CRE Notes - Christian Religious Education Revision

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C.R.E Revision Notes

FORM 1

Course Outline

1. Introduction To Christian religious education

a.Definition of Christian Religious Education

b.Reasons for studying Christian Religious Education.

2. The Bible a. The Bible as the word of God (Genesis 1:1-2; 2 Timothy 3:16; revelation 2:18)

b. Human authors (2 Peter 1:20-21)

c. Major divisions of the Bible;

d. The Bible as a library of books:

e. Translation of the Bible from the original languages (Hebrew and Greek) to the present local languages;

f. Versions of the Bible used in Kenya today;

g. Effects of the translation of the Bible into African languages.

3. Creation and the fall of man

a. The biblical accounts of creation and their meaning;

b. Attributes of God from the biblical creation accounts;

c. Traditional African views of creation;

d. Teaching from the biblical accounts of creation;

e. The biblical teaching on the origin of sin and its consequences (Genesis chapters 3, 4 and 11);

f. Traditional African concept of evil;

g. God"s plan of salvation (Genesis 3:15);

h. Similarities and differences between the traditional African concept of evil and the biblical concept of sin.

4. Faith And God"s Promises: Abraham

a.Background to the call of Abraham (Genesis 11:24-32, 12:1-9);

b. Definition of the term faith in God (Genesis 11:1-6);

c. 1) Abraham"s act of faith in God (Genesis 12:1-9, 15:1-6, 1723-24, 21:1-7, 22:1-19);

ii) The importance of faith in Christian life today;

d. God"s promises to Abraham and their relevance to Christians today (Genesis 12:2-3,15:1-21,21:17, 17:15-18);

e. Meaning of the term Covenant;

f. God“s covenant with Abraham and its importance (Genesis 15:1-19);

g. Covenants in modern life and their importance;

h. Circumcision

i) The importance of circumcision to Abraham and his descendants (Genesis 17 :1-16);

ii) Compare the Jewish and African practices of circumcision;

5. The Sinai Covenant: Moses

a. The call of Moses (Exodus 3:1-22);

b. The ten plagues (Exodus 7:14, 11:1-10);

c. The Passover (Exodus 12:1-31);

d. The Exodus

i) The crossing of the Red Sea (exodus 14:5-31);

ii) Provision of water (Exodus 15122-29, 17:1-6);

iii) Provision of Manna and quails (Exodus 16:1-35);

iv) Defeat of the Amalekites (Exodus 17:8-16);

e. The making of the Sinai Covenant (Exodus 19, 24:1-8)

ii) The breaking of the Sinai covenant (Exodus 3211-35);

iii) The renewal of the Sinai covenant (Exodus 34:1-35);

f. The worship of God by the Israelites in the wilderness;

g. The Ten commandments (Exodus 20:1-17);

h. The Israelites“ new understanding of the nature of God.

6. Leadership in Israel: David and Solomon

a. Reasons for kingship in Israel (1 Samuel 8:1-9);

b. Reasons against kingship in Israel (1 Samuel 8:10-20);

c. King Saul"s failures (1 Samuel 13:8-14, 15:7-25);

d. Lessons learnt from king Saul"s failures;

e. King David“s importance

i) David"s achievements as king of Israel (1 Samuel 16:1-23, 2 Samuel 6:1-15);

ii) David as an ancestor of Jesus Christ (2 Samuel 7:1-29, Luke 1:26-33);

f Qualities of a good leader as drawn from king David"s leadership;

g. King Solomon"s achievements and failures (1 Kings chapters 3-12);

h. Importance of the temple in Israel

7. Loyalty to God: Elijah

a. The spread of idolatry

i) The Canaanite religion;

ii) The schism between Judah and Israel (1 Kings 12:25-33);

b. The effects of idolatry in Israel;

c. Elijah"s fight against:

i) false religion (1 Kings 18:17-46);

ii) Corruption (1 Kings chapter 21);

d. The skills that helped Elijah fight corruption:

i) Critical thinking;

ii) Creative thinking;

m) Decision-making;

e. Reasons why Elijah faced danger and hostility as a prophet of God (1 Kings chapters 18, 19 and 21);

f The relevance of Elijah"s prophetic mission to Christians today.

8. Selected aspects in African religious heritage: African concept of god, spirits and ancestors

a. African concept of God, spirits and ancestors;

b. African understanding of the hierarchy of beings;

. The role of God, spirits and ancestors;

Responsibility of the living towards God, spirits and ancestors;

. Traditional African ways of:

i) Worshiping God;

ii) Venerating and communicating with the spirits and ancestors.

9. African moral and cultural values

a. Meaning of life and its wholeness in traditional African society,

b. African concept of community and kinship;

c. Factors contributing to harmony and mutual responsibility among African communities:

i) Rites of passage:

1) Birth and naming;

2) initiation;

3) Marriage;

4) Death.

ii) The role of each in inculcating moral values;

d. The role of religious specialists in African communities and their relevance today;

e. African moral values

f. Continuity and change in the African understanding of i) Community and old age;

ii) Land;

iii) Property,

iv) Widows;

v) Orphans;

vi) Dowry;

vii) Leisure.

Chapter 1

General introduction to christian religious education

1. What is the meaning of Christian Religious Education?

> Christian religious education is a subject taught academically in the school curriculum in the elementary, secondary school and higher learning institutions in Kenya.

> It is a subject that lays a firm foundation of the salvation history of mankind since the times of Abraham to its fulfillment in the life and ministry of our Lord Jesus Christ.

> It is the study of religious beliefs, values and practices depicted in the life and works of Jesus in relation to the contemporary life and traditional African heritage.

> It is also a subject that shows God"s relationship with man.

2. State the importance of studying C R E.

> It vividly tells us how God entrusted and empowered man to reign over all creation (Genesis 1:26).

> Christian Religious Education highlights to man about the nature of God. Man is shown what God expects of him since the genesis of time up to the resurrection of Jesus Christ, our saviour.

> The study of Christian religious Education highlights to man about the nature of God.

> God is Holy trinity (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) (Genesis 1:26).

> Christian religious education enables us to understand that all men are equal before God, irrespective of colour, race, sex, age, ethnicity, etc.

> It drives us to appreciate religious and cultural heterogeneity. This is significant when we interact with people within and without our religion and culture. This slots learners of CRE into harmonious living with other people.

> CRE coaxes learners into the acquisition of basic Christian norms. They are contained in the Decalogue (Exodus chapter 20) and in the teachings of Jesus Christ like the Sermon on the Plain (Matthew 5:1-12). These norms are also summed up in Christ"s teaching about love (Luke 10:27).

> The study of C RE helps one to acquire the national goals of education that gives forth to peace, love and unity among races.

> It equips with profound Christian teachings, which impart positively on the learner.

> The learning of C R E enables us to answer questions about our lives e.g. “Who am I?”, “Why was created?” and “What is God"s relationship with man?”

> C R E shields and provides us usable virtues that in return help us overcome trials and tribulations in our day to day lives.

> It helps us devalue African religious malpractices and uphold credible moral values.

> Through the learning of C R E, learners are molded into all-round beings. They acquire uprightness spiritually, socially, culturally, emotionally, intellectually and morally.

> It gives us critical appreciation, which is a prime factor in decision making.

> C R E is essential for career development.

> C R E transforms learners to a new life in Christ.

3. Outline the national goals dealing with the improvement of life.

> National unity;

> National social and economic development,

> Individual development and self fulfillment;

> Social equality;

> Respect and development of cultural heritage;

> International consciousness.

Chapter 2

The Bible

4. What is the bible?

> The bible is the holy word of God.

> It is an accepted book by Christians, through which God communicates to them > The Bible is an inspired word of God.

5. Give reasons as to why the Bible is referred to as the Library of Books.

> It consists of various kinds of books.

> Its books were authored differently.

> It was written at different time and in different circumstances and situations.

> It is a Reference book.

> It is arranged sequentially.

> The Bible was directed to different people, conveying various messages.

> It is written in various styles.

> It is Written over a long span of time.

> It is divided into two main parts: the Old and New Testament.

> It is composed of various sections e.g. epistles, torah, Historical, etc.

6. Why is the Bible seen as the word of God?

> The authors were inspired by God.

> God revealed himself to human authors e.g. Moses.

> The Bible contains a concrete message of God for daily living.

> God dictates his relationship with man through the laws and guidelines offered in the Bible.

> Through the Bible, the nature and character of God is revealed through his mysterious acts.

> The Bible makes clear God"s intention and implementation to salvage mankind since the time of Abraham' the founder of faith, to the time of Jesus Christ, our savior.

> The book of Revelation, the Apocalypse, evidences that the message in the bible was from God and it was not human imagination.

> God is presented to have written some scripture himself e. g. the handwriting on the wall in the book of Daniel “Mene Mene Tekel Parsil”.

> The Bible contains the divine call of prophets by God, whose utterances were later fiilfilled. An example is Micah, who prophesied the birth of Jesus Christ.

> Jesus was bom in Bethlehem: David"s city, in a manger.

7. How does God speak to human beings through the Bible?

> Through Jesus Christ, who preached, healed, taught and addressed various issues concerning our day to day living.

> Through the Holy Spirit, God enabled Peter to denounce the dishonesty of Annanias and Saphirra.

> God speaks to men through prophets. Jeremiah tells people of the new covenant that is fulfilled through Jesus Christ.

> God communicates to people through dreams and visions. For example, the Old Testament prophets had visions. Amos had five visions directed to the people of Judah.

> Through allegories e.g. Ezekiel"s vision of dry bones.

> Through extra-ordinary events. The Israelites experienced God"s power when they miraculously managed to cross the Red Sea.

> God speaks to men through the Ten Commandments, which give directives on which course of life a true Christian should pursue.

8. How does the Bible suit contemporary Christian living?

> The Bible is the key resource material in the teaching of Christian Religious Education in schools.

> It is used in oathing to signify God"s presence and to stick to the truth.

> It instills knowledge about God.

> It is used in Liturgical functions like weddings funerals, baptism, etc.

> The Bible is used in swearing in leaders at any level Where necessary.

> It teaches us the role that God plays in our lives.

> It teaches us on how to live cohesively with fellow men

> We read the Bible to realize spiritual nourishment in our lives.

9. List the human authors of the Bible.

> Moses, who wrote the books of the Torah.

> David, the second king of Israel, who wrote the Book of Psalms.

> Solomon, the father of wisdom, who wrote songs of Songs, among others.

> Major and Minor prophets, who wrote different books taking after their names. For instance, Hosea and Daniel made such writings.

> Disciples of Jesus Christ e.g. Matthew, Mark and Luke, who wrote the Synoptic gospels.

> Luke, who wrote Acts of the Apostles.

> Paul, who wrote several epistles e.g. Corinthians, Romans, etc. The apostle John, who wrote the book of Revelations.

10. State the literary styles used by the biblical authors.

> Legislative text e.g. Leviticus;

> Wise sayings e.g. Proverbs.

> Prophetic speeches like those of Jeremiah.

> Poetic styles e.g. Job, Psalms, Proverbs, etc.

> Gospels i.e. Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.

> Letters/epistles e.g. the Pauline and general epistles.

> History e.g. the Acts.

> Philosophical essays e.g. Job.

> Prayers e.g. Nehemiah.

> Songs of songs, written by Solomon.

> Religious epics, e.g. Exodus.

> Narratives e.g. Genesis.

11. List the divisions of the Old Testament.

> The Torah/Pentateuch/Law/Mosaic books ie. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

> Historical books i.e. Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther.

> Major prophetic books i.e. Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel and Isaiah.

> Minor prophetic books ie. Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Hagai, Malachi and Zechariah.

> Poetic books i.e. Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Songs of Solomon.

12. List the divisions of the New Testament.

> Biographical/gospels i.e. Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The first three are also referred to as the Synoptic gospels.

> Historical i.e. Acts of the Apostles. This was written by Luke: who also wrote the Gospel of Saint Luke, who was a physician.

> General/pastoral Epistles ie. Jude, James, 1 and 2 Peter and l, 2 and 3 John Pauline epistles i.e. Romans, land 2 Corinthians, Ephesians, Philippians, land 2 Thessalonians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon and Hebrews.

> Apocalypse/Prophetic books i.e. the book of Revelation, written by John.

13. Explain the translations of the Bible from original languages to local languages.

> The Old Testament was originally written in Hebrew, a language used in Palestine. It was then translated into Greek language. This was referred to as the Septuagint. This version was used by the Jews of dispersion/Diaspora. The Septuagint refers to the seventy scholars and scribes who worked on the original Hebrew language, translating it into Greek.

> Later in the 4"‘ century AD, the Bible was translated into Latin. This translation was done by a Christian scholar called Jerome. This version was called the Vulgate, meaning “For Common use”.

> During the Reformation and even after, the national languages of different countries were used in worship instead of Latin.

> The first English and German translations were done at this time. Still, the Catholic Church continued with the Vulgate.

> The first Bible translation in East Africa was done by Johann Ludwig Krapf He was a Missionary sent by the Church Missionary Society.

> Krapf took nine years to translate the Gennan Bible, especially the New Testament part of it, into Kiswahili.

> From there, other local languages received their translation e.g. Gikuyu in 1951, Kikamba in 1956, Kimeru in 1964, Kalenjin in 1968, Luhya in 1974, modern Swahili in 1977, etc. The process is still going on through the Bible Society of Kenya.

14. List the various versions of the Bible

> Revised standard version

> Good news Bible

> The African bible

> New international Bible

> The living Bible

> Common Bible

> Jerusalem Bible

> King James version

> New king James version

> English Bible

> The authored version

> The Gideon"s international version

> New American Bible

15. List the effects of the translation of the Bible into African languages

> It enhanced the spread of Christianity

> If eroded illiteracy and promoted literacy

> It triggered evangelism like bush fire

> It accelerated the development of African Independent churches/ schools

> Many Africans accepted/ welcomed Christianity

> Missionaries acquitted themselves wives the African language established them to further Christianity

> It led to the development of printing institutions

> It created employment

> Africans demanded leadership

> If led have room to research on the African religion/ led to the appreciation of the African culture

> It promoted ecumenical amalgamation

> The word of God reached many people in their own languages

> Reading the Bible enabled people to realize or detect faults in preaching

> It caused enthusiasm for formal education.

16. Name the Books that belongs to the apocrypha

Apocrypha are the extra books accepted by the Catholic Church - Canonical books They include:

> Tobit

> Maccabes 1 and 2

> Pan of Daniel

> Wisdom books

> Baruch

> Esdras

> Part of Esther

> Ecclessiasticus

17. Show quest for the Bible translation today

> Not all local languages have bible translations

> There is still need for more translation

> To ease evangelization

> Because of the emerging issues which are due to the necessity to revise old versions into new ones to be included

> Due to current changes in language

> For better understanding

> The inter church relations (the Ecumenical movement) still call for translate.

18. Why is the Bible called Good news

> It betters God"s relationship with mankind

> It assures people eternal life

> Man remains hopeful through the Biblical doctrine

> The biblical content reconciles man with God

> The biblical inspires people and gives them salvation.

19. Give reasons why reading the Bible is important to Christians

> It gives moral and spiritual guidance

> It helps Christians understand the meaning of their lives and relationship to God and to one another

> It helps the discover the will of God for he reveals himself through the Bible

> It helps them understand the universe and their relationship to it

> Reading the Bible gives guidance on the relationship among human beings

> It is the world of God

> It source for consolation to Christians

> It is a source of inspiration

> It is a source of knowledge

> It helps Christians discover who they are

> Reading the Bible is a way of worshiping.

Chapter 3

Creation and the fall of human kind

20. Record the first creation account (priestly account) (Genesis 1:1-13)

> On the first day God created light and separated it from darkness, calling it day and night.

> On the second day He created the sky also called firmament.

> Day 3 God created dry land called Earth and the gathering waters called seas. He also created all types of plants (vegetation).

> On the fourth day he created the solar system also called Heavenly bodies i.e. Sun, Moon, Stars and Planets.

> On the fifth day he created birds of the air, fish and other sea creatures.

> Day six he created both domestic and wild animal and finalized with human beings.

> The seventh day was a Sabbath and therefore God rested.

21. State and comment on the second creation account as recorded in the genesis chapter (2:4-25)

> In the first place God created man out of Dust

> God breathed into the mans nostrils giving him life

> He created a beautiful garden called Eden

> In the garden were trees with the tree of knowledge placed in the middle

> Man is expected to guard, till and take care of the garden for blessings

> God created birds and other animals in the garden

> He authorized man to name them

> God created four rivers to source water in the garden. They include Tigris, Euphrates, Gihon and Pishon

> Man is commanded to use everything in the garden except the tree of knowledge

> He put man into a deep sleep, made surgery out of his ribs and created woman

22. Give the differences/ contrast in the two accounts of creation

> There is a chronological order of events in the first account of creation as opposed to the second

> Male and female are created at the same time whereas in the second account man is created first then woman is out of his ribs

> In the first account creation is out of the command “let there be” yet in the second man is made out of dust

> In the first account man names what he creates as opposed in the second where man is given the opportunity to name the animals

> A Sabbath day allocated for rest appears on the first while in the second account it wasn't mentioned

> The garden of Eden mentioned on the second account wasn't on the first

> In the second creation account four rivers Tigris, Euphrates, Gihon and Pishon they were not mentioned in the first

> Man is given a responsibility to till the land in the second but not in the first

> In the second forbidden tree appears but this misses in the first account

> In the first account God created human beings for procreation while in the second

account they were created for companionship

> The second account of creation is human centred while the first does not shore this it is man centred

> In the first account God created in union with the spirit (Holy Trinity) while in the second account God is alone

> In the first account human beings were created last while in the second they came first

> The first account takes six days to be complete unlike the second where days were not mentioned

> In the first account God appreciates everything he creates. We are not told this is the second.

> The spirit of God hovering over the water.

23. In which ways are the two accounts of creation similar (compare)

> In both accounts God is the sole creator

> In both human beings are given domination over the rest of the creation

> The uniqueness of human beings is brought forth in the second accounts

> Man shares in the life of God since he is made in the likeness of God

> Creation involves both the living and non-living things.

