowed for this paper reading the whole paper carefully before commencing your work
Additional pages must not be inserted.
Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated and no questions are missing.
For examiners use only
1. The ﬁgure below is a photomicrograph of a transverse section of a leaf of another xerophyte.
(a). (i) Name the habitat of the plant from which the leaf was obtained. (1 mark)
(ii) Give a reason for your answer. (1 mark)
(b). Identify each of the parts marked A, B and E. (3 marks)
(c). State the functions of each of the parts marked C, D and E(3 marks)
(d). (i). State the class to which the plant from which the leaf was obtained belongs. (1 mark)
(ii). Give a reason for your answer. (1 mark)
2. You are provided with a mixture of yeast and sucrose solution in a small container, labeled ‘yeast and sucrose solution’.
You are also provided with a short length of Visking tubing.
-Tie one end of the visking tubing tightly (knot 1).
-Pour sufﬁcient of the yeast and sucrose solution to almost ﬁll the Visking tubing am tie the open end tightly with thread (knot 2).
-Observe the volume and the appearance of the tube.
-Wash the outside of the Visking tubing under running water.
-Place the Visking tubing in a boiling tube and then ﬁll the boiling tube with lime water to just below knot 2, as shown in the diagram above.
(a) (i) State the color of the lime water that you poured into the boiling tube.
Leave the experiment for at least 20 minutes and go on to Question 2. After 20 minutes
- Gently move the Visking tube up and down in the boiling tube three times.
(ii) State the color of the lime water. (1 mark)
- Examine carefully the Visking tube.
(b) State any change in volume observed. (1 mark)
- Transfer the Visking tube to a small beaker and cut a hole in the tube so that the contents are released into the beaker.
(c) Describe the appearance and smell of the contents. (2 marks)
(d) Describe the reactions that have taken place in the Visking tube. (5 marks)
(e) A student tested the lime water remaining in the boiling tube after the experiment for reducing sugar and protein.
(i) Complete the table below.
(ii) Explain how sucrose was converted into reducing sugar in the Visking tube. (2 marks)
(iii) Explain why reducing sugar was present in the boiling tube. (2 marks) (f) Explain why, when this experiment was carried out at 80 “C, neither the color of the lime water, nor the colour of the Benedict’s solution changed. ._ (3 marks)
3. The photograph below shows a section through the mammalian lung. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
(a). State two features of an efﬁcient respiratory surface evident in the photograph. (1 mark)
(b). Name the blood vessels that supply the lungs with blood. (2 marks)
(c). Name the parts marked R, S, T and U(4 marks) (d). State the functions of the parts marked R, S and T(3 marks) (e). Name a muscle that is useful in ventilation in man other than intercostal muscles.(1 marks)
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