KCSE Past Papers Agriculture 2011

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4.3.1 Agriculture Paper 1 (443/1)

SECTION A (30 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

1 (a) Name two field management practices that are carried out to obtain optimum plant population in a crop field. (1 mark)

(b) Explain how each of the practices named in (a) above achieves optimum plant population. (1 mark)

2 Give two examples for each of the following types of costs incurred in broiler production. (a) variable costs; (1 mark)

(b) fixed costs. (1 mark)

3 State four disadvantages of mono cropping in crop production. (2 marks)

4 Give three reasons for early seedbed preparation. (11/1 marks)

5 State two ways in which crop rotation controls weeds. (1 mark)

6 Outline four qualities of a mother plant from which vegetative propagation materials should be obtained. (2 marks)

7 Give three factors that should be considered when choosing the type of labour to use on the farm. (l 1/2 marks)

8 State the use of each of the following in farm accounting:

(a) balance sheet; (1/2 mark)

(b) inventory; (1/2 mark)

(c) cash book. (1/2 mark)

9 State four functions of Agricultural Society of Kenya (A.S.K.). (2 marks)

10 How does leaching lead to loss of soil fertility? (1/2 marks)

11 Give two reasons for imposing quarantine on imported planting materials. (1 mark)

12 State four ways of controlling bean anthracnose disease. (2 marks)

13 List four post-harvest practices that are carried out in maize production. (2 marks)

14 Name two types of non-competitive markets. (1 mark)

15 Name four settlement schemes that the Kenyan government started as a result of the success of the Million Acre Scheme. (2 marks)

16 Give a weed for each case, which has the following effect on cattle: (a) poisoning; (1/2 mark)

(b) tainting milk when eaten before milking. (1/2 mark)

17 Apart from training and extension services, state four other agricultural support services the Kenyan government provides to a maize farmer. (2 marks)

18 State three methods of harvesting trees in agroforestry. (1 1/2 marks)

19 Give three maintenance practices for trees in agroforestry. (1 1/2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

20 The diagram below illustrates a seed potato prepare or planting. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow:


(a) Name the practice used in preparing the potato above for planting. (1 mark)

(b) Describe the procedure followed in preparing seed potato for planting (3 marks)

21 The diagrams below show a set up of an experiment to study an aspect of soil. The set up was left undisturbed for five hours Study it and answer the questions that follow.


(a) What was the aim of the experiment?(1 mark)

(b) State one observation that was made in each of the flasks labelled C and D.

C ............................... .. (1/2 mark)

D.................................. .. (1/2 mark)

(c) Give a reason for each of your answers in (b) above.

C ........................................... .. (1 mark)

D............................................... .. (1 mark)

22 Below is a graphical representation of a law in agricultural economics. Study the graph carefully and answer the questions that follow:


(a) Identify the law illustrated by the graph. (1/2 mark)

(b) Explain how each additional unit of fertilizer input relates to the total output of maize in phases II and III.

Phase .................. (1 mark)

Phase III .................. (1 mark)

(c) State the importance of the law identified in (i) above to the maize farmer. (1 mark)

23 The following information was extracted from Makueni Farm Records for the financial year ending on 30th June 2009. Study it and prepare a profit and loss account for the farm.

imageeeee(3 marks)

24 The diagram below illustrates a grazing system. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.


(a) Identify the grazing system illustrated above. (1/2 mark)

(b) State five advantages of the grazing system illustrated above. (2 1/2 marks)

25 The diagram below is an illustration of a weed. Study it and answer the questions that follow.


(a) Identify the weed. (1/2 mark)

(b) State two harmful effects of the weed illustrated above. (2 marks)

SECTION C (40 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 28.