24. What meaning is denoted from the accounts of creation?

> The spirit of God hovering over water implies God spiritual and divine nature. He hand indeed planed for his work

The creation of light at first sight shows Gods orderly operation

The phrase “Let there be” evidences Gods authority, superiority and his being omnipotent

> God used the phrase “let us” while creating man to indicate the Holy Trinity (God the Father, the Son and the Holy spirit)

> The creation of man in their image and likeness of God proves that the shares life with God.

> Breathing of air into the nostrils shows that life is precious and is given by God

> Setting aside the Sabbath for rest shows Gods intention to be worshiped and the moral way of spending leisure

> Man naming God"s creations set"s him as God"s Co-worker and bring out his responsibility

> The tilling of the land of Eden presents man as the tilling of the land of Eden presents man as a conserve and preserver of the environment and his own use

> The forbidden tree challenges man"s ability to obey God"s command.

25. What teaching can a Christian deprive from the Biblical creation account?

> God is the originator of everything both living and non-living, concrete and non- concrete

> God mandated human beings to reign over his creation

> Human beings are sociable and need company

> Both Male and female are equal in the eyes of God

> Rest is significant for worship and recreation

> Human being origin and destiny in God

> Man is super for he climaxes God"s creation

> Maniage is sacred and it was instituted by God

> Christians are not to be 1934 but emulate God who is a worker. He worked for six consecutive days

> Human beings should act responsibly because God earmarked them to care for his creation

> Marriage is both for procreation and companionship.

26. Mention the attributes/ the nature of God from the Genesis stories of creation

> God is omnipotent/ all powerful

> God is orderly and perfect

> God is omnipresent/ everywhere

> God is transcendent

> God is the sustainer/ provider

> God is the sole creator

> He is a moral God

> He is a loving God

> He is a spirit

> He is everlasting/ self existence

> God is source of goodness

> God is Holy

> God is a worker

> There is only one God.

27. State the teachings on the relationship between human beings and the environment from the Genesis stories of creation.

> Both human beings and the environment have a common origin.

> All other creatures are inferior before human beings and vise versa.

> Human beings are to cater for and preserve the environment.

> Human beings and the rest of God"s creation have a similar destiny.

> Human beings should treat the rest of creation with reverent respect.

> Human beings and the rest of creation are interdependent.

28. Identify the responsibilities given by God to human beings in the Genesis story of action.

> Human beings are to multiply and fill the earth.

> They were to get married.

> To take care of the environment.

> Man and woman should be complimentary.

> To take care of God"s creation.

> They were to be in charge of the Garden of Eden.

> To name other creatures.

> To obey God"s commandments.

> To worship God.

> To eat from the fruits of the garden.

29. Why is man seen as a special creature before God?

> He is created in the image and likeness of God.

> He was given dominion over the rest of creation

> He was given opportunity to name the creation.

> Man has the ability to think and reason, unlike other animals.

> He was given the opportunity to serve and fellowship with God.

> He is given a will to choose between good and evil

> He possesses the blessings of God.

> Only man was created by the holy trinity.

30. How does man further creation?

> Through afforestation and reafforestation.

> Through procreation and reproduction.

> Caring for the needy.

> Evading/eradicating environmental pollution.

> Conserving life of fellow men and other animals.

> Preaching and promoting peace and harmony in the community.

> Use of proper farming methods e.g. contour farming.

> Conserving water towers.

> Using their creativity in invention.

> Through scientific and technological discoveries.

> Through provision of education geared towards teaching people how to cope with the environment.

> By providing job opportunities in order to help people realize self fulfillment.

31. Outline the lessons Christians leam about work from the Genesis Creation stories.

> Work was ordained by God.

> Work makes human beings complete self-fulfilling.

> We should Work and observe the Sabbath day.

> One is to work for self reliance.

> Work was introduced to man as a punishment for their sin in Eden

> Work contributes to the development of the community.

> Christians learn to obey God"s command by becoming Co workers.

> Work is a continuation of God"s creation.

> Work keeps Christians away from idling, which may lead to sin.

32. Write down the teachings about marriage from the biblical stories of creation.

> It is instituted by God.

> Marriage is for reproduction.

> It is for companionship.

> It should be between male and female.

> It should be monogamous.

> Man and woman should help each other.

> Marriage is for love.

> It is a continuation of God"s work of creation

33. How do Africans view creation?

> Africans believe that creation originated from God the creator.

> Africans see God as mysterious in his deeds, for they fail to explain how he created the earth.

> Africans see human beings as special and that God creates everything for them

> God provided the first human beings with all the necessities of life.

> The first people lived happily with God and lacked nothing.

> Marriage was mainly for procreation.

34. State the similarities between the Biblical story of creation and the African myth of creation.

> In both, God is the sole creator.

> Man is the climax of creation

> God is supreme.

> In both, man was given a wife for company.

> God is portrayed as a potter.

35. What is sin?

> Sin is deliberate disobedience.

> Sin is missing a tact. > Sin is an iniquity.

> Sin is waywardness.

> Sin is transgression.

36. What led to the fall of man?

> God placed Adam in the Garden of Eden.

> God mandated Adam over all other trees apart fi"om the tree of knowledge. Thereafter Adam was tricked by Eve into transgressing. The end of the iniquity was expulsion from the Garden of Eden.

37. Explain the penalty meted to each of the following transgressors

i. Serpent;

ii. Woman;

m. Adam

The serpent (snake) was:

Cursed above all creatures.

To crawl on its belly.

To eat dust.

d. Enmity was declared between it and the woman"s generation.

The woman:

a. Would give birth through pain.

b. Would still desire her husband;

c. Her offsprings shall be enemies with the serpent“s offspring.

Adam

. Ground was cursed because of him;

. Would have to toil for survival;

. Would eat on thorns, thistles and herbs;

Will (together with his descendants) die.

38.Explain the consequences of sin in relation to the Genesis stories of the fall of human beings.

> Death became inevitable to human beings.

> Human being" relationship with God turned into phobia.

> Human beings were ashamed of their nakedness and became guilty of their deeds.

> Women became subject to men.

> Human beings were subjected to pain.

> Human beings were to toil for survival

> Enmity was created between human beings and animals.

> Human being were expelled from the Garden of Eden.

> The life span of man was reduced to 120 years.

> The ground was cursed because of human beings.

> Man began taking away other people"s life e.g. Cain killed Abel > Man“s language became confused.

> The serpent was condemned to eating dust.

> The marriage relationship turned from mutual care to tension.

> Living things were destroyed by the great flood.

> Man was prone to sin.

39.What was the African perception about evil?

> According to African communities, God is good and he did not create evil

> They believe that evil is as a result of evil spirits/malevolent spirits.

> Curses also lead to evil.

> Breaking of taboos is another source of evil

> It"s caused by disobedience to God and the spirits.

> Mystical powers from evil people like witches, wizards and sorcerers can cause harm

40.Compare and contrast the traditional African view and biblical view on evil

> Evil results from bad omen.

> Breaking of oaths results in malicious experience, which is evil.

> Evil comes as a punishment from God, spirits and ancestors.

> Evil could be reversed through cleansing rituals.

> Evil could be punished in form of humble phenomena/disastrous acts.

contrast the traditional African view and the biblical view on evil.

> In both cases, evil is bad and should be avoided.

> In both, sin is punitive.

> In both, sin arises from disobedience.

> In both cases, evil may result from flailing in a social or spiritual obligation

> Both agree that the results of sin and evil is calamities, suffering and death.

> In both, sin separates human beings from God.

> In both, God is the guardian of morality, law and order.

> In both, sin not only affects individuals, but also affects other members of the community.

> In both, sin is transmitted to people through Satan.

> In both, sin can be inherited.

> In African traditional religion, there is communal responsibility over sin as opposed to biblical teaching, where individual responsibility is emphasized.

> Bibically, sin is intrinsic whereas in traditional African belief it is extrinsic.

> Sin is wholesomely punishable in African traditional religion, but is redemptive biblically.

> Biblically, the punishment of sin is not everlasting due to the resurrected Christ. However, in African traditional religion, sin claims irreversible doom

41. How was sin punished in ATR

> corporal punishment

> Capital punishment

> Banishment

> payment of fines

> public humiliation

> indecent burial ceremonies

> failure to be named after

> Children denied food for sometime.

> Denied leadership roles.

> Isolation.

Chapter 4

Faith And God’s Promises: Abraham

42. Narrate the history of Abraham prior to his call by God. > Abraham"s father was Terah. Terah had three sons: Abraham, Nahor and Haran They lived in a place called Ur of the Chaldeans. Abraham mancied Sarai, Nahor manied Milcah. Haran had a son called Lot. Terah and his family lived amidst polytheists.

Polytheism is worship of many gods or idols. These people were moon worshippers.

> Haran died in Ur and, thereafter, Terah took Abraham alongside his wife Sarai and Lot and they settled in Haran. Terah died in Haran at the age of 205 years. It was after this that God called Abraham

43. Comment on the call of Abraham. > Abraham"s call was mysterious. Its form is not describe in the Bible. It took place just after the passing on of Terah. Abraham was 75 years old when God called him He obeyed God"s voice regardless of his age. God says thus, “Get out of your country, your relatives and your father"s house and go to the land that will show you”.

> He took his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, servants and domestic animals along with him This showed how wealthy and selfless Abraham was. In due course, God made several promises to the obedient Abraham Abraham was promised many descendants, a great nation, blessings and a great name, all by God.

> Abraham later settled at various places e.g. Shechem and Bethe], where he built altars to demonstrate his faith in worshipping God.

> Due to famine, he temporarily sought refuge in Egypt, but, eventually, after its elapse, he settled back in Canaan.

44. What is faith?

> Faith is an absolute belief or trust in somebody or something.

> It is a strong belief without necessarily having a logical proof

> According to the Bible, faith is confidence in the total truthfulness of every utterance that pours out of God.

> It is also a gift from God, which is not based on tangible objects.

> Faith is unshakable trust in God.

45. Show how Abraham demonstrated his faith in God.

> Abraham believed in God by abandoning the polytheistic community to worship Yahweh: the true and mighty God.

> Abraham accepted to quit the known Haran to an unknown destiny.

> Abraham undoubtedly gave in to the command of circumcision: the sign to the covenant, at his ripe age.

> His unshakable faith led him to accept to sacrifice his only son and heir: Isaac, on mount Moriah. (Genesis 22).

> Abraham decisively constructed altars at Bethel and Shechem to inaugurate the fear of God for his worship.

> He willingly changed his name from Abram to Abraham and his wife"s name from Sarai to Sarah.

> He made a strong bond with God in an elaborate covenant.

> Despite their old age, Abraham believed and trusted that his wife would bear him a son.

> Abraham proved his faith through worshiping God in prayer, sacrifices and intercession.

46. Explain the relevance of Abraham’s faith in God to Christians today.

> With faith, Christians became vessels of God"s intension just like God renewed his relationship with mankind through Abraham

> Faith enables Christians to withstand challenges just like Abraham did.

> In faith, Christians retrain from bad practices, just like Abraham abandoned polytheism and became monotheistic in Yahweh.

> God expects Christians to have definite faith in him Abraham obeyed God by leaving Haran for Canaan.

> Faith in God leads to success. Abraham"s wife Sarah bore a son out of faith in God.

> By faith, God provides all necessities like he provided a ram for sacrifice instead of his son Isaac.

> Christians: the descendants of Abraham will automatically receive blessings just like God blessed Abraham as long as they remain obedient and faithful to God.

> Christians are assured of eternal life, just like Abraham secured Canaan by faith.

> By faith, Christians should abide by God"s directives without question, just as Abraham heeded God“s command.

47. Which promises did God make to Abraham?

> Abraham would father a great nation.

> Abraham would receive personal blessings i.e. die in peace.

> Abraham would have many descendants.

> Abraham would receive personal reputation, whereby his name would be great.

> God promised Abraham a son/heir.

> God would establish an everlasting covenant with Abraham

> God would bless those who bless Abraham

> God would pronounce a curse onto those who curse Abraham, thereby protecting him

> God would settle Abraham and his descendants in a blessed land flowing with milk and honey.

> Abraham would be the origin of blessing to the whole world (through Abraham all the nations of the world would bless themselves).

> Abraham"s descendants would be slaves in a foreign land, but God would rescue them

> God would make great nations from Abraham“s descendants.

> God would make some of Abraham"s descendants kings.

48. State the relevance of God’s promises to Abraham to Christians today

> Just like Abraham rejected moon worship and received blessings, Christians should abandon all their waywardness to inherit God"s blessing

> Christians realizes that God fulfils all his promises through faith

> God promised Abraham land. To Christians we are assured of the eternal life in faith and obedience

> God can raise anybody from humble and faithless background to partake in his work just like it was to Abraham

> God shields Christians to date a fulfillment of his promise to Abraham

> Christians learn that they are concrete fruits of Abraham who will eventually receive Gods blessing

> Christians turn out to be the new Israel who descend from Abraham.

49. What is a covenant?

> A covenant is a solemn agreement/ pact/ treaty between two people or groups. > It is a form of binding commitment between two partners or nations for a common good.

> It is an agreement which permanently renews a broken relationship between warning parties.

50. What are the components/characteristics/elements of covenant! pact?

> Promises/ oaths

> Witness

> Participants

> Signs

> Consequences

> Ritual/ ceremony

> A seal.

51. List examples of Well known pacts/ covenants in the Bible

> Covenant between God and Abraham

> God"s covenant with Noah

> God"s covenant with Israelite's on mount Sinai

> God"s covenant with David

> God“s covenant with Jeremiah

> God“s covenant with his people/ New Testament

52. Describe God’s covenant with Abraham

> God entered into a covenant with Abraham offer Abraham"s persistent requisition of a sign to affirm the fulfillment of his promises.

> God instructed Abraham to sacrifice the following animals:

> A heifer 3yrs old

> A she- goat 3 yrs old

> A ram 3yrs old

> A turtle dove

> A young pigeon.

> The sacrificial animals were without blemish.

> Abraham cut the animals into equal halves and put each half opposite other two making rows. > The birds were not split.

> Towards evening, Abraham fell into deep sleep and was filled with fear. The Lord appeared to him in a vision and gave him more promises.

> His descendants will be strangers in a foreign land (Egypt) and will be slaves but will leave that land after 400 years. However they will be rescued.

> He will live to a ripe age, die in peace and be buried.

When darkness approached, smoking fire pot and a flaming torch suddenly appeared and passed between the peaces of animals. Through this, God made a covenant with Abraham He was the sole maker of the covenant.

The smoking fire pot and the flaming torch manifested the presence of God.

53. Identify the characteristics of the covenant between God and Abraham

> It was initiated by God

> It was solemn/ permanent

> It was unconditional/ between unequal

> They were promises to be fulfilled

> It had a sign- circumcision

> It was sealed through the sacrifice

> It was voluntarily.

54. What was the relevance of God’s covenant of Abraham to Christians today?

> Faith is quite essential when initiating a covenant with God

> A covenant is a cornerstone to a Christians faith for it creates a permanent reunion between God and the subject

> The unconditional covenant between God and Abraham“s bring or gives forth to God personal relationship with human beings

> This covenant creates a conducive environment for God"s protection to these who believe and trust in him

> The covenant brings fourth the aspect of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

55. Identify covenant in modem life

> Marriage

> Loyalty

> Baptism

> Oaths

> Ordination in Church

> Employment contracts

> Contracts when buying land.

56. Name the signs of the unconditional covenant between God and Abraham?

> Circumcision

> Change of names

> Smoking fire pot

> Flaming torch

> Countless stars

> Birds of prey

57. Identify lessons Christians learn from the incidence when Abraham was willing to sacrifice his own son Isaac

> They should have absolute faith in God

> They should remain obedient to God

> They should be ready to face challenges in worship

> They should not despair in God

> They should be ready to surrender everything for God

> They should be ready to serve God in order to attain blessings

> They should amalgamate family members in worship

> Wisdom and bravery should be part and parcel of their dealings in life.

58. Show how the promises to Abraham were latter fulfilled

> Abraham acquired a son Isaac

> Abraham and his descendants settled in Canaan

> The Israelites were rescued from Egyptian bondage

> Abraham died in a good ripe age

> Jesus Christ descended from Abraham

> Present Christians are a great nation promised to Abraham

> Abraham had many descendants the present Christians.

59. How does marriage qualify to be a covenant?

> Husband and Wife are parties

> It involve witness

> It has a sign (a ring)

> Promises and vows are given

> A ceremony is held inform of a wedding

> A marriage certificate acts as a seal.

60. Give the significance of circumcision to Abraham and his descendants

> It was a sign that God entered into a covenant with Abraham and his descendants

> It was an outward sign showing the faith Abraham and his descendants had in God

> It was a mark of identity which distinguished the people who belonged to God as his chosen people

> The ritual was significance for the attainment blessings

> It was a sign of purity thus the uncircumcised were considered as outcasts

> It acted as a reminder of the covenant made between God and Abraham

> It was a mark of physical descendant that belonged to the lineage of Abraham

> It also put Abraham as the father of faith

> It gave Abraham the start of the new teaching in the responsibility.

61. Compare the Jewish and African practices of circumcision

> In both communities circumcision is a mark of identity

> In both the foreskin is cut

> It was a sign of unity with the supreme being

> In both it attaches members to particular community

> It is a religious function

> In both it is performed with the religious specialist

> Those who fail to circumcise are considered outcasts or outlaws

62. Differentiate between the Jewish and African practice of circumcision

> Jews circumcise in tact at 8 days whereas Africans circumcise early adult

> In Jews it was utterly male whereas in some African communities girls are also circumcised

> In Jews it was initiated by God but in African it is not mentioned

> In African it is a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood unlike Jews where one is still a child

> Blood in Jews binds the candidate with God while in traditional it binds one with an ancestor

> In Traditional African culture the candidates undergo seclusion as opposed to Jewish circumcision

> In African traditional religion the candidates are psyched unlike the Jews.

Chapter 5

The Sinai Covenant: Moses

63. Describe the background to the call of Moses.

> Moses was born at a time when a decree had been issued to kill all male babies by drowning them in river Nile. His mother bore and hid him in a woven basket. When the baby was three months old and could no longer be hidden, his mother took him in a water proof basket, which he placed within the reeds at the bank of river Nile.

> The baby Moses was miraculously rescued by Pharaoh"s daughter, who took him to the palace, where he was nurtured in a noble manner.

> The caretaker assigned to him was coincidentally his biological mother: Jacobeth, a fact hidden even to Pharaoh himself.

> Moses received credible education and training as a prince.

> Later on, he killed an Egyptian who had confronted an Israelite. Sensing danger, he fled to the wilderness. Here, he was a shepherd and experienced all the difficulties of the wilderness.

> At that point, Moses received his call in the form of a burning bush.

64. Describe the call of Moses.

> Moses the shepherd was herding the flock of his father in low Jethro, when he saw a furry bush that was not being consumed.

> The mighty scene was near Mount Sinai, also called Horeb.

> As he drew near the furry bush, God instructed him to remove the shoes for he was treading on holy ground.

> Moses wanted to know the name of God. God revealed himself as the God of the Jewish patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

> He commissioned Moses to go back to Egypt and rescue the Israelites from the affliction the Egyptians subjected the Israelites to.

> Moses hesitated, claiming that he not only feared Pharaoh, but was also a stammerer and did not know the name of the one who was sending him > God assured Moses of his protection He gave Moses his brother Aaron to serve as an interpreter. God gave his name as “I am who Iam”. He further assured Moses of the terrifying occurrences that would lead to the release of the Israelites.

> Still, Moses lamented of the Israelites, who, according to him, would neither believe nor listen to him. God told Moses to use the rod he had in his hand, which would turn into a snake and also place his hand in his pocket, which, on pulling out, would be affected with leprosy. Moses therefore accepted and took off to Egypt.

65. What lessons did Moses learn about God during his call?

> God does not give people impossible tasks.

> God is loving/caring.

> God commissions/appoints his people to do his work.

> God is mighty.

> God"s nature is unspeakable, thus beyond human understanding. > God responds to people”s cry.

> God"s choice of a person to discharge his duties is unique. God expects total obedience and faith. God punishes the afflicts of his people.

66. List the ten plagues that were sent to Egypt.

> The plague of blood, whereby all waters turned into blood.

> The plague of frogs;

> The plague of gnats;

> The plague of flies;

> The plague of the death of animals.

> The plague of boils.

> The plague of hailstorm;

> The plague of locusts;

> The plague of darkness for three days.

> Death of Egyptians" firstborn sons.

67 State the attributes of God denoted from the plagues.

> God is omnipotent;

> God is loving and caring;

> God keeps his promises;

> God arrests difficult situations;

> God is just;

> God is peculiar in all ways;

> God is forgiving.

68 Describe the Passover as recorded in Exodus 12:1-30.

> God instructed Moses and Aaron to have all the Israelites to choose a lamb or a young goat for sacrifice. The sacrificial animals were to be one year old and without blemish

> The sacrificial animals were to be chosen on the tenth day, but sacrificed on the 14"‘ day.

> A small family that could not consume the meal was to combine with the neighbour.

> The sacrificial animal"s blood was to be smeared on the two door posts and lintel of each Israelite"s house.

> This distinguished the Israelites" house from the Egyptian, so that the angel of death would spare them when he killed the firstborn sons of Egyptians.

> The animal for sacrifice was to be roasted whole and eaten with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.

> The Israelites were to dress up before eating in readiness for the journey.

> The Israelite women were to ask for jewelry from Egyptian women to compensate for the free labour they had given in Egypt.

The Israelites were to remain indoors until dawn in order to be protected from the Angel of Death.

> That night, the Angel of destruction passed over the Israelites" households, killing all firstborn males of the Egyptians. The execution picked up from pharaoh"s own son to that of Egyptian slaves.

> The firstborn male offspring of the Egyptian animal also did not escape that wrath.

69. State the significance of each event of the Passover.

> Using young animals showed the innocence of the sacrifice.

> Using an animal without blemish signified the purity of the sacrifice.

> The smearing of blood on the Lintel was a sign of identification of the > Israelite and non-Israelite (Egyptian) house.

> Roasting of the meat showed the Israelites" haste.

> The bitter herbs signified the bitter experience of slavery in Egypt.

> The unleavened bread was to be used for they had no time to ferment the dough.

> They were to dress up and pack their luggage to show readiness for the journey.

> The Israelite women were to borrow jewelry from Egyptian women to compensate for the free labour they had given Egypt.

> They were to remain indoors until morning to be protected from the angel of death.

70. Give reasons why Moses was reluctant/hesitant to take up God’s commission.

> He had killed an Egyptian.

> The Pharaoh had wanted to kill him.

> He was not an eloquent speaker.

> He feared that the Israelites would not believe that God sent him > He feared that the Israelites would not accept him as their leader.

> He lacked courage.

> He was already settled in median and had a family.

> He did not have enough knowledge about Yahweh.

71. Why was the Passover important?

> The Jewish Passover was of great importance in that it marked the end of the Israelites" tribulations in Egypt.

> It also served as a unifying factor, which brought the Israelites close and together. > The Passover brought to the Israelites realization of their true Yahweh, who sticks to his promises.

> It also showed God"s unwavering love to Israelites, who are the descendants of Abraham

> The Passover was a preliminary event that marked the beginning of the Exodus night, a time the Israelites left Egypt.

> The sacrificial lamb is a clear symbol of Jesus: the sacrificial lamb for Christians, who released them from the bondage of sin.

> During this time and to the Exodus, Moses was confirmed as the leader of the Israelites.

72. Why was Pharaoh not willing to release the Israelites?

> God had already told Moses that Pharaoh would remain adamant till several tenifying events would force him to release the Israelites.

> The Israelites provided cheap labour and, to Pharaoh, releasing them would mean that a new source of labour had to be sought.

> His being hesitant created room for God"s work and power to be realized by everybody.

> Pharaoh was generally arrogant and stubborn and could not be easily lured by anybody.

> Pharaoh considered the Israelites and their possessions as part of his empire. If at all he could release them, he saw as if he would be parting with his wealth.

> Pharaoh tailed to understand that he was dealing with Yahweh: the true God, otherwise, he could have immediately released them

73. What values/qualities can a Christian learn from the call of Moses?

> Humility. We should humble ourselves before God just like Moses humbled himself at the site of the burning bush.

> Courage. We must have the courage Moses had when he approached the burning bush

> Faith. We must trust God in whatever decision we undertake.

> Love. We must show love, mercy and even pity to those who suffer, just like Moses willingly accepted to do the difficult task due to his love for the Israelites.

God also had love for the Israelites.

> Obedience. We should obey and follow the directives given to us by God

> Service. We should be willing to serve our subject in whatever circumstances

> Holiness. We must live a holy life in order to attain good fruits eventually

> Inquisitive. We must be ready to inquire or ask what we are unable to understand

> Patience. We must be patient enough in the course of our work.

74. What made the Pharaoh oppress the Israelites?

> It was a fulfillment of God"s promise to Abraham, ‘your descendants will be slaves in a foreign land”.

> The Pharaoh did not know Joseph and why he had settled in Egypt.

> He oppressed them in order for them to produce cheap labour for his development work.

> The Israelites had had prospered and pharaoh though they would overcome the Egyptians.

> It was a mode of weakening the power and strength of the Israelites.

> The Israelites were tremendously increasing and Pharaoh feared that this would be disastrous to the Egyptians.

75. What is the Exodus and how did God take care of the Israelites during the Exodus?

An Exodus is a mass movement of people from one place to another. It was this journey out of Egypt through the harsh wilderness that we call Exodus. During the Exodus, God took care of the Israelites in various ways as follows:

> The crossing of the Red Sea, which God miraculously enabled the Israelites to accomplish when the Egyptians were pursuing them He instructed Moses to use his rod and divide the water. All the Egyptians were drowned.

> Provision of water. Moses sought God"s guidance in a bid to request for water. God told Moses to throw a tree into the water. The bitter water turned sweet, ready for consumption. This was at a place called Marah. At Rephidim, God told Moses to strike a rock with his rod and water flowed from it.

> God provided manna and quails. Manna came each morning while quails came in large flocks.

> God provided security from the hostile desert communities, especially the Amalekites. Joshua led the Israelites against the Amalekites while Moses held his hands up.

> God guided the Israelites throughout the weary journey in the wilderness. During the day, a cloud guided them while a pillar of fire gave them direction at night.

> God commissioned Moses to rule, govern and administer the Israelites through the wilderness.

76. State the importance of the Exodus.

> It marked the end of the Israelites" suffering/oppression and afflictions.

> It marked the choosing of the Israelites by God as a special nation.

> It fulfilled the promises God had made to Abraham

> It proved that God was more supreme than other gods.

> It furthered the Israelites" and mankind"s salvation.

> It identified Moses as God"s chosen leader.

> It united the people of Israel as a nation.

> It made them understand the nature or attribute of God.

> The Israelites received the Ten Commandments, which guided them in their relationships.

> It taught the Israelites that human obedience to /God was mandatory.

77. Describe how God entered into a covenant with the Israelites at the foot of Mount Sinai.

> God summoned Moses to Mount Sinai. He enquired if the people of Israel were willing to obey him

> If they accepted, then God would make them his people, a holy nation and a kingdom of priests.

> The Israelites accepted this.

> Thereafter, Moses instructed the Israelites to:

a. Make themselves holy by washing their garments.

b. Abstain from sexual relationship.

c. Mark the boundaries on the foot of the mountain to prevent any person or animal going up the mountain.

> Moses led the Israelites to meet Yahweh at the foot of the mountain. On the third day, Moses ascended the mountain.

> God manifested his presence in the form of thunder, lightning, earthquake and a thick cloud. There was also a loud trumpet blast.

> Moses received the Decalogue/ten commandments on behalf of the Israelites.

> Moses descended the mountain and briefed the people about the laws and the ordinances.

> He built an altar at the foot of the mountain, on which he placed twelve pillars according to the twelve tribes of Israel

> He sent young men to offer burnt and peace offerings to /God.

> He took half of the oxen blood, sprinkled it on the altar and the other half sprinkled it over the people, thus sealing the covenant.

> He took the book of the covenant in which the divine laws had been written down by him and read it in the hearing of all people, whereby they accepted to follow and abide by the content of the covenant.

78. How was the Sinai covenant defiled/broken?

> After the sealing of the covenant, Moses went back to the mountain to receive the written Ten Commandments.

> Aaron and Her had been left in charge of the Israelites.

> Moses spent forty days on the mountain, which rendered people impatient.

> They mounted pressure upon Aaron to make them a tangible and visible god to be worshiped.

> From the jewelry the possessed, Aaron molded a golden bull to be their physical god.

> God revealed to Moses that the Israelites had become religiously irreligious.

> God intended to destroy the whole Israelite generation, but Moses interceded and the gracious God changed his intention.

> Carrying the stone tablets, Moses descended the mountain.

> To his utter surprise, Moses found the Israelites dancing and singing in a boisterous and jubilant manner. In the same line, they practiced sex as they worshiped the god.

> Moses was filled with anger, so much so that he threw the stones down, breaking them

> He burnt and ground the golden calf into powder, mixed it with water and gave it to the Israelites to drink.

> The loyal Israelites, especially the Levites, were told to slay the wayward believers by the sword.

79. Describe the renewal of the Sinai covenant.

> Renewal of the covenant was preceded by Moses" plea to God.

> Out of mercy and grace, God promised not to destroy the Israelites.

> God instructed Moses to cut two stone tablets and to take them with him to the mountain.

> He was to write the laws on the stone tablets once more.

> God then assured Moses of the renewal of the covenant. God gave the Israelites the following obligations:

a) To obey what God commands them;

b) Not to make any treaty with those who live in the land where they were going; c) Not to worship any other god;

d) To break down the altars, sacred stones and false gods;

e) Not to make cast idols;

t) To keep the feast of unleavened bread;

g) To rest on the seventh day;

h) To dedicate all their firstborn male children and firstborn male domestic animals to God;

i) To offer to god the first fruits of their crops.

> After the commands, God promised the Israelites to:

j) Protect and preserve them;

k) Bless them;

l) Make them prosper ie. God asked Moses to write these words in anew set of stone tablets. This showed that the covenant had been renewed.

80. How did the Israelites worship God in the wilderness?

> They built altars for worship.

> They honoured the Sabbath and kept it holy.

> They were led in worship by religious leaders, including Moses, Aaron and priests.

> They accepted and obeyed the Ten Commandments.

> They offered sacrifices and offerings to God.

> They adored the ark and the Tabernacle, which stored the tablets containing the commandments.

> They worshiped God in songs and praises.

> They marked the feasts like the Passover, Pentecost and the tabernacle.

> They worshiped through prayer.

> They disregarded the wayward worshipers.

81. Name examples of sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness.

> Burnt offerings/Holocaust;

> Grain offerings;

> Communion offerings/peace/fellowship offerings;

> Sin offerings/atonement;

> Incense offerings;

> Purification offerings;

> Meal/drink offerings.

82. List the Ten Commandments given to Moses/Israelite's.

> You shall worship no god but God;

> You shall not make for yourselves images of anything in heaven or earth or in the water under the earth.

> You should not use God"s name for evil purposes.

> Observe the Sabbath and keep it holy.

> Respect your father and your mother so that you may live a long time.

> Do not commit murder.

> Do not steal.

> Do not accuse anyone falsely.

> Do not commit adultery.

> Do not desire your neighbor's property.

83. List the problems that Moses/the Israelites faced in the wilderness.

> Lack of water for the Israelites.

> Lack of food for the Israelites.

> They were weary out of the long tedious journey.

> Hostility from the desert natives.

> Attack by diseases.

> Hostile climates.

> Attack by deseit insects/other creatures.

> The Israelites lacked total belief in God.

> Bites from poisonous snakes.

> Threats/pursuit from the Egyptian army.

> Internal conflicts.

84. Why did God deliver the Israelites from the Egyptian bondage?

> God was fulfilling the promise he bestowed upon Abraham

> The Israelites were God"s chosen people and race.

> God wanted them to inherit the Promised Land: Canaan.

> God wanted to strengthen their faith in him as the God of their ancestors.

> God had heard of their predicament, thus coming to their rescue.

85. State the characteristics of God as revealed to Moses during the renewal of the Sinai covenant.

> God is compassionate/merciful.

> God is gracious.

> God is slow to anger.

> God is loving/kind/ intimate.

> God is faithful and fulfills his promises.

> God is just/fair.

> God is powerful/omnipotent/almighty.

> God is holy.

> God is jealous.

Chapter 6

Leadership in God ’s Plan: David And Solomon

86. What was the role of the judges in Israel?

> Judges led the Israelites in war against their foes.

> Some of the judges had prophetic functions.

> Judges like Samuel settled disputes among the Israelites.

> They served as religious leaders, thus led the Israelites in worship.

87. State the duties of Samuel as a prophet of God

> Samuel anointed the first two Kings of Israel ie. Saul of Kish and David of Jesse

> As a prophet, he offered sacrifice to God.

> He reminded the people to lead the covenant way of life.

> He played an intermediary role between God and the Israelites.

> He served as a judge.

> He abhorred all forms of injustice.

> He reprimanded Saul for his mistakes.

> He condemned idolatry, thus reinforcing on monotheism

> He foretold God"s plan for the future.

88. Outline the duties of Samuel as a Judge of Israel.

> He led the Israelites into war against their foes.

> He settled disputes among the warring people of Israel.

> He served as a prophet, thus mediating between God and the Israelites.

> He was a religious leader.

89. Why did the Israelites demand for a King?

> Samuel the judge was aged and had become frail

> The two sons of Samuel had failed as judges due to corruption.

> The Israelites wanted a King because other nations had Kings.

> They wanted a King who could lead them to war against enemies.

> They wanted a physical leader whom they could see and approach when in hardship.

> They wanted a King who could stabilize them politically.

> The sons of Samuel did not have the leadership qualities of their father.

> Samuel had imposed his sons as judges.

90. What were the shortcomings of a King in Israel?

> The Israelites would be rejecting God as their unseen King.

> Their sons would be recruited forcefully into the army.

> They would be led into forced labour.

> The people would be enslaved.

> The King would grab the people"s land and property.

> There would be over taxation.

> They would lose their identity as a covenant people.

> The King would force their daughters to work in the royal houses.

> Hereditary Kingship would lead to oppression.

91. What were the failures of King Saul?

> He usurped the priestly role of Samuel when he offered sacrifices to God at Gilgal.

> He lacked faith in God, a fact that resulted from his impatience.

> Saul was not repentant whatsoever.

> Saul did not hearken to the command of God requiring him to destroy all the loot from the Amalekites (the law of Herem or Ban).

> He failed to kill Agag: King of the Amalekites.

> The spirit of God quit Saul and was replaced by an evil spirit that tormented Saul > Saul wanted to kill King David.

> Saul failed as a King when he took away his life.

> Saul failed when he consulted a medium

> Saul heeded the voice of his subjects: the army.

92. Explain the lesson that could be learned from Saul’s failures.

> Christians are called upon to hearken patience for the fulfillment of God"s promises.

> Christians should be God fearing/faithful to God.

> Christians should abandon witchcraft and believe in God.

> Political leaders need not ignore the word of the clergy.

> We should not intend to kill our successors.

> We should exercise sincerity and honesty in worship.

> When we cease pious acts, Satan takes control of our lives.

> Christians learn that God is the only giver of life and the one who takes it away.

93. State the promises of God to David through Nathan the prophet.

> David would be a renowned King all over Israel

> God would safeguard Israel from her oppressors during the reign of David.

> God would shield David from his foes.

> God would keep David"s dynasty strong and in rule.

> God would bury David with his ancestors.

> David"s house would rule forever.

> David and his descendants would receive everlasting blessings. > God would punish David"s sons when they went astray just as a father punishes a son.