26 (a) Describe how water is treated to remove solid impurities. (5 marks)

(b) Give a reason for each of the farm records kept on a dairy farm. (5 marks)

(c) Describe the production of cabbages under the following sub-headings: (i) seedbed preparation; (3 marks)

(ii) transplanting of seedlings. (7 marks)

27 (a) Describe the effects of pests on maize in the field. (6 marks)

(b) (i) Describe the procedure of harvesting pyrethrum. (4 marks)

(ii) Explain the precautions that should be observed during the harvesting of pyrethrum. (3 marks)

(c) Describe the cultural methods of controlling soil erosion. (7 marks)

28 (a) Explain five ways in which biotic factors influence crop production in agriculture. (5 marks)

(b) Describe how the stem cuttings for propagating tea are prepared. (9 marks)

(c) Describe the properties of nitrogenous fertilizers. D (6 marks)

4.3.2 Agriculture Paper 2 (443/2)

SECTION A (30 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

1 State four maintenance practices for a disc plough.(2 marks)

2 Name three methods that are used in selection of breeding stock in livestock production. (1 1/2 marks)

3 State four advantages of using animals instead of tractors as a source of power on the farm.(2 marks)

4 Name one livestock disease that is transmitted by each of the following parasites:

(a) blue ticks;(1/2 marks)

(b) brown ear ticks;(1/2 marks)

(c) tsetse flies.(1/2 marks)

5 State four methods of controlling round worms (Ascaris sp) in livestock.(2 marks)

6 Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock health:

(a) disease; (1 mark)

(b) vaccination.(1 mark)

7 State three maintenance practices for a tractor battery.(1 marks)

8 Name the type of breed into which each of the following breeds of cattle are classified:

(a) Aberdeen Angus; (1/2 marks)

(b) Guernsey;(1/2 marks)

(c) Sahiwal;(1/2 marks)

(d) Red poll.(1/2 marks)

9 Give two ways in which proper nutrition helps to control livestock diseases. (1 mark)

10 List four categories of livestock diseases. (2 marks)

11 Name two breeding systems that can increase the frequency of high milk production genes in indigenous cattle. (1 mark)

12 Name two bloodless methods of castration in lambs. (1 mark)

13 Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock breeding:

(a) recessive gene; (1 mark)

(b) epistasis. (1 mark)

14 State four signs that indicate that a doe is about to kindler (2 marks)

15 Name two developmental stages of a liver fluke (Faxciola sp.) which occur in the fresh water snail (Limnaea sp). (1 mark)

16 Name the strokes in a four stroke cycle engine. (2 marks)

17 State four signs of mite attack in poultry. (2 marks)

18 State three advantages of natural feeding in calf rearing. (1 1/2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

19 A daily farmer is required to prepare 100 kg of dairy meal containing 20% Digestible Crude Protein (D.C.P.). Using the Pearson"s Square Method, calculate the quantity of soya bean (40% D.C.P.) and rice (16% D.C.P.) the farmer requires for the dairy meal. (4 marks)

20 Below is an illustration of a camel Study it and answer the questions that follow.


(a) Identify the camel species illustrated above. (1/2 mark)

(b) Name three products that farmers obtain from the camel species illustrated above. (1 1/2 marks)

(c) Give two reasons why the camel species illustrated above is able to survive in its natural habitat. (2 marks)

21 The diagram below represents farm tools and equipment. Study them and answer the questions that follow.


(a) Identify the tool / equipment labelled J, K and M.

J ..................................... (1/2 mark)

K ....................................(1/2 mark)

M ...................................(1/2 mark)

(b) State one use for each of the tool / equipment labelled K and L.

K ...................................(1 mark)

L ................................... ..(1 mark)

(c) Give two maintenance practices for the equipment labelled K. (1 mark)

22 The illustration below shows a practice carried out to prevent mastitis infection in a dairy cow.


(a) Identify the practice. (1/2 mark)

(b) At what stage is the practice carried out‘? ( 1/2 mark)

(c) State two other practices that are carried out on the udder to prevent mastitis infection.(2 marks)

23 The diagram below shows the digestive system of cattle. Study it and answer the questions that follow.


(a) Name the parts labelled N, P and Q.

N .................................. ..(1/2 mark)

P .....................................(1/2 mark)

Q......................................(1/2 mark)

(b) State one function for each of the parts labelled S and T

S ......................................... ..(1 mark)

T ........................................ .. (1 mark)

(c) Give one enzyme produced by each of the parts labelled R and S.

R ...................................... ..(1/2 mark)

S ......................................... ..( 1/2 mark)

SECTION C (40 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 26.