> God would back him up forever.

> His son: Solomon would build a temple for God.

> God would give Israel their own land.

94. State the significance of David as a King of Israel. (Why is David regarded as the greatest King Israel has ever had? Or: What were the achievements of David as King of Israel?)

> David was chosen and ordained by God.

> He received public anointing at Hebron, where he signed a pact with the elders.

> He received the spirit of God from the time he was anointed.

> He was a military genius and army commander, who was beyond reproach.

> He captured the old fortress of Jerusalem from the Jebusites and made it his capital city.

> He removed the Ark of the Covenant from the house of Abinadab in Shiloh and brought it to Jerusalem

> He was a talented musician and composed many psalms that were used in church worship.

> He possessed a remarkable faith in God.

> He trusted the prophets of God e.g. Nathan.

> He expanded the geographical boundaries of Israel.

> He united the northern and southern tribes into one Israel.

> He was diplomatic, thus establishing good political relations with the neighbouring Kings.

> He was avigorous administrator, who cautiously selected his advisors and counselors.

> Through David, God sent a deliverer, who would protect Israel against all forms of political oppression.

> David ruled over Israel as a whole, administering law and justice to all people.

> David had profound leadership qualities.

> He received great favour from the Deuteronomists, affirming him to be the greatest.

95. Give the qualities of David as King of Israel.

> He was brave. He proved this when he killed the giant Goliath.

> He was God fearing as he retrieved the Ark of the Covenant. He also respected God"s prophets.

> Humility. He humbled himself before God after Nathan reprimanded him for the death of Uriah.

> He was faithful. He had absolute faith in God, who he praised through psahns.

> He was just and was not biased at any cost in the course of his reign.

> He was kind. David showed kindness when he spared Mephiboshethz Saul"s grandson

> He was diplomatic. He established a good political relationship with the neighbouring Kings.

> He was always loyal to God in whatever circumstances.

> He was wise. David was able to choose wise elders and counselors to advise and guide him

> He was compassionate/forgiving. David spared the life of King Saul, yet Saul had sought to kill him

96. What were the failures of David as King of Israel?

> He planned for the death of Uriah.

> He coveted the wife of Uriah.

> He committed adultery with Bathsheba.

> He ordered for the taking of the census, thus going against God"s wishes.

97. State how King David promoted Yahwehism in Israel.

> David brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem, which was a sign of the presence of God among his people.

> He composed psalms/songs which served God in worship.

> He made Jerusalem a spiritual centre, where all important religious occasions were held.

> He praised the almighty God through singing and dancing.

> He respected and consulted Yahweh prophets.

> He humbled himself before God in repentance when he went astray.

> He advised his son Solomon to build a temple for Yahweh

> He united the nations by making Jerusalem a central place for worship.

> He conquered the enemies of Israel, thus maintaining peace: a sign of God"s presence.

> He constantly prayed or glorified God.

> He completely submitted to God"s will

98. How were G0d’s promises to David fulfilled through Jesus?

> Jesus was born in Bethlehem: the city of David.

> Jesus was seen and appreciated as the son of David.

> Jesus established an everlasting Davidic dynasty.

> Jesus rode on a colt, signifying him as a peaceful Messiah.

99. Outline the activities in the life of David that showed he had faith in God.

> He prayed and called himself a servant of God.

> Through faith in God, he killed Goliath using a stone and a sling.

> He repented after he had killed Uriah.

> He accepted to be anointed by Samuel as King.

> He consulted God and his prophets prior to any action

> He advised Solomon his son to remain faithful to God in order to succeed.

> He offered sacrifices to God.

> He sought God"s protection when Saul wanted to kill him

> He genuinely accepted God"s punishment for his sins.

> He attributed all his achievements to God through songs and psalms.

> He brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem

> He wanted to build a temple for God.

100. List the characteristics of God as portrayed in the life of King David.

> God is omnipotent.

> God is kind and merciful

> God is loving/caring.

> God answers prayers.

> God requires total faith.

> God punishes sin God is holy.

> God is righteous/pure.

> God protects his people.

101. What were the achievements of King Solomon?

> Solomon was a successful merchant e.g. he traded in copper deposits in the area of > Edom He also built a fleet of ships that sailed from the Gulf of Aqaba.

> He built the temple for God in Jerusalem, which took seven years.

> He managed a professional army equipped with horse-drawn chariots.

> He was a King full of wisdom, a fact to reckon.

> He composed several proverbs and songs, full of teachings and praise to God.

> He brought the Ark of the Covenant to the temple of Jerusalem, representing God“s presence.

> He possessed a well structured civil administration by setting up aside government officials who lent a hand in his administrative duties.

> Through marriages, he developed diplomacy with the foreign countries.

> He built himself a magnificent palace for thirteen years.

102. What were the failures of King Solomon?

> He married many foreign wives, who in turn amplified idolatry.

> He ignited forced labour in his regime.

> He conscripted Israelite men into the army.

> He built temples for the pagan gods worshiped by his wives.

> He imposed heavy taxes to the people of Israel.

> He practiced nepotism, whereby the house of Judah and Benjamin were exempted from forced labour.

> Solomon killed his own half brother Adonijah out of rivalry.

> He failed as a King when he hired the skills of pagan craftsmen, who worked on the temple of God.

> King Solomon sold part of Israelite territory to Hiram the King of Tyre in repayment for a debt he was unable to settle.

> He spent the wealth that belonged to Israel lavishly.

> He signed treaties with foreign nations, going against covenant norms.

103. Name the factors that contributed to the break-up/schism of the Kingdom of Israel after the death of King Solomon.

> Solomon married foreign wives, who accelerated the worship of foreign gods.

> Solomon participated in idolatry, thus violating the Mosaic Law.

> Solomon oppressed his subjects through imposing heavy taxes, thus leading to disunity.

> He introduced forced labour in Israel, making the people dissatisfied with him

> Rehoboam Solomon"s son, rejected advice from the old men, causing dissatisfaction among the Israelites.

> Rehoboam heeded to the pieces of advice from the young men to rule his people harshly.

> Rehoboam rejected the council of elders who advised him, thus the people became rebellious.

> Jeroboam led asuccessful revolt against Rehoboam

> Ten northern tribes of Israel rejected Rehoboam as King of Judah.

> The rebellious tribes chose Jeroboam as their King.

> Two southern tribes: Benjamin and Judah remained under the Kingship of Rehoboam

104. Outline the activities of King Jeroboam that made the Israelites in the northern Kingdom tum away from Yahweh.

> He molded golden calves at Bethel and Dan to represent Yahweh.

> He centralized Worship at Bethel and Dan, thus ignoring Jerusalem

> He instituted religious festivals in the month of his choice.

> He chose non-Levite priests, getting them from ordinary families to serve at centres of worship.

> He led the Israelites into offering sacrifices to the idols.

> He himself worshipped idols.

105. Why was the Northern Kingdom of Israel destroyed before the Southem Kingdom of Judah?

> The Kings of the northem Kingdom led the people in syncretism

> The people persecuted and even executed God"s prophets.

> The Kings were not ordained by God.

> The Kings and their subjects filled to repent from their iniquities.

> The leaders built temples for idolatry.

> The people defiled Yahwehism by worshipping the Canaanite gods simultaneously.

> The people were deeply involved in temple/cult prostitution.

> The King took part in slave trade.

> They formed political alliances with the neighbouring nations instead of relying on God.

> The Kings oppressed the Have Nots.

> The judges were corrupt.

> The people neglected messages from the prophets of Yahweh.

106. State the importance of the temple in Israel.

> The temple was God"s dwelling place.

> It implied God"s presence among his people through the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle.

> The dedication of firstborn male children took place at the temple.

> The temple was a house of Worship and prayer.

> Animal sacrifice was offered in the temple.

> Religious rituals like the naming and circumcision of baby boys took place in the temple.

> It was a place Where religious festivals/feasts e.g. Pentecost were celebrated.

> The temple was a training place for Jewish religious leaders.

> It was a residential place for the priests and prophets.

> It served as a law court by the council of Jewish religious leaders: the Sanhedrin.

> It was a place where all rites of purification were carried out.

> It housed the Ark of the Covenant, which contained the laws of God.

> It served as a commercial centre.

107. List ways in which the King of Israel used to bring the people back to God.

> The Kings like Jehu killed the prophets of Baal.

> They destroyed the altars of the gods.

> They set examples to the people by repenting whenever they went astray.

> Kings like David and Solomon restored temple worship by maintaining the Ark of the Covenant.

> They led the people in renewing their relationship with Yahweh when they broke the covenant ways.

> They renewed the temple to look presentable.

> Solomon the third King built a temple for God.

> They destroyed the bronze serpent made by Moses during the Exodus.

> They never indulged into political alliances with neighbouring Kings.

Chapter 7

Loyalty To God: Elijah

108. State the factors that led to the spread of idolatry in Israel.

> The fact that Israelites intennarried with foreign wives, who introduced foreign gods.

> The Israelites did not fully rely on Yahweh; they worshipped the Canaanite gods too.

> They emulated the ways in which the foreign communities/nations were ruled and governed.

> After the split of the Kingdom, some of the Kings e.g. Jeroboam, promoted worship of idols.

> The presence of temples for gods attracted the Israelites into idolatiy.

> The Israelites practiced polytheism

> The Israelites turned away from their pastoral life to agricultural life, which welcomed idol worship. They offered sacrifices and prayed to the gods.

109. What were the effects of idolatry in Israel?

> The Israelites adopted the Canaanite cultural calendar.

> They worshipped God alongside other gods, which is called Syncretism

> Former places of worship of the Canaanite gods were turned into places of worship for Yahweh without eliminating the Canaanite symbols e.g. the altars.

> The worship of Yahweh was downtrodden, making Baalism an official religion.

> Names of the Canaanite gods were also used for Yahweh.

> These names of Canaanite gods, especially Baal were given to Israelite children.

> The Israelites began to oppress the poor.

> Queen Jezebel commanded that all the altars of Yahweh be done away with.

> It resulted into the killing of the prophets of Yahweh.

> The Canaanites" sacrificial system became part and parcel of the Israelite worship.

> The unity of Israel was interfered with.

110 Describe the nature of the local Canaanite religion.

> The Canaanite religion was a Nature religion: a religion dealing with the forces of nature e.g. rain i.e. it was cosmic.

> The religion comprised family gods e.g. el Baal among others.

> Images and symbols were made to represent the gods.

> They inculcated their worship with temple prostitution.

> Sacrifices including human beings were offered to these gods.

> Festivals and feasts were celebrated in honour of the gods.

> Rituals were offered to ensure continued fertility and well being of the community.

> Each god and goddess had a noticeable role in the community.

> Temples or high places were built for the worship of the gods.

> There was a supreme or chief god or goddess.

> It contained prophets and prophetesses for each god.

> The Israelites imitated the agricultural life of the Canaanites, disregarding their pastoral life.

> Believed that a god was only powerful in his own land.

111. Explain how Elijah fought against false religion.

> After King Ahab son of Omri married Jezebel the daughter of Elbaal, they purely relied on Baal prophets, thus endangering the prophets of Yahweh, who they had neglected.

> It was during this period when the prophets of God raced hostility that God sent Prophet Elijah. Elijah willingly accepted the instruction of God to go and meet King Ahab.

> On the first sight, Ahab referred to Elijah as a trouble maker of Israel This was because of the drought that Elijah had pronounced as God"s judgment due to Israel's unfaithfulness.

> The drought lasted for three and a half years. It was to serve as a lesson to the Israelites.

> Elijah requested the King to gather all Israel together, including the 450 Baal prophets to a contest at Mount Carmel: the vineyard of the Lord.

> The main purpose of the contest was to know who is God.

> The two parties: Baal prophets and Elijah were to contest, thereby offering a sacrifice of a bull to their respective God. The God who could answer by fire was to be worshiped.

> Ahab therefore summoned all the people, including the prophets of Baal to Mount Carmel The prophets of Baal were given a bull, which they prepared and then called upon the name of their god.

> They prayed, shouted and danced around the altar, yet there was no response.

Elijah mocked them and asked them to pray much louder. He told them that maybe their god was occupied, busy, on a business trip or he is asleep.

> The Baal prophets prayed, cut themselves with knives until they bled, but Baal remained mute and gave no response.

> Elijah then summoned the people to move closer as he repaired the abandoned altar of Yahweh with much courage.

> He setup twelve memorial stones to represent each of the twelve tribes of Israel. He placed the sacrifice on the altar and asked the people to pour water on it. He prayed to the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob to prove that he was the living God.

> Fire descended and consumed the sacrifice and everything around it.

> The people threw themselves on the ground and worshiped the Lord as the true Yahweh.

> Elijah killed the prophets of Baal He announced the coming of a storm cloud and rain began falling in torrents.

112. Give the lesson one can leam about God from this incident.

> Yahweh is apowerful God.

> Yahweh is the only God.

> Yahweh is aliving God.

> Yahweh is a jealous God.

> Yahweh is a just God.

> Yahweh is forgiving.

> Yahweh is merciful.

113. Describe Elijah’s fight against moral corruption.

Corruption is a form of injustice to which an innocent person is subjected.

> Ahab coveted a fruitful vineyard of a great farmer by the name Nabboth, the Jezrelite.

> The farm was next to Ahab"s palace. Ahab approached Naboth and asked him if he could sell the vineyard in exchange with another.

> Naboth boldly rejected this idea. He could neither sell nor exchange the property, because it was a property belonging to the family.

> Ahab became gloomy and even lost the appetite of eating. When Ahab revealed this to his pagan wife: Jezebel, Jezebel worked out a quick plan of action. > She forged letters in the King"s name and sealed them with the King"s rubber stamp and sent them to the elders of Jezreel

> She had accused Naboth of two grievous faults i.e. blasphemy and treason.

Blasphemy is the act of insulting God and treason is insulting a King. Such crimes were punished through stoning the subject. Naboth had no time to defend himself and therefore faced the consequences. Jezebel then compelled Ahab to possess the vineyard.

> God therefore commissioned Elijah to pass judgment against Ahab.

> The divine judgment was that Ahab"s Kingdom was going to be destroyed. His family members would die the same death as Naboth. Ahab went down on his knees, put on a sack cloth as a sign of repentance. God promised to effect the punishment during the reign of Ahab"s sons. Ahab broke three commandments:

a. You shall not desire your neighbour"s property;

b. Do not bear false witness;

c. Do not kill.

114. Name some forms of corruption in our society today.

> Tribalism;

> Bribery;

> Cheating in business;

> Robbery,

> Dishonesty

> Stealing;

> Misappropriation of funds;

> Land grabbing.

115. Name the challenges that Prophet Elijah faced.

> He faced opposition in his life.

> He faced threats from Jezebel and Ahab.

> He had to face Ahab and challenge him for misleading people.

> He had to convince people that he was a true prophet of God.

> He had to endure difficulties in the wilderness.

> He had to condemn the false prophets of Baal.

> He had to bring the people back to the covenant way of life.

> There was widespread idolatry, which he had to denounce.

> There was corruption and injustice as people rejected the covenant way of life.

> There was religious persecution and hostility.

> Elijah despaired/felt lonely.

> He was accused of being a trouble maker.

> He lived in fear after pronouncing the three-year drought.

116. How did Ahab fail to keep the covenant way of life??

> He coveted Naboth"s vineyard.

> He took away Naboth“s vineyard.

> His wife bore false witness against Naboth.

> Through his wife, Naboth was murdered.

> He oppressed the lowly.

> He neglected the Jewish law of land inheritance.

> He compared and equated himself to God.

117. State the practices of idolatry during the time of Elijah.

> There was human sacrifice. The people worshiped many gods.

> There was animal sacrifice to the gods.

> People observed festivals in honour of the gods.

> Symbols were made to represent the gods.

> Temples were built for the worship of the gods.

> Rituals were performed in honour of the gods.

> Baal prophets presided over religious matters.

118. Why did Elijah face danger and hostility?

> He reprimanded Ahab and his people for the worship of Baal.

> He condemned Ahab for coveting Naboth"s vineyard and killing him

> He pronounced a three and a half years penod of drought, a fact that annoyed Ahab

> He had ordered the killing of 450 Baal prophets after the contest.

> He had annoyed Jezebel who in tum threatened to kill him

> He faced danger and hostility because it was God"s plan.

> He wanted to strengthen Elijah“s faith.

> The false prophecy from the Baal prophets made the people work against Elijah.

119. Name the life skills that Elijah used in his fight against social injustice.

> Decision making;

> Creative thinking;

> Critical thinking.

120. In which way was the presence of God felt during the time of Elijah? > Through thunder at Mount Carmel

> In a fire;

> In a small still voice in the wilderness.

> In an earthquake at mount Carmel;

> Through a thick cloud.

> Strong wind that split the hills.

121. State the ways that Elijah used in proving that Yahweh was the true God.

> The fire that descended on the sacrifice.

> The three year drought.

> Torrential rain that marked the end of the period of drought.

> The raising of the widow"s son at Zeraphath.

> The multiplication of flour and oil.

> Going to heaven on a chariot.

122. How did Elijah fulfill/match the characteristics of a prophet?

> He stood for the covenant way of life.

> He performed miracles, such as raising the child of the widow at Zeraphath.

> He condemned Baalism

> He boldly stood against corruption and social injustice committed by King Ahab and Jezebel.

> He proved the power of Yahweh at Mount Carmel.

> He was fed miraculously by ravens in the desert.

> He prophesied a three year drought period, which later on came to pass.

123. How did Elijah’s prophetic mission become relevant to Christians today?

> Irrespective of a person or status quo, Christians should boldly condemn noticeable injustices.

> Christians should not surrender at all costs, but pray to God just as Elijah did.

> Christians should remain in absolute faith, even when they are amidst challenges.

> Christians should be ready to defend the defenseless, just as Elijah defended the poor when they were oppressed.

> Christians should not misuse their authority, for it is god given.

> Christians should assess situations and make sound decisions and choices just like Elijah chose to remain godly.

> Christians should live an honest life, free from falsehood, because God is holy.

> Christians need to put their hope in God because he is the provider.

Chapter 8

Selected Old Testament prophets and their teachings

124. Who is a prophet?

A prophet is a special person who is called by God to be his spokesman. They communicate God"s massage to his people regarding their present prevailing circumstances and the future prophecy is the prediction of the firture in relation to the past and to the present.

125. Give other terms used to describe a prophet

a) Messenger of God

b) A watchman of God

c) A sharpened of God"s people

d) An interpreter of God"s word

e) A servant of God

f) A man of God

g) A seer.

126. Identify the different types/categories of prophets

There are two major categories of prophets

A. True prophets

> Minor prophets- Canonical prophets

> Major prophets- Canonical prophets

> The early prophets-They lived together in communities

> Cultic prophets- They served in places of worship.

B. False prophets

127. What were the characteristics of the false prophets?

They challenged the work of the tree prophets and gave massage courted with untruth

They followed their own imagination and filled the people with false hope

They preached peace to please Kings and rulers

They cheated people and made them believe they were working for God

They used evil forces such as magic to call upon the spirit of the dead

They led people to the worship of other gods and to immorality

They prophesied for payment

They tolerated the social, Economical and political injustices in the society

They offered shallow optimism which was devoid of moral conduct

They were not guided by Yahweh but by their own wisdom

They were hypocrites

They served other god"s

They were not ready to suffer.

128. Give the characteristics of the true prophet of God

They pronounced God"s massage boldly

They were commissioned by God

They challenged people to cease their evil way and live according to God They were role models ie. They lived and lead exemplary lives by being morally upright

They did not receive or desire monetary benefits from their work

True prophets were inspired by God and they received his guidance and protection

What ever the preached and prophesies later came true

True prophets worked wonders in Yahweh"s name

The true prophets reinforced on God"s judgment and punishment unless the people repented

They received and faced opposition from their people

They received God“s call in various ways e.g. visions, signs etc.

129. Explain the importance of prophets in Israel

1. Prophets mediated between God and the people of Israel

2. The prophets brought the people to the covenant way whenever they went against it

3. The prophets made people optimistic that if at all they repented then God would restore them

4. Prophets were important for they were heralds of the forth coming messiah

5. Prophets communicated God"s divine massage about the future in relation to the past and to the future

6. Prophets retaliated on practical monotheism and courageously abhorred polytheism and syncretism

7. The prophets especially canonical contributed to the writing down of their massages in the Bible

8. Prophets presided over ceremonies thus stepping in the shoe of priests

9. They condemned all forms of social injustices and actual evil

10. Prophets were approached by Kings for pieces of advice when in difficult

ll. They prepared people for the punishment and God"s punishment unless they repent.

130. Give the characteristics of prophets?

a) They obeyed God"s call and worked his requirement

b) They heard God"s voice calling them to be his spokes people

c) They believed and trusted in one true God

d) They led and exemplary life worth mentioning

e) They protected God"s covenant with his people

t) They rejected all sorts of evil both social and religious

g) They mediated between God and the people

h) They communicated Gods will in symbols ways e.g. Ezekiel

prophetic action

i) They received God"s call inform of visions dreams etc.

j) They spoke and acted with authority

k) They were prayerful

131. In what ways did God’s revelations land upon the prophets?

> Through prayers;

> Through visions

> Through words that came upon them in great power;

> Through events and experiences;

> Through signs.

132. How did prophets deliver the message to the people?

> Through preaching;

> Through symbolic actions;

> Through wonders;

> Through songs;

> Through scribes;

> Through story telling.

133. How were the prophetic messages written?

> They were written as prophetic narratives as received from God"s/prophet"s own words.

> Other prophets dictated their messages to their disciples e.g. Jeremiah to Baruch.

> Some prophets were asked to write on their own e. g. Ezekiel, who was asked to write down the law of the temple and design the temple.

> In some cases, the messages were preserved as oral tradition by the disciples of the prophets.

> The prophetic messages were gathered over a time and then organized by the scribes, who wrote them

134. What was the relationship between the Old Testament prophets and those of the New Testament?

> In the Old Testament, Micah as a prophet gives the birthplace of Jesus. In Luke, Jesus is born in Bethlehem, the city of David.

> Prophet Isaiah talks of a virgin conception. Mary, a virgin, becomes the mother of Jesus Christ.

> The same Isaiah prophesies of the titles and name of Jesus. During the annunciation, angel Gabriel gives the name Emanuel

> Jesus" death and resurrection brings in a new living, where each individual has a personal relationship with God, a fact proved from Jeremiah"s prophecies about the new covenant.

> On the day of Pentecost, the apostles of Jesus received the Holy Spirit, which was the prophecy of Prophet Joel.

> The passion, suffering and death of Jesus Christ is a fulfillment of prophet Isaiah"s prophecy.

> The teachings and prophecies of the Old Testament was the foundation laid for the New Testament. Jesus, during his ministry, said that he did not come to do away with but to fulfill the Mosaic Law.

> One of the characteristics of the prophets was to condemn all forms of evil Jesus Christ was totally against evil in the society.

> Jesus is an everlasting king: a prophecy of Nathan about David"s descendants, who would establish an everlasting dynasty.

> Malachi talked of the forerunner of the Messiah, which is fulfilled in the birth of John the Baptist.

> Zechariah as a prophet, talks of the Messiah being betrayed by the closest friend.

Judas Iscariot fulfilled this.

135. Name the types of leaders that were given God’s power in the Old Testament.

> Prophets/seers;

> Priests/Levites;

> Judges;

> Patriarchs;

> Kings;

> Warriors.

136. What are the differences between Old Testament prophets and those of the traditional African communities?

> The Old Testament prophets received their call from God while traditional African prophets inherited their work from their ancestors.

> Old Testament prophets stressed the worship of one God while in some African communities, prophets recognized many gods.

> Old Testament prophets received their power directly from God while African traditional prophets got their power from God through the spirits.

> The Old Testament prophets were subjected to opposition from their people, unlike the traditional African prophets, who received a lot of respect.

> The work and activities of Old Testament prophets were recorded and preserved while those of traditional African prophets was passed on through oral traditions.

> The Old Testament prophets were sent by God to various nations, unlike the Traditional African prophets, who were confined to their ethnic communities.

> Old Testament prophets performed miracles in the name of God, which wasn't the case with African traditional prophets.

137. Give the relevance of Old Testament prophets to Christians.

> Christians learn that God requires a response of faith and obedience from those commissioned.

> Christians are called upon to practice justice to their neighbours.

> Christians learn to endure persecution, just like the prophets did.

> Christians are challenged by the teachings of the prophets to stand for the covenant way of life and erase all forms of evil in the society.

> Christians come to realize the need of depending on God for protection and what he expects of them

> Christians should never give up. They should instead remain courageous in spite of all shortcomings.

> Christians learn the need of prayer in their day to day living.

> Christians are called upon to preach God"s message and expectation to every person.

> Christians should guide and counsel others in times of crisis by giving them hope

138. In what way is prophecy practiced in your church today?

> There are miracles that are performed by church leaders.

> All sorts of evil and social injustice are boldly condemned.

> Church leaders speak with authority when delivering their message.

> Church leaders give their members hope for eternal life.

> Church leaders face opposition and persecution, but remain faithful to God.

> Church leaders lead their members in a session of prayer.

> Guiding and counseling services are provided to those in difficulties.

> Church leaders acknowledge only one God and condemn all form of idolatry.

Chapter 9

Prophet Amos

139. Describe the historical background of Amos.

> Amos came from a village called Tekoa in Judah.

> He was a shepherd by profession, who owned many sheep and goats.

> He was in charge of other shepherds.

> Amos also grew sycamore trees.

> He wasn't a prophet by profession.

> He prophesied during the reign of two contemporary kings: Jeroboam ii of Israel and Uziah of Judah.

> He resided in Judah, but was sent to preach to the Northern kingdom of Israel

140. Describe the political background of Amos.

> Amos received his divine call during the reign of king Jeroboam II and king Uziah.

> Jeroboam II reigned between 786-743 BC in Israel.

> Amos was a native of Judah, yet was sent to proclaim his message in the Northern kingdom of Israel.

> Under Jeroboam II, peace prevailed in Israel and they were free from external threats.

> Due to this fact, there was economic stability, resulting into a class of rich people.

> The rich amassed wealth and led luxurious lives, neglecting the poor.

> The rich merchants exploited the poor peasants.

> Due to this, Amos proclaimed that God would use Assyria to punish Israel for her iniquity.

141. Comment on the religious background of Amos.

> During his time of call, Israel practiced Syncretism

> Bethe], Gilgal and Samaria were the main centres of worship of Yahweh.

> The religion Was utterly Hypocritical, for the people failed to remain faithful to Yahweh.

> They reinforced on the external purity rather than being sincere at heart.

> The Israelites indulged in acts of social injustice and oppressed the poor, yet they performed religious rights.

> The priests and prophets failed to condemn and reprimand the rulers for the evils they committed.

142. Describe the social economic organization during the time of Amos’ call.

> Under Jeroboam II, Israel experienced a period of economic prosperity.

> This gave rise to a class of the rich, who possessed the wealth of the nation

> This group of the Haves in tum neglected the oppressed: the Have Nots.

> There was a big gap between these two groups.

> The peasant fanners lived in abject poverty and looked quite out of place.

> They were exploited by the rich, who led a life full of luxury.

> The brotherhood of the covenant was thus downtrodden.

> Merchants were dishonest and used talse scales in their business.

> The law courts turned into houses of bribery and corruption

> The very wealthy merchants extended their hypocrisy into worship by offering large sacrifice to cover up their wickedness.

143. Explain how Amos was called as a prophet.

> Prior to his call, Amos tendered sycamore trees in Judah.

> He was a shepherd by profession, who owned many sheep and goats.

> Through a vision, Amos was inspired by God to proclaim God"s message to the people of the Northern Kingdom of Israel

> He was to boldly talk against their evils.

> The people were to repent or, if they tailed to, then they would be subjected to severe punishment by God.

> The priests and prophets who tailed to touch on people"s evils and covered rulers of their sins were enraged about Amos" preaching.

> Amos obeyed God"s call and carried out his mission as he had been instructed despite the opposition he encountered.

144. What lessons can a Christian derive from the call of Amos?

> God can use anybody, regardless of their status, to implement his will.

> We should respond to God"s call in obedience.

> We should be ready to face opposition in the course of our missionary work.

> We should denounce all forms of injustice in our society.

> We should be courageous enough to can"y out God"s task.

> We should totally depend on God for protection.

145. Comment on the five visions that Amos witnessed i.e. the vision of the swarm of locusts; the vision of fire; the vision of a plumb line/crooked wall; the vision of a basket of fruits; the vision of the Lord’s judgment/destruction of the altar/destruction of worshipers in the temple.

The vision of the swarm of locust. (Amos 7:1-3).

In this first vision from the sovereign Lord, Amos saw God create a swarm of locusts. He saw the locusts eat up every green thing in the land. Amos interceded for the people and the Lord changed his mind. This was a clear indication of the forthcoming famine that would befall Israel

The vision of fire (Amos 7:4-6).

Here, Amos saw the fire burn up the great ocean Lmder the earth and started to burn up the land. Amos once more prayed for God"s mercy. God responded positively and took the punishment away. In the vision, Amos saw Israel being punished by a horrendous inferno.

The vision of the plumb line/Crooked wall (Amos 7 :7 -9).

In this, Amos saw the Lord standing beside a wall that had been built with the help of aplumb line. With the plumb line in his hand, God proved to Amos that the wall was crooked.

This was an indication that the people of Israel were like a Wall that is out of life. God promised not to change his mind and therefore the people were to be destroyed.

The vision of a basket of fruits

Here, Amos was shown a basket full of ripe summer fruits. It showed that the end had come for the people of Israel Their sins were ripe enough and they were to face punishment from God.

The vision of the Lord's judgement/the destruction of the altar/destruction of worshipers in the temple

In this, Amos saw the Lord standing by the altar. The Lord ordered for the destruction of the temple, which later fell upon the heads of the people. He promised to kill the rest in war and anywhere else they could hide. This indicated God“s determination to do away with this evil group of people.

146. Name the nations that God pronounced judgment upon through Amos.

> Syria;

> Damascus;

> Philistia;

> Gaza;

> Tyre;

> Edom;

> Ammon;

> Moab;

> Judah;

> Israel.

147. according to Amos, in what ways was God going to deliver his punishment to these nations?

> The people would be made prisoners.

> Fire would be sent upon the cities.

> The people will be taken into exile.

> The people will be killed in war.

> God would send {amine and drought.

> God would completely reject them

148. How was God going to punish Israel?

> Israel will be handed over to her enemies.

> The people of Israel will be oppressed under a foreign army.

> God would send earthquakes.

> God would set unique eclipses. The sun will go down at noon and the earth will grow dark in daytime.

> God would bring a lot of grief upon Israel.

> God would send famine. People will grow hungry and would thirst for the word of God.

> God would completely neglect and reject Israel.

> The people would be exiled.

> The people would be attacked by a pestilence (plague).

149. Explain the teaching of Amos on social justice and responsibility. (What sins did Amos condemn?)

> Oppression of the poor. According to Amos, the rich merchants trampled on the needy and tried to destroy the poor of the country. They sold poor debtors as slaves.

> Dishonesty/cheating in business. The rich people in Israel overcharged the poor and used false measures. They tampered with the scales to cheat their customers. They valued their business rather than religious festivals.

> Slavery. The wealthy people sold worthless wheat at a high price. The poor righteous people who failed to pay their debts would be sold as slaves. The slaves in turn would be subjected to hard work and treated brutally.

> Corruption and bribery. The people hated anyone who challenged their injustices and spoke the pure truth in court. They instead persecuted poor and good people, took bribes and prevented the poor people from getting justice in the court. They imposed heavy fines on innocent souls.

> Sexual immorality and temple/cult prostitution. Amos condemned the sexual immorality that prevailed in Israel. He cited a case where a father and a son had intercourse with the same slave woman. Through this, they profaned God"s name.

> Robbery and violence. Amos talked against the rich, who acquired a lot of wealth through unfair means such as exploiting the poor through threats and actual violence against them

> Greed and excessive luxury. He warned those who led a luxurious life at the expense of the poor. The rulers robbed off the poor of their property.

> Idolatry. Amos condemned the Israelites for breaking God"s covenant by bowing down to other gods. They furthermore offered wine to the pagan gods, which they extracted from the poor peasants and fines.

> Drunkenness. Amos condemned the drunkard, who misused their leisure by indulging in immoral activities.

150. What are the effects of alcohol?

> It affects one"s health

> It can lead to loss of job.

> Misuse of family resources.

> Poor interpersonal relationship.

> Quarrels and fights with other people.

> Sexual immorality.

151. What are the effects of sexual immorality?

> Accidents and death.

> Unwanted pregnancies;

> Loss of personal dignity;

> Contracting diseases;

> Break-up of families.

152. What is the relevance of Amos’ teaching on social justice and responsibility to Christians today?

> Oppression is rampant today, whereby the poor and innocent are overtaxed, underpaid and cannot say for or defend themselves. Christians are called upon to speak against this.

> There are some businessmen and women who use false scales and sell unworthy goods and this needs to be denounced.

> Christians should condemn those people who enslave others through all means.

Christians should courageously challenge those who indulge in bribery and other forms of corruption, especially in court proceedings.

> Due to abject poverty today, there are May forms of violence through robbery, burglary, etc. Christians are to note and root out these.

> Sexual immorality is evident by the high spread of AIDS, a fatal disease.

153 What were the teachings of Amos on hypocritical religion in Israel?

> Israelite religion was clearly spelt out in the covenant.

> The people of Israel rebelled against Yahwehism in thoughts and in deeds.

> Their worship and conduct during religious ceremonies was utterly superficial and elaborately vague.

> Their tithe to God was derived from stolen land and, in addition, offered animal sacrifices that were seen as unclean.

> They swam in social injustices e.g. oppression, as they simultaneously worshiped God.

> Amos rebuked them for promoting idolatry.

> Amos rubbished off their elaborate sacrifices and noisy praises to God.

> They approached the altar that marked the presence of God in defilement.

> Amos warned them that all this could culminate into God"s abject punishment. They would be driven into exile to account for their disobedience.

> He called upon the people of Israel to observe piety in worship.

154. Explain the relevance of Amos’ teaching on hypocritical religion to Christians today.

> Christians are called upon to serve God in thoughts and in deeds.

> Christians should sanctify themselves during worship.

> As Christians, we should offer blameless sacrifices, which will in tum be accepted by God.

> Christians should shun social malpractices in true worship.

> Christians should not practice idolatry, but should utterly rely on God.

> Christians should praise God in a genuine way rather than offering noisy praises.

> Christians should use their wealth to exercise charity rather than leading lives full of luxury yet others are starving.

155. Explain Amos’ teaching on judgment and punishment.

> The nations neighbouring Israel had transgressed against God. So, God passed his divine judgment upon them

>God told the Syrians (Damascus) that because they had ill treated the pregnant women of Gilead during their war with Israel God would send a divine fire on their land.

> The people of Philistia and Gaza sold people as slaves to Edom God was to send fire upon the city walls of Gaza.

> God would set Edom ablaze for they hunted down their relatives: the Israelites and showed no mercy.

> God would send fire upon the city walls of Tyre and bum down its fortresses.

> God would send fire upon Ammon, for in their wars, they even rapped open pregnant women in Gilead.

> The kings of Ammon and their officers would go into exile.

> The people of Moab would die in the noise of battle. Their ruler would also die.

> The people of Judah despised God"s teaching, thus God would send fire upon Judah.

> Israel sent innocent people into slavery and therefore would be crashed to the ground.

156. List the punishment for Israel and Judah.

> Invasion by a foreign nation;

> Attack by a pestilence/epidemic/plague;

> Earthquake;

> Eclipse;

> Famine for the word of God;

> Exile;

> Some people would be killed during the invasion.