24 (a) Explain the factors considered when culling livestock.(5 marks)

(b) Describe poultry management under the following sub-headings:

(i) causes of stress;(8 marks)

(ii) control measures for cannibalism.(7 marks)

25 (a) Describe the feeding practices in artificial rearing of a dairy calf.(10 marks)

(b) Describe Newcastle disease under the following sub-headings:

(i) causal organism;(1 mark)

(ii) signs of infection;(7 marks)

(iii) control measures.(2 marks)

26 (a) Describe the uses of fences on the farm.(10 marks)

(b) Give five harmful effects of liver flukes in sheep rearing.(5 marks)

(c) State the differences between a diesel engine and a petrol engine.(5 marks)

20.0 AGRICULTURE (443)

20.1 Agriculture Paper 1 (443/1)

SECTION A (30 marks)

1. (a) Field Management practices



(b) (i) Thinning: - Removes the excess seedlings from the field.

(ii) Gapping: - Replaces seedlings/seeds that died/failed to germinate.

2. (a) Variable costs

Wages for casual labour

Costs of feeds and water

Costs of drugs/chemicals and treatment

Cost of Electricity.

(b) Fixed costs

Land rent/house rent/depreciation of building

Salaries of regular/permanent labour

Depreciation of machinery

interest on borrowed loan

Cost of equipment.

3. Disadvantages of monocropping

High risk of total loss in case of crop failure.

Under utilization of some soil nutrients

Build up specific of crop pests/diseases/weeds.

Only specific mineral nutrients are absorbed/exhaustion of certain minerals poison the soil and once exhausted the soil becomes infertile.

Results in soil erosion in crops with poor ground coverage.

Faster spread of pests and diseases

leads to destruction of soil structure

loss of soil fertility.

4. Reasons for early land preparation.

Allows time for organic matter to decompose and form humus.

Facilitates timely subsequent operations.

Allows time for weeds to die/be dehydrated.

Allows weathering of soil clods before subsequent operations.

Minimizes competition for labour

Allows time for pests and diseases causing organisms to starve and die.

Allows time for soil aeration/gaseous exchange

Allows time for water infiltration.

5. How crop rotation controls weeds.

Crops associated with specific weeds are alternated with crops of different families to remove the appropriate host and break the life cycle of weeds.

Alternating with cover crops smothers the Weeds.

6. Qualities of a mother plant.

Disease/pest resistant/tolerant.

Healthy/free from pests/diseases.

High yielding.

Well adapted to the environment/local ecological conditions.

Fast growth

Early maturity.

7. Factors on choice of labour.

Availability of the labour.

Size of the enterprise/amount of work.

Financial ability of the farmer/cost of the labour.

Type of enterprise/type of work

8. (a) Balance sheet

Showing the financial position of the farm business at a particular period of the year/ shows values of assets and liabilities/shows net worthy/net deficit/shows solvency and insolvency/shows value.

(b) Inventory

Recording all the assets owned by the farm business.

(c) Cash book

Recording all transactions involving receiving and paying out of cash on the farm business.

9. Functions of A.S.K

Holding competitive agricultural shows/competitive trade fairs and exhibitions of livestock, crop and farm produce Encouraging breeding and importation of pure breeds and improvement of indigenous live- stock.

Encouraging and assisting in official milk recording scheme.

Organizing the running of Young Farmers Clubs.

Organizing the National Ploughing Contest.

Publishing the Kenya Stud Book.

Publishing the monthly journal; “The Kenya Farmer”.

Awarding bursaries for local and overseas studies/tours for its members.

10. Leaching:-

Washes dissolved mineral nutrients to the lower soil horizons beyond the reach of plant roots.

11. Reasons for imposing quarantine

To test them for purity to prevent entry of noxious/foreign weeds into the country.

To test them for purity to prevent entry/spread of pests and diseases into the country.

Quality control

12. Methods of controlling bean anthracrose disease.

Use of certified seeds

Use of appropriate fungicides/chemicals eg. dithioearbonate

Crop rotation

Use of resistant varieties eg. Banja 2, Mexican 142, K74, Wairimu

Field hygiene/destruction of infected crop residues.


13. Post harvest practices




Sorting/ grading




14.Non-competitive markets

Monopoly/monopolistic markets

Oligopoly/Oligopolistic markets

Monopsony/monopsonistic markets

15. Settlement schemes

Jet schemes

Haraka schemes

Shirika schemes

Lari settlement scheme

The squatter’s settlement scheme

Harambee schemes

Ol-kalaou salient schemes.