157. What is the relevance of Amos’ teaching on Judgment to Christians?

> Christians should recognize that God is transcendent, thus extremely great.

> Christians should remain obedient and faithful to God"s command.

> Christians should be ready for judgment.

> Christians should expect punishment from God whenever they transgress.

> Christians should be ready to repent in order to evade the impending punishment > We, as Christians, should be ready to face challenges and trust in God.

> We should be prepared for the day of the Lord.

158. What was Amos’ teaching on election of Israel?

> Israel“s election was done to Yahweh"s affection for her ancestors.

> The choosing was not because of Israelites" righteousness or merit.

> The election of Israel gave her a special responsibility as a nation of God.

> The people were not to be proud, because Yahweh is a universal God and could have chosen another race.

> Through its choosing, Israel became a holy nation of Yahweh.

> They were obliged to recognize Yahweh as the true God and uphold his commandment.

> Failure to stick to the requirement would cause the Israelites to be acutely punished by God.

> God would reject them also if they deviated from the covenant way. They could not be treated as special from others.

159. What is the relevance of Amos’ teaching on the day of the Lord?

> Just like Israel was chosen to be God"s race, Christians should know that they are the people of God: the new Israel

> Christians are called upon to proclaim the wonderful acts of God to others.

> Christians are a holy nation and should play a vital role in leading other people into righteousness.

> Christians should not assume that they will automatically inherit the kingdom of God like the Israelites had boasted.

> As a chosen race of God, Christians are supposed to fully meet the requirements of God“s covenant with them

> They should learn how to repent when they stray in order to receive God"s mercy > Christians need to observe piety.

160. How would the day of the Lord look like according to Amos?

> Israel believed that the day of the Lord would be the day when God would fulfill his covenant and welcome her with open arms.

> They thought it“s the time when God would revenge against the enemies of Israel

> They anxiously looked forward to the day of the Lord.

> Amos reversed these expectations by explaining that:

a. The day would be a day of ten"or and disaster.

b. It will be a day when God would accumulate the sins of Israel and punish her for her disobedience.

c. During that day there will be earthquakes.

d. The day will be marked by mourning all over.

e. Darkness will engulf the earth during noon.

f. There will be no joy in feasts.

g. All the attempts to search for the Lord"s word would prove futile.

h. People would hunger for the word of God.

i. It will be a day to mark God“s judgment upon the wicked.

161. What is the relevance of Amos’ teaching on the day of the Lord?

> To the Christians, the day of the Lord will be marked by the second coming of Jesus (Parousia).

> Jesus will come back to judge the evil and righteous, thus, they are to remain ready for the day.

> They need to purify themselves and lead a life worth emulating in readiness for the day.

> They should expect the kingdom of God if they lived righteously.

> The day would be full of gloom and regret to the hard hearted.

162. What did Amos teach on the Remnant and Restoration?

> God was not going to totally destroy the Israelite nation.

> There would be remnants i.e. a small group of righteous Israelites, who would survive God"s wrath.

> Amos assured the Israelites that those who sincerely repent and tum to God should be optimistic of being rescued.

> He reiterated that only sinners are going to perish.

> Through the remnants, blessings would follow the nation.

> The restored kingdom would enjoy material prosperity, there would be abundant harvest because the land would once more be productive.

> The mined cities of Israel would be rebuilt by the few remnants and would be permanently occupied by the Israelites.

> God would once more love them and they would in tum be his people.

163. Explain the relevance of Amos’ teaching on the Remnant for Christians.

> To Christians, the remnant are those who uphold the teachings of Christ.

> Christians are according hope of eternal life if they observe piety all through.

> It also assures Christians that those who fail to repent will absolutely not evade God"s severe punishment.

> God protects those who are faithful and, through them, fulfills his promises to humankind.

> Christians should always stand for the truths even if they face difficulties as challenges in their lives.

> Christians should boldly condemn all sorts of social injustice.

164. How did the rich oppress the poor during the time of Amos?

> The innocent poor who failed to pay debts were sold as slaves.

> The poor people"s land was grabbed.

> The rich robbed off" the poor people"s property.

> They used false scales and sold to them rejected goods.

> They were charged high interest rates and the prices of the commodities were exorbitant.

> The poor were denied justice in law courts.

165. What was the main teaching of Amos?

> Emphasis was placed on social injustice.

> Amos talked of purity among worshippers.

> He called people to repentance.

> He talked at length about God"s punishment on sinners.

> He preached of the destruction of nations.

> He talked of the remnant and restoration, give the Israelites hope.

166. How could the church in Kenya today promote social justice?

> The church frequently condemns social injustice in the society.

> The church advises the government on the need for peaceful and just treatment in the society.

> The church provides education to the people on social justice.

> The church preaches and encourages social justice.

> The church respects and works in accordance with the stipulated laws and regulations of the country.

> The church takes care of the poor and less fortunate in the society.

> It continuously prays for peace and stability in the country, which is a source of social justice.

> It offers food, clothing and shelter to victims of circumstances like the famine stricken, the internally displaced, etc.

167. How can Christians help church leaders to perform their duties effectively?

> The Christians can offer financial support

> They can guide and counsel the leaders on various issues.

> Through giving them their due respect.

> Praying for them daily.

> Providing them training opportunities.

> Giving out tithe and offering faithfully.

> Participating wholeheartedly in church activities.

> Encouraging them in their work.

> Obeying the word of God.

168. Why was prophet Amos against the way the Israelites worshiped God?

> They practiced cult prostitution.

> Their sacrifices did not reflect any sense of holiness.

> They practiced syncretism

> They were full of hypocrisy in their worship.

> They built high places for the worship of foreign gods.

> They never heeded the laws governing the Sabbath.

> They worshipped foreign gods e.g. Sakkuth.

> They defiled the temple by feasting and drinking.

> They neglected Yahweh"s prophets yet respected the false prophets.

Chapter 10

Prophet Jeremiah

169. Describe the background and persona] life of prophet Jeremiah.

> Jeremiah was the son of Hilkiah.

> Hilkiah was one of the priests of the town of Anathoth in the territory of Benjamin.

> Jeremiah was from a priestly family and therefore was well versed in the religious traditions of Israel

> He neither married nor had children

> He was called when he was young.

> He prophesied during the reigns of kings Josiah, Jehoiachim, Jehoaz, Jehoachin and Zedekiah.

> He had a scribe called Baruch.

> In his ministry, he encountered several challenges.

> God gave him courage to withstand all the difficulties.

> His messages included evils committed, the coming judgment, hope and the future restoration.

> In Palestine, Jeremiah had a friend called Gedaliah: agovemor of Babylon.

> Jeremiah fled to Egypt after the assassination of Gedaliah.

> He probably died in Egypt.

170. Describe the call of Jeremiah as a prophet.

> The Lord spoke to Jeremiah in the thirteenth year, when Josiah son of Ammon was king of Judah and, also, Josiah son of Jehoiakin was king.

> Jeremiah was called when he was young.

> His call was presented in form of a dialogue.

> God spoke to Jeremiah directly. God told Jeremiah, “I chose you before I gave you life, and before you were born, I selected you to be a prophet to the nation.” > Jeremiah was to be God"s mouth piece.

> At first, Jeremiah was afraid because the task ahead of him was quite hectic.

> Jeremiah claimed that he was young to bear the task.

> God assured Jeremiah of divine protection and gave him words to speak.

> God touched Jeremiah"s lips, assuring him of the authonty and provision of words to Jeremiah.

> Jeremiah was given authority to uproot and pull down, to destroy and to overthrow, to build and to plant. This was God"s judgment to the nations.

> During his call, Jeremiah saw two visions:

a. A branch of an almond tree, which was bare. When the weather changed, the tree would bear leaves.

171. Identify the evils that prophet Jeremiah condemned.

> Necromancy;

> Human sacrifice;

> Idolatry,

> Deception;

> False prophecy;

> Prostitution;

> Injustice to the poor;

> Bribery;

> Slavery.

172. How should a Christian respond when offered a bribe?

> Should decline from taking the bribe;

> Should advise the giver not to rely on bribing.

> Pray for God"s guidance.

> Should condemn the act of bribing.

> Should inform the giver of the bribe that bribing is a form of corruption, thus against the Christian norm

173. State Jeremiah’s response towards God’s call.

> He was first reluctant.

> He claimed to be young.

> He said he did not know how to speak.

> He talked to God.

> The two visions changed his attitude towards God.

> He eventually accepted to be sent.

174. Explain the evils addressed/condemned by prophet Jeremiah.

i. Necromancy. This is mentioned in Jeremiah 14:14, 27:9, 29:8-9. It is the practice of predicting future events by invoking the dead by use of mystical powers. Jeremiah advised King Zedekiah not to heed the advice from those who predicted the future through divination or consulting the spirits of the dead.

ii. Deception. This is mentioned in Jeremiah 5:30-31, 9:4-11 and 14:15-16. Jeremiah observed that there was nobody at all who was faithful to Yahweh. Prophets of the time spoke lies. The priests worshipped Yahweh alongside pagan gods.

iii. False prophecy. This is cited in Jeremiah chapter 28. Jeremiah reprimanded Hananiah, who was a false prophet. He preached peace to the people, cheating them that God was going to bring back all the temple treasures, bring back Jeconiah, who had been enslaved. This was a trend that the false prophets followed. Jeremiah opposed it. He predicted the death of Hananiah and it took place.

iv. Human sacrifice. This is mentioned in Jeremiah 7:30-32, 32:35. In it, the nations surrounding Judah worshipped the foreign gods by offering human sacrifices e.g. the king of Moab sacrificed his son during the war with Israel. They built an altar called Topeth, where they offered human sacrifices to pagan gods.

v. Idolatry. This is found in Jeremiah chapters 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10,23 and 28. It is characterized by worship of idols. Jeremiah informed the Israelites that idols were powerless and it was useless worshipping them By worshipping idols, the Israelites had abandoned their first love for God.

175. In what ways did Jeremiah describe idolatry?

> He described it as harloty. It was characterized by worship of fertility gods.

> Abandonment of Israelites" first love. They had failed to remain faithful to God.

> Pursuit of vanity. The Israelites had become worthless.

> Defilement of the holy land.

> Rebellion against Yahweh.

> Moral corruption that led to human sacrifices.

> Important gods that could not save them in times of trouble.

176. Explain Jeremiah’s Temple sermon.

> A Sermon is an interpretation of God"s words by a church leader.

> Jeremiah was at the gate of the temple when he gave his sermon.

> It was the main entrance through which the people of Judah went to worship.

> Jeremiah uttered the following:

a) He told the people to abstain fiom exploiting and oppressing the poor and orphans.

b) They were warned against killing innocent people.

c) He condemned idol worship.

d) He accused the people of being insincere in their worship.

e) He said that they offered sacrifices to God and, at the same time, to the pagan gods.

f) He condemned them for they had ignored and rejected the preaching of the prophets.

g) He emphasized that the Jerusalem temple and its people would be destroyed because of their sins.

h) He pointed out that the people defiled the temple with idols.

i) Jeremiah condemned them for being stubborn and rebellious against God.

j) He prophesied that Jerusalem would be invaded by a foreign power.

k) The congregation was shocked and angered for he had condemned everything they were doing.

l) Jeremiah condemned the people and told them that God would destroy the temple and city and that God“s punishment was inevitable.

m) Nobody, whether kings, officials, prophets or priests, would escape the punishment from God.

177 Why was the Jerusalem temple unworthy according to Jeremiah’s message?

> The Israelites worshipped in it without repentance.

> They offered their sacrifices to God alongside foreign gods.

> They practiced temple prostitution.

> It housed other gods.

> They had a false of security in the temple.

> It had become a den of robbers.

178 State the relevance of Jeremiah’s temple sermon and the evils to Christians today.

> Christians should absolutely say no to idolatry.

> Christians should shun external religious practices and practice piety.

> Christians should be able to denote false prophets and rebuke them

> Christians ought to observe chastity.

> Christians should encourage people to lead a peaceful life full of love.

> We should come to the aid of those who are in need.

179 Explain Jeremiah’s teachings on judgment and punishment.

> God would use a foreign nation to fight the Israelites and destroy their fortified cities in which they had placed trust.

> He would bring disaster from the north, which would destroy the city.

> The punishment would inflict much pain as the pain of a woman in labour.

> The Babylonians would attack Judah and the valley of Hinnom, which housed Topeth, would become their slaughter place.

> The graves would open and the kings, priests and prophets" bones would be removed and exposed to the sun as rubbish: a punishment for idolatry.

> God would send venomous snakes and vipers that could not be charmed. The people of Israel would be captured and deported to exile for seventy years.

> God would send drought and famine among the people.

> God would kill his people by the sword.

> When in captivity, the people would scatter like dirt driven by the desert wind.

> He said that the punishment would still stand even if the greatest prophet: Moses or Samuel intervened.

> He said that Judah"s sins were written in the hearts of the people and therefore they would keep on sinning.

> He was emphatic on repentance of sin.

180 How were the people of Judah punished as a result of their disobedience?

> The Babylonians captured Jerusalem city.

> Many people, including Zedekiah"s son and govemment oflicials died.

> King Zedekiah was blinded and taken to Babylon as a prisoner.

> The temple was demolished.

> Everything valuable was looted by the Babylonians.

> People were deported into exile.

> The poor of the land, who remained in Judah, possessed the vineyards and fields of the exiles.