16. (a) Poisonous

Thom apple/Datura stramonium

Sodom apple/Solanum incanum

(b) Taints milk when eaten


Mexican marigold/(Tagetes minuta)

17. Agricultural support services

Credit services

Marketing services

Agricultural machinery services/tractor hire services

Agricultural research services

Farm input supplies services.

18. Methods of harvesting trees

Coppicing/cutting back

Lopping/side pruning



Felling trees.

19. Maintenance practices for trees

Protection when young/seedlings ‘



Grafting/top working


Weed control

Pest/disease control




SECTION B (20 marks)

20. (a) Chitting/Sprouting

(b) Procedure of chitting

Arrange the setts/tubers in a store/chitting box with the rose-end facing upwards.

Tubers are arranged 2-3 layers deep.

Allow diffuse light through the store.

Dust (spray)the setts/tubers with an appropriate insecticide/fungicides to control pests/aphids/

tubennoths/fungal infection. V

Sprinkle some water on tubers if the conditions are dry.

21 (a) To demonstrate the presence of living organisms in the soil.

(b) Observation

Flask C

Lime Water tums white/milky/white precipitate.

Flask D

No observable change/lime water remains clear.

(c) Reasons for the answers in (b) above

Flask C

Lime Water tums White because living organisms exhaled carbon (IV) oxide which reacted with calcium hydroxide to form a White precipitate (calcium carbonate)

Flask D

The heating of the soil killed the soil living organisms and no respiration occurred to produce carbon (IV) oxide.

22. (a) The law illustrated

Law of diminishing returns.

(b) Phase II

Each additional unit of fertilizer input leads to a lower increase in total output of maize than the previous unit of fertilizer input.

Phase III

Each additional unit of fertilizer input leads to a decrease in total output of maize.

(c) Importance of the law

Helps the farmer to identify the level of optimum fertilizer application in the production of maize/to determine the highest level of maize output.


24. (a) Paddocking/rotational grazing

(b) Advantages

Reduces build up of parasites and diseases/prevent spread of parasite and diseases.

Allows pasture to regrow before being grazed again.

Manure is evenly distributed in the field

Excess pasture can be conserved

Allows management practices on ungrazed portions e.g. reseeding, fertilizer

application/weed control/irrigation/pests and disease control topping/cutting back .

Ensures maximum utilization of pastures.

25. (a) The weed

Wild oat/Avena fatua/Avena sterilis/Athena

(b) Harmful effects

Competes with crops for nutrients/light/space/water

Acts as an alternate host for pests/diseases

Lowers quality of produce/gets mixed up with the produce

Increase cost of production

Lower yields/quality

Increase cost of production

Lower yields/quantity

SECTION C (40 marks)

26. (a) Water treatment to remove solid impurities.

At intake, water is passed through a series of sieves with different sizes of holes to trap large solid parties e.g. leaves, grass, sticks, polythene, stones.

Aluminium sulphate (alum) is added to water in the mixing chamber to coagulate solid particles suspended in water.

Water is passed to a large circular coagulation tank where coagulated solid particles settle.

Water is then passed through a filtration tank where all the remaining solid particles are removed.

The layers of sand and gravel in the filtration tank allow water to seep through very slowly and leave all the solid particles behind.

(b) Farm records that should be kept by a dairy farmer

Feed records:- They show the type of feeds and quantities given to animals at a given time.

Breeding records:- Show details of breeding patterns for various animals on the farm/date of service pregnancy diagnosis/expected calving dates sex of the calf/ the sire used.

Labour records:- Show details of human resources/efforts on the farm/the number of workers/their grades/salaries/responsibilities/performance on the farm.

Health records:- Show incidences of disease/animals attacked/treatment given response to treatment/control measures taken/cost of treatment.

Milk production records:- Show the total milk yield from the heard and individual cows.

The quality of milk in terms of butter fat content is also shown for each cow on the farm.

Milk marketing records:- Show the quantity of milk sold/the price per litre/kilogram.

Also show the revenue earned from milk per given period of time/day/month/year.

Inventory records:- Show all the assets buildings machinery/land/ livestock any consumable good owned by the farmer on the farm.

(c) Cabbage Production

(i) Seedbed preparation

Land should be prepared early when dry.

Primary cultivation should be done.