181 Name the group of people who went into exile.

> Royal court oflicials; > Residents of Jerusalem; > Priests; > Army ofiicers; > Craftsmen. 182. Explain Jeremiah’s symbolic acts related to judgment and punishment. i ii. lll. iv v vi V11. vm The waist cloth. God instructed Jeremiah to purchase a linen waist cloth and put it on. This represented Judah and Israel. God told Jeremiah to hide the cloth in the crevices of the rocks in the Euphrates near Anathoth. He went back, only to find it soiled and defiled. This symbolized/showed that Judah and Israel gods" cities had been ruined and were to be judged. The parable of the wineskins or jars. Jeremiah gave a parable of wineskins or jars that were empty but were later filled with wine. When they were hit against each other, they broke. The empty jars symbolized Judah and the wine that was filled represented the instrument that God would use to punish Judah and her people due to wickedness. Jeremiah"s life. Jeremiah was instructed not to man'y and not to have children. This symbolized the coming punishment that would disrupt all nonnal relationship. Jeremiah was also not to moum, attend funeral or sympathize with the bereaved. It symbolized that God had withdrawn his love and pity for the people of Judah and that those who would die dunng the fall of Jerusalem would have nobody to mourn them and burry them The remnants would never be comforted. The potter and his clay. Jeremiah was instructed to visit a potter, where he noticed a potter destroyed a pot after detecting some defects and later remolded it. It showed that God had mercy. On the wickedness, he would destroy the people, but, through the remnants, he would restore Israel and make it a righteous race free flom defects. The earthen flask. Jeremiah was instructed to purchase an earthen flask and smash it publicly before the priests and elders. This indicated how God would destroy Jerusalem and Judah. The vision of two baskets of feeds. There were two baskets: one with good figs while the other had spoiled figs. Good figs represent those who went into exile while the bad figs represent those who remained in Jerusalem God was going to protect the exiles but destroy those in Jerusalem and those who fled to Egypt, for they had defied God"s word. The wooden ox yoke. Jeremiah made a yoke and walked around with it like an ox. It symbolized how God would judge and punish Judah for her sin. King Zedekiah would continue serving under Babylon as apuppet. 183. What was Jeremiahs teaching of the fall of Jerusalem and the exile of the people of Judah? > > > WV > 3> Jeremiah had earlier prophesied the impending invasion from the north The people had not heed the instruction thus inviting God"s wrath to befall them Jerusalem was attacked by the Babylonians during the ninth year of Z,edekiah"s reign This was due to revolt against the inversion Zedekiah hoped in vain for Egyptians aid The city was SLll’1‘OLll’1ClCCl, Judah"s anrry deteriorated due to starvation It was overpowered and smashed by the vehement Babylonians who latter destroyed the city On realizing this, Zedekiah and his army fled towards Arabia but they were pursued by the Babylonians and captured at Jericho before they had crossed the Jordan river Zedekiah Was taken before King Nebuchadnezmr at Ribiah where he had set a military camp Zedekiah"s son and other oificials of his Government Were executed in his presence Zedekiah"s eyes were gouged out making him blind He was lead to Babylon to start his exile He was full of shame The city was looted, then set a blaze by the Babylonians They destroyed the Kings palace the temple and other structure The city wall was rendered defenseless afier it had been broken Thereafter, the court oificials, army officers, priests, crafismen and residents of Jerusalem were driven to exile The poor peasants of the land and the aged people were untouched. They latter possessed the vineyard to cultivate Nebuchadnezmr commanded Jeremiah to be treated humanly. He was given an opportunity to choose where to preside. Judah or Babylon. He chose to remain in Judah in the court yard He was eventually handed over to Gedaliah the govemor of Judah. 184 Explain Jeremiah’s teaching on suffering and hope. (How did Jeremiah suffer in his ministry) Jeremiah kins and kiths planned to kill him because of the judgment he proclaimed upon them Jeremiah prayed to God to punish them and indeed he did He was therefore rejected by his fiimily and community Jeremiah was exposed to a lonely and desperate life. Nobody wanted to associate himself with him for the true gospel he proclaimed He publicly mocked by the people of Judah who turned against him and tried to kill him Jeremiah was exposed to severe torture by Pashur the priest, who rejected J eremiahs preaching , had him arrested, beaten and chained He was accused falsely of blasphemy for prophesying the destruction of Jerusalem as a whole He was arrested by the ialse prophets and the priests for condemning all the prophets and the priests were doing Jeremiah was arrested by Irijah the watchman at the Benjamin gate and accused of deserting his people to join the Babylonians He was put in an underground cell for a long period of time He was psychologically tortured for the people of Judah had remained quite rebellious against God. 185 State the relevance of the suffering and lamentafion of Jeremiah to Christians Christians are prepared to face rejection from the people they are commissioned to lead as it was the case with Jeremiah Despite all sort comings, aChristian should remain fiithful and dedicated to same God as Jeremiah did Christians acknowledge the fact that they should not give up in times of Challenges he underwent Christians must be willing to proclaim the word of God at all costs and with much zeal and zest Christians must be rest assured of the presence of false prophets whose key vole is to mislead God"s people to the wrong track f) Christians should not turn away the covenant way of life in order to please their people. They should be firm in telling the genuine truth of the gospel g) We as Christians should leam to pray to God for his mercies and protection in the work we do h) Christians should love their enemies and pray for those who persecute and insult them They should not take revenge i) Christians should appreciate the afllictions and suffering they are exposed to for they are the core of their faith and spiritual vigility. 186. What were Jeremiahs symbols act related to hope and restoration? a) The vision of two baskets of figs Jeremiah saw the vision of two baskets of figs and. One contained good figs while the second had bad figs. The good figs represented the people who accepted to be exiled. The bad fig represents King Zedekiah and those who escaped to be exiled Those who went to exile would be preserved, protected and restored as God“s remnant. Zedekiah and his subjects would be ridiculed, destroyed and would never be restored. b) The latter to exile Jeremiah wrote a letter addressed to the exiles. They had lost hope and felt that God had forsaken them The latter encouraged them in many ways. He assured them that God would restore them back to their land after seventy years. c) The wooden ox yoke The yoke that Jeremiah put on was a sign of captivity and tribulations. It also symbolized hope if they accepted to be exiled. God would restore them back to their homeland after the exile. The yoke would be broken d) The purchase of Land Jeremiah was instructed to purchase apiece of land fiom his cousin Hanamel in Anathoth, although it was us less property for during a siege, property remains useless. He told Baruch to keep the title deed safe for the future. This indicated that even if the exiles overstayed in Babylon, they would retum to Judah and lead their normal way of life. 187. How did Jeremiah encourage the Israelites through his latter? (Jeremiah 29) a) They were to erect houses and settle down b) They were to cultivate and consume the produce c) They were to many and procreate d) They were to maintain peaceful relationship e) They were to remain faithful to God throughout their lives t) Not to heed to false prophets for they would mislead them g) That God would restore them back to land after judgment. 188. What did Jeremiah teach concerning the new Covenant? > God promised to establish a new and everlasting covenant > The new covenant would give hope to the Judanians who would undergo punishment through exile > The covenant had the following components: a) God ,,s law would be written in the peoples heart b) Their would be personal knowledge of God c) In the covenant each and every person would be answerable for his or her own sins d) Their would be spontaneous forgiveness of sins e) It would establish a new community/ a new Israel/ a new hope i) The new community would be ruled by a nghteous king descending from David“s lineage g) The covenant would see God bringing about a change of human nature. Israel would be given a new heart or a new will h) People were supposed to respond to the covenant in great faith and obedience for God himself took the initiative of establishing it. 189 Compare the new covenant foretold by Jeremiah and that of the Sinai In the new covenant, laws were to be written on peoples heart unlike the old (Sinai) covenant where laws were drafted on stone tablets In the Sinai covenant sins affected up to the fourth and third generation while in the new covenant once sin could be forgiven if he repented The Sinai covenant was defiled unlike the new covenant which would be everlasting In the new covenant one would be punished for his own iniquity while in the Sinai covenant their was collective responsibility The Sinai covenant had mediators who linked their people to God but the new covenant saw the person knowledge of God The Sinai covenant was sealed by animal blood yet the new covenant is sealed by a blood of Jesus Christ The Sinai covenant was basically for the Israel nation while the new covenant was universal. 190 Relate the teaching and prophecies of Jeremiah to the New Testament and Chnstlan life today Just like Jeremiah was called when he was young various people received such spectacular calls in the New Testament. Jesus called his disciples and commissioned them Likewise, St. Paul received a cell on his way to Damascus Jeremiah encountered a lot of challenges and obstacles in his life. Jesus and his Apostles underwent persecution, Imprisonment and all sorts of suiferings. Christians are called upon to be ready to face all son of difficulties for God"s sake Jeremiah condemned hypocrisy among the people of Judah. In the same way Jesus condemned the hypocrisy of the Pharisees and Sadducees in their observance of religious practices. Christians hypocritical when they fail to meet the expectations. Such are supposed to be condemned Jeremiah"s covenant was meant for assuring the people of Judah for restoration. Jesus Christ fulfills this hope in the New Testament. Christians Should have hope for etemal life if they remain faithful Jeremiah gave the people of Judah hope of being restored afier punishment. Jesus still gives hope for etemal life in the New Testament. Christians are called upon to believe in Jesus and live righteous life to receive eternal life Jeremiah accepted the people of Judah to repent in order to avoid judgment. In the same way, Jesus calls people to repent and turn to God. Peter also challenged the congregation to repent and receive baptism Christian leaders are to preach repentance in order to be received by God He condemned the Israelites false security in the temple. Jesus also condemned the Pharisees and prophesied the destruction of the temple due to peoples sins. Christians are asked to remain inwardly righteous but not to preserve extemal piety Jeremiah prophesied of a righteous King to rule Israel in the New Testament, Jesus arn'ved at the righteous King. 191 How was Jeremiah’s prophecy about the New Covenant fulfilled in Jesus Christ a) Jesus seals the covenant through the shedding of the blood on the cross b) Jesus dies for the peoples sins thus those who repents receives forgiveness c) The covenant established was universal including the gentiles and the Jews d) Jesus is the righteous and spiritual ruler descending from the house of David e) Jesus established a personal relationship between God and the Human kind f) Jesus emphasized on love, whish is the foundation to the new covenant. 192. What conditions resulted to the exile of Israelites in Babylon a) Israelites had neglected God"s covenant with that b) Babylonians were very powerful and had to attack Israel c) They overpowered Jerusalem destroying everything d) The army captured king Zedekiah and lead them to exile e) Nebuchadneuar had emerged a very powerfiil King over Judah f) The people of Judah had become stubborn and failed to repent g) Their anny had weakened due to starvation. 193. Why was Jeremiah a prophet? > He received God"s call; > He spoke with authority. > He willingly gave in to God"s call > He conveyed God"s will to the people. > He saw visions; > He remained fiithful to God. > He stood for the covenant way of life. > He foretold events, which later occurred. > He was God"s spokesman. 194. How were the Israelites encouraged to live in hope during the Babylonian exile? > Jeremiah told them that they should have hope for God"s restoration. > He encouraged them to many, for God would increase them in number. > God would answer their prayers when they cry to him > The Israelites would be God"s own people. > The exile suifering would eventually tenninate. > Their since would be forgiven when they repented. > Jeremiah"s purchase of land was a symbol of hope for the future. > He told the exiles to build houses and till the gardens in order for them to prosper. > After the exile, they would live forever in the land they will occupy. > God would give them a king to rule them wisely. > They would lead a pCflC€fi.ll life. 195. Explain the significance of the symbolic act of buying land by prophet Jeremiah. > It gave the people hope that they would acquire their land. > It also assured them that, although they would be exiled, they still had a future. > Through it, the people would resume their normal lives. > The exile would not be etemal. > The people were to be patient for their return fiom exile. > It showed that God was full of love for his people. > It ensured them Security. 196. What lessons do we leam from Jeremiah’s teaching on the new covenant? > They lean-1 that Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of the new Covenant. > They should store the law of God in their own hearts. > They should know God personally. > They should possess practical fiaith in God. > They should know that if they sin they will personally be answerable and punished. > They would obey and practice the law of God. > Whenever they go astray, they should genuinely repent in order to receive forgiveness. > Christians have apermanent and eternal relationship with God. CHAPTER ll NEHEMIAH Describe the historical background of prophet Nehemiah. > Nehemiah was the son of Hacaliah > He had a brother called Hanani. > He was in Susa. > Arterxes was emperor of Persia. > Nehemiah was a cup bearer of Arterxes. > He was a lay person. > He was very touched when he learned of the destruction of the whole of Jerusalem > He felt it was his duty to rebuild the temple. Describe the political background to Nehemiah. > Babylon had conquered the kingdom of Judah, destroying everything that was part and parcel of the city. > The poor of the land remained in Judah. > The rich and all royal people were led to exile in Babylon during the reign of Nebuchadnezmr. > After this, King Cyrus the Great led the Persian army and they conquered Babylon. > King Cyrus did not change the administrative structures of Babylon. > King Cyrus pennitted the exiles to practice their religion, but to payhjm tribute. > Afterwards, Cyrus issued a decree that encouraged the Jews to return to Palestine. > He gave them grants and aid. > The people who went back were to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem and reinstate its condition. > The return of the exiles to Palestine was not a one period action. > of the temple. > The second was under the leadership of Ezra. > The last group was led by Nehemiah. 199 Describe the socioeconomic background. > > > in exile, the people of Judah settled in various areas. > They settled in compact groups. > They tilled the plots of land handed over to them in Babylon. > They also provided labour to the Babylonians. > Some of them became wealthy due to involvement in trading activities and being irrigation experts. > There was intemrarriage between Israelites and foreigners. 200 Describe the religious background of Prophet Nehemiah. > In Babylon, the Judanians found it hard to observe their religious practices. > They were still downhearted by the destruction of Jerusalem city and the temple. The first group was led by Shesh Bazzar: aprince who led in building the foundation They were no longer united as clans and families as they had been organized in Judah They continued with their ethnic identity and never relinquished their religious norms God sent prophets like Ezekiel and Isaiah to accord them new hop. The exiles were allowed to cling to their religion. They maintained traditions like circumcision, observing the Sabbath, sang psalms and observance of the Mosaic Law. After the exile, they rebuilt the temple. They received a new covenant under Ezra. Nehemiah reinstated the earlier condition of the temple by cleansing and introducing religious reforms. 201 Why was the rebuilding of the temple useful to the Jews and the Persian Empire Temples served as banks to the people, which loaned them Through them, tribute was given to the emperor. It contributed to the growth of the empire economically. The priests who resided in the temple contributed much to the maintenance of law and order. Priests helped in the observance of local traditional wars. They fonnulated traditional laws that govemed the people. 202 VW1y did the people of the land (the Amhaaret 3) reject the rebuilding of the temple? They were denied chances of participating or assisting in the rebuilding, for they were the descendants of the rebellious Northem kingdom The people out of exile were people of Judah, so, they hated the people of the North. The people of Judah who had served in exile hated the people of the land for they practiced idolatry. The returned exiles believed that the people of the land were not the correct members of the restored community. 203 Name the occasions when Nehemiah prayed in his life. He prayed when he was made aware by Hanani his brother, about the ruined state of Jerusalem and the suffering of the returned exiles. He ofiered a prayer before facing king Arterxes to seek for p6I‘I1’llSSl0I1 to go back to Judah. When the king asked Nehemiah why he was sad, he prayed to the God of heaven. He prayed when his enemies made fun of the Jews and discouraged them from building the wall. He prayed to God for San Ballat and his associates to be associates to be punished since they had ridiculed Nehemiah when reconstructing the wall When enemies had conspired to attack Jerusalem to stop the construction work. When San Ballat had accused Nehemiah of planning to overthrow the Persian king. He prayed after condemning the leaders for oppressing the poor. He prayed when Shemiah fiightened him to hide in the temple to escape from those who had plotted to kill him After waming the people against violating the law of the Sabbath. After sending away the son-in-law of San Ballat: Tobiah fiom the temple. After purifying the temple. When he wanted God to forgive the sins of his fithers and his own generation. When he wanted God to remember his good deeds. 204 Explain the importance of prayer in Christian life. > Prayer is an opener of the solution to the challenges a Christian encounters in life. Through prayer, one is able to give thanks to God for his abundant blessings. Prayer helps one to intercede for others. Christians pray to express their faith in God. > We pray in order to seek for forgiveness for the evils We commit. > In order to ask for God“s protection in all that We do. > We pray to God to glorify and exalt. > Through prayer, we communicate to God. > To seek guidance from God. > To acknowledge God"s services in our lives. > To express our obedience and humility before God. > Prayer helps us to gain strength and courage. > Prayer is a fonn of Worship, where God is brought into our hearts. 205. Name the various ways that Nehemiah demonstrated good leadership qualities. > Nehemiah was prayerfirl In every single step, he partook, he ensured that he channeled a prayer to God. > Nehemiah was hard working. He remained committed and determined to complete his chores. > He was courageous. He laced all the difiiculties he encountered with much boldness. > He was patriotic. It was because of this that he felt pity for the people and the ruined state of the wall He even interceded for the people"s sins. > He was appreciative. He thanked God for every step he accomplished. > He was selfless. Nehemiah treated his subjects kindly and even prayed to God to remember him for this. > He was compassionate. Out of pity, he condemned the leaders for oppressing the p0OL > He was a role model. Nehemiah“s life is worth being emulated by any Christian. > He was amobilizer/good planner. He managed to delegate the roles equally and without bias. > He was patient. He carefirlly assessed situations before taking any step. > He was humble. He humbled himself before king Arterxes when he was seeking permission to go back to Judah. > He was honest. He was frank and open to the king. He honestly told the king why he intended to go back to Judah Due to his honesty, he was made a cup bearer. 206. What lessons can a Christian learn from Nehemiah’s leadership qualifies? > Christians are encouraged to be prayerfirl in their lives. > We should be committed and determined in the work God commissions us to dol > Christians should be courageous enough not to be shaken by any temptations. > Christians should leam to possess firm faith in Christ. > They should have pity on those who undergo pain and suffering and the less fortunate. > They should leam to put every situation in order using their wisdom > Christians should lead arighteous life, worth emulating in order to become role models. > Christians should be honest and sincere in their dealings. > They should be patriotic ie. love their people and country. > We should fight for the rights of the underprivileged. 207. What problems did Nehemiah encounter in his work? > Nehemiah faced opposition iiom San Ballat and his servant Tobiah. They charged Nehemiah with political rebellion and treason. > He received death threats from San Ballat through Shemiah: aprophet. Shemiah cheated Nehemiah to hide in the temple, which was not a form of rescue. Shemiah knew that there, Nehemiah would have been trapped. > Nehemiah"s people were gripped with fear for they knew they would be attacked by their enemies. > False accusations were levied upon Nehemiah. San Ballat accused him of organizing a rebellion against the Persian emperor. > Some people were disloyal to Nehemiah"s plans. For instance, the people of Tekoa refused to work as constructors. They claimed that it was hard. > Nehemiah received complaints from people and their wives against Jewish oificials and the nobility. They were asked to submit their land title deeds in order to get money to solve their problems. > He faced it rough to do away with Tobiah, who had defiled the temple. > He had also to reinstate the observance of the Sabbath law, which had been broken. > He had also to purify the Israelites from foreign influence. 208 What lessons do Christians learn from Nehemiah’s experiences? > Christians must expect opposition and tackle it bravely. > We as Christians, ought to be prayerful in order to overcome situations. > We should not tolerate any fonn of evil in the society. > With God"s help, we can prosper in whatever we undertake. > We should be wise in the decisions we make during a crisis. > Christians should discourage comiption and irresponsibility. > Christians should fight for the rights and privileges of every individual in the society. CHAPTER 12 THE RESTORATION OF THE JEWISH COMMUNITY Discuss the steps followed in the renewal of the covenant. > It was after Nehemiah and the Jews had completed the repair work on the walls and gates of Jerusalem > All the people gathered in the square before the water gate. > The priest (Ezra) brought the laws of Moses to the congregation and read them out. > The scribes interpreted the meaning of each and every law for comprehension. > The people were sad. They wept for they had failed to meet the conditions of the law. > Nehemiah, Ezra and other I./evites told the people not to weep, for they had to renew their relationship with God. > After the interpretation, they realized that they had to celebrate the feast of the booth/tabernacle. > They made the booths and dwelled in them as they celebrated. > For seven days, the people listened to the priest as he read the laws. > They confessed publicly the sins that had brought trouble upon them > At this time, the Israelites separated themselves irom foreigners. > In the confession, the people, through Ezra, recognized how God had loved, cared for and helped the Israelites up to when they had settled in Canaan > On behalf of the people, Ezra repented. > The people accepted to make a new covenant with God, promising to uphold it. > It was sealed and the priest, Levites and princes signed the agreement. > The people vowed to follow God"s laws. > They promised: a) Not to intermarry with the foreigners. b) To keep the Sabbath day holy. Not to harvest the crops of the seventh year. C) d) To write off all the debts they were owed. e) To support the temple and the priests by bringing to God all their first fruits, animals and firstbom sons. i) Bring all their tithes to the temple. g) Follow the laws regarding the temple. 