Secondary cultivation should be done.

Land is prepared to medium tilth

Holes are dug at a depth of 10 cm

Spacing of 0.9 cm x 0.6 cm for large varieties or

0.6 m x 0.6 m/60 cm x 60 cm for smaller varieties should be done.

(ii)Transplanting of seedlings

Transplant at beginning of the long rains/when soil has enough moisture.

Nursery is first watered so that seedlings can be lifted with ease.

Only healthy and vigorous seedlings should be selected.

Lift the seedlings with a lump of soil attached to the roots/lift seedlings with garden trowel.

Add about 15 gm/1 teaspoonful of phosphatic fertilizer to the planting hole/well rotten manure.

Place and mix well with the soil.

Place seedlings in planting holes at the same depth it was in the nursery.

mix with soil.

Firm the soil around the base of seedlings

Water the seedlings as appropriate/if necessary

Apply mulch around seedling/erect shade if necessary

Transplant the seedlings carefully.

Transplanting should be done on a cloudy day or late in the evening when it is not too hot.

Place and firm the soil around the base of the seedling.

Seedlings are transplanted at 4-6 Weeks of age/at 4-6 leaves stage/at height of 10-20 cm.

27 (a) Effects of pests on maize in the field.

Some pests transmit crop diseases e.g. leaf hoppers.

Some pests eat the growing points causing retarded growth e.g. livestock, stalk borers/wild animals ,cutworms.

Some pests attack the fruits lowering their quality/quantity e.g. birds, bollworms

Some pests eat the foliage/leaves reducing the surface area for photosynthesis.

Some pests damage crop roots/stems causing wilting and death to the plants e.g.

termites, rodents/wild pigs/ stalk borer.

Some pests pierce and suck sap from the plant depriving the plant of food e.g. aphids.

Some pests injure and cause wounds on the plant exposing it to secondary infections.

Some pests unearth germinating seeds reducing plant population hence lowering quantity eg. monkeys, rodents ,chicken.

(b) (i) Procedure of harvesting pyrethrum

Pick flowers selectively.

Pick flowers with horizontal petals (ray florets) with 2-3 rows

of disc florets open.

Use forefingers and the thumb.

Pick by twisting the heads so that no stem is left attached.

Put the picked flowers in woven basket.

(ii) Precautions observed during harvesting of pyrethmm.

Picking starts 3-4 months after planting to maintain quality.

Picked flowers are put in woven baskets to allow ventilation and avoid fermentation of flowers.

Wet flowers should not be picked because they heat up and ferment

Picked flowers should not be compacted to avoid heating up and fermenting.

A suitable picking interval 14 - 21 days is maintained to avoid harvesting over blown flowers.

Break the flower stalks to maintain quality.

(c) Cultural Methods

Contour farming; Cultivation and planting done across the slope helps in holding water thereby increasing infiltration and reducing runoff

Mulching covers the soil thereby reducing splash erosion/reduce speed of runoff.

Strip cropping: alternating strips of crops that give good soil cover with those that give little

soil cover controls movement of soil particles thereby helping in control of erosion.

Vegetated Waterways; vegetation in waterways slows down run off/traps eroded soil particles thereby preventing further erosion.

Afforestation/reafforestation; trees protect soil from splash erosion by atomising raindrops/encourage water infiltration/protect soil from winds which could detach and remove soil particles.

Inter cropping crops which do not cover soil with crops that have good ground cover should be planted together to prevent splash erosion/surface runoff.

Minimum tillage so as to maintain good soil structure/have a seed bed with rough surface such that soil particles are not easily detached/encourage water percolation.

Cover cropping; establishing a crop that spreads over the surface of soil thereby protecting soil from effects of raindrops.

Grass strips/filter strips are left between cultivated/cropped strips of land to reduced speed of water and filter out eroded soil.

(7 X 1) (7 marks)

28. (a) Biotic factors that influences crop production.

Nitrogen fixing bacteria: - convert atmospheric nitrogen to nitrates for plant uptake.

Pollinators:- transfer pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or different flower.

Decomposers:- organisms which breakdown organic plant and animal remains to release nutrients for plants/aerate soil.

Pests:- attack crops by eating plant parts, piercing and sacking sap and introduce/spread disease causing micro-organisms.

Pathogens:- they cause crop diseases.

Predators:- reduce pest population.

Weeds:- complete for nutrients, space, light, moisture/suppress growth/spread vests and diseases.

(5 x l) (5 marks)

(b) Preparation of stem cutting

Select shoots from mother plants that are high yielding/healthy

Select healthy and vigorously growing shoots;

That have grown unchecked for 6 months.

Obtain cuttings from the middle part of the shoots.

Using a sharp knife make cutting 2.5 - 4 cm long; with a single leaf.

Make the a cut close to the axial bud/leaf.

The cut/slant should face away from the bud.

Put the cuttings in water before planting to prevent dehydration.

The cutting should have a single leaf/bud.

Make a slauting out

Cutting should be 2.5 - 4 cm long.

(9 x 1) (9 marks)

(c) Properties of N Fertilizers.

Highly soluble in soil water therefore should be applied in an already established crop.

Have short residual effect thus should be applied frequently.

They have a scorching effect/burning effect therefore should not come into contact with the plants.

The fertilizers are hygroscopic/absorb moisture from atmosphere therefore it should be stored under dry conditions.

The fertilizers are corrosive therefore they should not be handled with bare handsl stored in easily corroded containers.

They are easily leached therefore they should be applied to a vigorously growing crop/already established crop.

The fertilizers are volatile therefore they should be applied on moist soils. (6 X 1) (6 marks)

20.2 Agriculture Paper 2 (443/2)

SECTION A (30 marks)

1. Maintenance practices for a disc plough.

~ cleaning after use

- painting the frame

' greasing the moving parts.

' repair/replace broken/worn out parts.

' oiling the metal parts on long storage.

' proper storage.

2. Selection of breeding stock.

- Progeny testing.

~ Mass selection.

' Contemporary comparison.

3. Advantages of using animal power.

I Animals are cheap to acquire.

- Require less skilled labour.

' Can be used on small holdings.

- Are appropriate in very steep areas.

4. (a) Blue ticks - Anaplasmosis.

(b) Brown ear ticks - E.C.F

(c) Tsetse flies - Trypanosomiasis (nagana)

5. Control methods for roundworms.

'Use of antihelmintics/drenching 'Proper disposal of faeces/hygiene

‘Rotational grazing 'Ploughing/burning of pasture.

6. (a) Disease: Any deviation or alteration in the state of animal body or its organs which interferes with proper performance of its functions.

(b) Vaccination: Is the administration of a weakened or killed disease causing agent into the animal to induce production antibodies for immunity against the disease.

7. Maintenance practices for a battery.

' Topping with distilled water to maintain correct level of electrolyte.

- Cleaning the terminals and smearing them with grease to prevent corrosion.

~ Tightly fix the battery in a box to prevent spillage and damages.

- Regular charging.

- Empty contents and turn it upside down on long storage.

' Should be fitted correctly on the tractor.

8. Breed (a) Aberdeen (b) Guernsey (c) Sahiwal (d) Red poll 9. Proper nutrition

' Prevents nutrient deficiency diseases.

~ Ensures resistance against disease infection.

10. Categories of livestock diseases

- Bacterial

- Protozoan

' Viral

' Nutritional

11. - Upgrading.

' Cross breeding.

12. Bloodless castration methods.

' Use of rubber ring and elastrator.

~ Use of burdizzo.

13. (a) recessive gene: An allele whose phenotypic expression is masked by a dominant allele in heterozygous condition.

(b) Epistasis: Gene interaction in which the expression of some alleles is blocked

14. Signs of kindling

' Nest building

~ Plucking of fur from the belly.

- Lose of appetite

- Restlessness.

15. Developmental stages of liver flukes in a fresh water snail.

' Sporocyst.

' Cercaria

' Redia.

16. Four strokes of a tractor engine.

' induction/inlet

~ compression

~ power

' exhaust/outlet

17. Signs of mite attack in poultry.

~ Irritation] scratching g of the body.

- Anemia.

~ Presence of mites below the plumage in patches.

- Falling off of feathers.

' Dermatitis due to burrowing effects.

~ Formation of crusts.

18. Advantages of natural feeding in calf rearing.

' Calf takes milk at body temperature.

' Milk is free from contamination

' It prevents scouring in calves.

' Milk is provided ad libitum.

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