210. What lessons can a Christian derive from the renewal of the covenant? > > > > > God loves and forgives those who repent. Repentance brings reconciliation with God and fellow people. We should intercede for those that seek forgiveness and help fiom God. We should strive to lead a righteous life. We should be willing to read the word of God, which would always remind what to do. > We should be ready to forgive those who wrong us. 211. Describe how the Jerusalem wall was dedicated. (Nehemiah 12:27-43). >> > > > > 3> > > > > The Levites assembled in the city of Jerusalem First and foremost, the commwiity and the city gates and walls were purified. The purified community formed along procession. The procession moved in opposite directions towards the temple area. Singers accompanied with musical instruments, including trumpets, were present. Ezra led a procession towards the right while Nehemiah led one towards the lefl. The two groups converged in the temple. Singing, sacrificial rituals and a lot of festive noise marked the day. Men to take care of the temple were appointed by Nehemiah. The temple was then dedicated to God. 212. What reforms did Nehemiah make? (Nehemiah 13). > > > > > > > > Nehemiah denounced relationship with foreign communities e.g. the Ammonites and Moabites. Nehemiah purified the temple by expelling Tobiah out of the temple. He ordered for the cleansing of the temple. He restored the Levites and the singers to their rightful positions. He appointed a panel of four people to supervise the distribution of resources. He wamed the people against defiling the Sabbath day, for God"s wrath would befiill them He stationed his personal guards to prevent traders fiom entering the temple on the Sabbath. He wamed people against marrying foreigners. He even excommunicated Eliashib: the priest, from oflice when he discovered that Eliashib was married to a daughter of San Ballat, the Samaritan governor. He purified the oifice of priesthood and the Levites. 213. Compare Nehemiah’s experiences to the life of Jesus as shown in Saint Luke’s gospel and Christians today. > > > Nehemiah had a lot of concem for his people. He fought for the rights of the poor by condemning those who oppressed them Jesus really took care of the underprivileged. He was concemed with his people: the Christians, when he died for their sins. Christians should be compassionate and ready to put themselves in another person"s shoe. Nehemiah took prayer as his weapon for success. From the word Go to the end, he is prayerful. Jesus prayed during his ministry and emphasized this by teaching his disciples how to pray. Nehemiah possessed much courage in his mission. He was much bold not to be shaken by threats from San Ballat, Tobiah etc. He never gave up in reprimanding the US oppressors of the poor. Jesus boldly condemned the Pharisees, saducees and the scribes for their hypocrisy. He courageously faced the stifi” opposition, threats, fi1lS6 accusation and the rejection. Christians should have unwavering courage to enable them to withstand all the obstacles in life. Nehemiah faced several challenges as a govemor of Judah. False levies were plotted against him He was opposed, among others. Jesus encountered all these. Worse of all, Christ was accused of blasphemy and eventually subjected to death. Christians should be well aware of opposition in their lives, thus they should not surrender when such come. Nehemiah made reforms. Among them, he reinforced observance of the Sabbath day and the entire Mosaic Law. Jesus said that he had come to fiilfill and not to destroy the law. Christians should follow what God commands them to do. Nehemiah expelled Tobiah out of the temple and introduced several refonns for it had been defiled. Jesus sent away the money changers from the temple claiming that they were misusing the house of God. Christians should not allow the house of God to be defiled by anybody. They should keep it holy. Nehemiah made several reforms in life. He saw to it that the poor are not oppressed. He made refonns among others. Jesus brings in a new covenant which is universal and based on faith. Christians should wisely detect areas of fiiilure and make proper changes. Nehemiah condemned evil among the people of Judah. Likewise, Jesus never tolerated any form of evil committed against God and man. Christians should not stomach any fom-1 of malpractice against another person CHAPTER 13 SELECTED ASPECTS IN AFRICAN RELIGIOUS HERITAGE: AFRICAN CONCEPTS OF GOD. SPIRITS AND AN CESTORS 215 State the attributes of God in the African religious heritage/beliefs about the nature of God/concept of God. God is most powerlul (Omnipotent). His strength and ability exceeds all his creation. God is the sole creator, molder and maker. From him, everything comes into existence. God is a sole provider. He gives both life and sustenance to his creation. God is omniscient (all knowing). He has knowledge of all events before, during and after creation. God is omnipresent/all present. God"s presence is felt everywhere in the universe. God is merciful/comforting. He makes calm those in hardship. He comes to the rescue of those in difficulties. God is etemal He shall never cease to be. He was, he is and he will be. God is transcendent. No creature ever understands God"s nature. God is holy and pure. He s faultless and each and everybody bows before him with honour. God is good. This God, who created everything, still provides, protects and sustains all his creatures. God is eminent. God is seen to be both far and nearer us. God is self existence. Nobody created God and nobody knows his being. 216 What is the African understanding 0f Spirit? > Spints come immediately after God and are supenor to human beings > Spints appear as, Divinities, Corrmqon spints, Natural spirits and spirit of the living dead > They act as mediators between God and human beings > They may enter into Human beings and talk through them to convey important massages > Some are feared hence not welcomed in the daily lives of human beings > Spirits can be good or evil > They are invisible but they can appear to human being inform of humans, animals, birds, trees or rocks > Can be found in mountains, rivers, trees, rocks or caves > They are more powerful than human beings > They are invoked to reveal to the people mysterious happening. 217. Name the ways through which human beings communicate with the spirit World a) Through pouring libation b) Through prayers c) Through the naming of children d) By offering sacrifices e) Through dreams/ visions i) By singing and dancing to them g) By invoking/ chanting/ incantation or calling upon their names h) Giving offering 218. State roles of ancestors in the traditional African communities a) They linked the living to the spiritual world and God b) They protected and took care of the living c) They gave instruction to the living and ensured that the law and order was maintained d) They blessed the living e) They ensured the community culture and religion is upheld f) They gave community identity to individuals g) They warned about the impending danger h) They punished the living who strayed i) They took part in communal rituals j) They welcomed the dead into the spiritual world. 219. Explain the African understanding of the hierarchy of beings > At the top, we have God who is the supreme being without him nothing else would have existed > Second are the divinities spirits believed to have been created by God to represent his activities on Earth > Next come the common spirits which include the nature and human spirits > The living dead or ancestors come next and they link human beings with the spirit world > The fifth group are human beings including the Lmbom > Then we have the animals and plants which are source of food to man > Lastly the non-living things e.g. Mountains, Rivers, .etc close the hierarchy Diagram indicating the hierarchy God- Divinities- Common spirits- Living dead/ ancestors- Human beings- Plant and animal/ Living thins- Non- living things 220. Name the specialist in T.A. C a) Diviners/ Medium b) Elders/ Kings c) Healers/ Medicine men/ Herbalist d) Priests e) Rain makers f) Prophets/ Seers g) Black smiths h) Circumcisers. 221. What role does the living play towards God? a) They should obey and trust God b) They have to offer sacrifices to God as a sign of gratitude c) They should pray to God for a solution to their needs d) Take care of God"s creation e) They should approach God courteously to show his supremacy. 222. List ways in which the living benefit from the living dead in the T. A. C a) The living dead gave warning to the living about the punishment that would occur b) They olfered blessing to the living c) They protected the living fiom any hann d) They helped in controlling the behaviour of the living. e) They welcomed those who died to the spirit world. t) They acted as intermediaries between God and Man. g) They helped people to recover their property. 223. What is the religious importance of intermediaries? > They communicated the needs of man to God, e.g. priests. > They revealed hidden secrets of the society to the people. > They guided and counseled the members e.g. prophets. > People like prophets communicated or conveyed God"s will to man. > They acted as arbitrators. > They proposed solutions to spirits that possessed people. > Priests led in religious rituals. > The diviners prepared younger generations for the maintenance of harmony in the community. 224. Give reasons as to why ancestors were venerated in African traditional culture. > The ancestors were believed to offer solutions to certain difficulties. > The ancestors mediated between people and God. > Through the ancestors, people worshipped God. > The people prayed to God through the ancestors. > They protected them fiom certain misfortunes. > Through the ancestors, God received people“s sacrifices and offerings. > They involved ancestors in their daily activities. > They helped in moral upkeep. > Through ancestors, the spirits are appeased. 225. How did the African people express their belief in God? > People were given religious names. > They made sacred places for God"s worship. > They worshipped God before canying out anything. > They oifered sacrifices/offerings as a sign of gratitude. > They invited God“s spirits during rituals. > God was called upon to protect the unbom child. > People involved the name of God in their undertaking. > They made certain animals and birds sacred. 226. Explain the views of the living towards the ancestors. > They respected the wishes of the ancestors. > They buried them decently. > They maintained the religious practices handed over to them by the ancestors. > They protected and safeguarded the communal property. > They addressed them properly and with respect. > They offered sacrifices to them 227. How did the traditional African communities Worship God. (How did the traditional African communities seek reconciliation with God?) > They prayed to God Fervently. > They invoked the name of God. > They poured libations to him through the ancestors. > They gave sacrifices and offerings. > The Airicans sing and dance to God. > They visit sacred places. > They approach God through mediators. > The Afiicans abstain from evil > They help the less fortunate in the community. > They recite the names of ancestors. > They care for God"s creation. 228. How were the ancestors venerated? > People sought them through religious specialists. > Lflaations were poured to them > Rituals were perfonned to strengthen their bond. > Children were renamed after them > They were welcomed in communal practices. > Mentioning their names during prayer was observed. 229. Why were sacrifices offered in traditional African society? > As a sign of showing gratitude to God. > To seek God"s blessings. > To appease God for the forgiveness of sins. > To appease the ancestors and spirits. > To maintain good relationship with God. > To ask for help from God in times of trouble. 230. Name the occasions when prayers were offered in traditional African culture > During special ceremonies. > During death. > When struck with natural calamities. > During a great banquet of victory in war. > During pregnancy and at birth. > When faced with evil forces. 231. Name places where prayers were offered in traditional African culture. > In shrines; > Under sacred trees. > In caves > On mountains. > At grave yards. > At river banks. > On rocks. > At water fialls. > Inhomes of religious leaders. CHAPTER 14 THE MEANING OF LIFE AND ITS WHOLESOME IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN SOCIETY 232. Explain the dimensions of life/ life and its wholeness Life is a gift from God. Life is looked at in the following dimensions/ aspects > Social- This is to show that life is seen in temis of relationships or living with others. If you separated yourself from others, you are seen as an evil minded sharing was highly encouraged. > Spiritual aspects- This means that life is directly connected with God. God is the source of life and thus man greatly believes in God. > Environmental- Environmental shows all natures and non- living things these elements enable man to survive for he depends on them due to this, they are taken good care of > Physical- This covers the human being and the physical environment. Every human being makes an efl°ort to protect and increase life forces which work against life e.g. death and suffering are quite feared. 233. Gi8ve evidence to show that country’s political leaders recognize the role of religion > Permitting of freedom to worship > Some political leaders help in collecting funds for Church projects > Some leaders have been involved in opening institutions for churches > Many evangelist have been allowed to preach in Kenya > Church leaders visiting Kenya have been welcomed cordially > C.R.E has been allowed in the curriculum > Political leaders respect the views of the Church on certain issues > Some political leaders attend church services every Sunday. 234. Explain the African concept of community > A community can imply a family, clan or ever the school > It is a group of people linked by common values > This group of people share same values interest and goals > Every community has a diiferent view about God > Every member is committed to his or her community > They are call upon to come to the aid of other members of the community > Members also participate in the life of the community > Every community has a similar organization socially. 235. Characteristics ofEtl1nic communities in African Traditional societyinclude: > Common ancestor > Unique language > Occupies aparticular geographical area > Has a clear social and political organizations > It has a distinct way of life e.g. customs, taboo, rules etc > It includes both living, the dead and the unborn > Climatic conditions dictate the economic activities. 236. What is kinship and how important in T.A.S > Kinship is the relationship or the tie between people through the blood, marriage or even adoption > It leads assisting and sharing with others > Kinship is important because a) It gives a person/ an individual a deep sense of belonging b) It controls and determines how members relate to one another. It therefore controls once behavior c) It provides Lmlimited source of advice/ guiding and counseling to the members d) Kinship system binds together the entire life of a community, both the living, the unbom and the dead relate in one way or another e) It helps people to stay peacefiil With each other t) Kinship system regulate marital customs, rules and regulation g) It provides security to all members of the community h) It helps members to face challenges together by according them moral support i) It prevents the spread of hereditary diseases. 237. What are the factors that contribute to Harmony and mutual responsibility in the African community? > Political set up people of a certain community dwell together and follow the stipulated Laws and regulations. Errant members are declined by the elders > Communal worship people gather to give gratitude to God for the great things He has accorded them They follow common doctrines about God which are hereditary thus enhancing hannony > Division of labour work was allocated bearing in mind various factors, among them were, sex, age and status of aperson. This was divided fairly to avoid commotions or conflicts > Sharing Every member was genuinely concemed with one another"s welfare. The family resources are shared among the family members. People work together and shared the harvest > Rite of passage Ceremonies like birth, initiation, man'iage and death involved the whole community. Each member took part ir1 the occasion thus contributing to harmony > Social norms Morality is highly recognized. There are stipulated rules and regulations set to govem peoples behavior. Virtues are to be upheld. > Leisure activities Leisure activities bring people together. These include beer parties, singing and dancing among others. Elders use this moments to identify certain talents among the youth performers > Education systemln traditional Afiican society, education was informal. It was given by adults who were assumed to have gained a lot of experience. They mainly based on moral values which enhanced peace and hannony > Punishment was prescribed for the errand members and this discouraged vices and encouraged harmony > Solving of problems Communal Way of solving individual and family problems promoted understanding in the community. > Religious beliefs The people held the same religious beliefs and traditions which promoted unity > Connnunal land ownership Land was communally owned since it was seen as an inheritance. Everybody possessed land thus eliminating the landless > Natural resources the natural resources are communally preserved and conserved. CHAPTER 15 RITES OF PASSAGE AND MORAL VALUES 238. Name the traditional rites connected with death in African societies. > Washing/preserving the body as a sign of respect. > Positioning graves in specific places. > A decent burial to avoid haunting. > Mourning to express sorrow. > Dancing/singing to consol the bereaved. > Looking down upon those who take their own lives. > The fact that unfaithful partners are not allowed to move close to the dead partner. > Sharing of property. > Inheritance of widows. 239. Why was death feared in traditional African society? > It disrupts the rhythm of human life. > It cannot be escaped. > It brings poverty to the family involved. > It brings impurity to the family. > It at times causes misunderstanding in the community. > It deprives the community of their loved ones. > It involves too many rituals. > It comes unawares/abruptly/unannounced. > It marks the end of earthly life. > Nobody is aware of the afierlife. 240. Explain how people in traditional African society helped bereaved families. > They kept them company. > They consoled them through singing, dancing and willing words. > They were helped in preparing the grave. > Society contributed food and other material support, particularly during the funeral. > They attended the funeral to give the dead a decent send-oil“. > They helped by perfomiing certain duties for them > They helped in preparing the body for burial > They participated in rituals performed. > They made a eulogy to praise the deceased. > Informed fiiends and relatives about the death. 241. Give reasons why cleansing rituals were performed in traditional African society > They were performed to forgive wrong doers of their sins. > To protect individuals against impending punishment. > To accept back a member who had broken a taboo to continue with the normal activities of the society. > To appease the ancestral spirits. > To maintain good relationship/cohesion in the community. > To prepare the dead for new life. > To send away evil spirits. > As a rite of passage, changing from one stage to another. > To protect one against calamities. > To approach the spirits so that they do not cause misfortune. 242. Give reasons why taboos were important in traditional African communities. > They helped to maintain the member"s dignity. > They guided people on moral behaviour. > They outlined kinship ties. > They maintained respect to God. > They created harmony and peace in the society. > They guided on acceptable eating habits. > They maintained law and order. 243. What was the cause of death in traditional African society? > Old age; > Diseases; > Accidents; > Witchcraft; > Punishment by spirits; > Curses. 244. State the causes of suffering in traditional African society. > Breaking a taboo; > A curse from elders due to disobedience. > Failure to respect sacred places. > Breaking agreements. > Breaking social rules and regulations. > Disobeying ancestral spirits. > Because of witchcraft. 245. Why were disputes overland rear in African traditional society? > There were explicable guidelines on the use of the land. > Every member was allocated land. > Elders disciplined those who grabbed land. > Cursed befell those who acquired it unjustly. > It was property of the clan. > There was enough land assigned to everybody. > Elders allocated the land fiirly. 246. Name the rites of passage and their role in inculcating moral values in the traditional African community. > Birth and Naming. During pregnancy, mothers are treated specially in various ways e.g. being exempted from heavy tasks. After birth, the child was warmly welcomed and later named according to the surrounding, seasons and place, etc. > hiitiation. During this stage, one is transformed fiom childhood to adulthood. One is now allowed to marry and have any responsibility. Failure to be initiated, one is looked at as an outcast. > Marriage. It is the third rite of passage. It is looked at as sacred and ordained by God > Death. It is the final stage one has to undergo. This stage is quite feared by all members of the society. 247. Name the rules and regulations (taboos) observed by pregnant mothers in traditional African society. > Eating special food and avoiding some e.g. eggs. > Avoiding heavy tasks. > Abstaining from sexual intercourse. > Avoiding handling iron/metallic tools, which easily attract lightning. > Not speaking directly to one"s husband. > Returning to one"s parents" home to give birth there, then retuming afler the baby is weaned. 248. What measures were taken to discourage pregnancy before marriage in traditional African society? > Education about sex was given to the youth to enable them lead a responsible life. > Virginity was highly valued, thus premarital sexual behaviour abolished. > The youth were guided and counseled on the consequences of irresponsible sexual behaviour. > Girls who became pregnant before maniage were dishonoured and severely punished. > There were rules and regulations stipulated on sexual relationships. > The whole community was concerned with morality. > Boys and girls were taught to respect each other and their own bodies. > Parents closely watched their daughters" movement. > Young men who impregnated a girl during marriage were reprimanded or defamed. > Young people were supervised during special occasions e.g. dancing. 249. Which factors have contributed to immorality among the youth today? > Drug abuse among the youth; > Lack of proper sex education; > Poverty, leading to commercial sex; > Pomography, > Permissiveness in the society, > Urbanization, leading to lack of privacy; > Mass media influence; > Availability of contraceptive drugs; > Unemployment, which makes the youth get lured into sex; > Frustration, which causes the youth to seek consolation in sex; > The adults, who should serve as role models, are, themselves, promiscuous, influencing the youth negatively; > The youth follow the footsteps/influence of peers; > Parents have abandoned their role of inculcating moral values. 250. Name ways in which Tradition African society showed respect to the unbom child. > The expectant mother is exempted from heavy tasks. > The expectant mother is given protective cham1s to wear. > They observe certain taboos, rules and regulations. > The expectant mother is treated gently. > The expectant mother is given herbs to protect her. > The expectant mother is given special food. > The expectant mother is checked/examined regularly by traditional midwives. > The expectant mother is not allowed to get involved in sexual intercourse. > Prayers and hbations are oifered/poured to ask for Gods mercies. 251. How was marriage formalized in traditional African culture? > Dowry was given as a token of appreciation. > Religious rituals were performed, characterized by exchange of gift. > Ceremonies were held to create harmony. > The families of the bride and groom visited one another. > Maniage negotiations were held. > Singing and dancing marked the celebration of marriage. > Oathing was observed to reinforce the maniage. > Virginity of the bride was to be proved. 252. Why was polygamy common in traditional African culture? > Polygamy ensured harmony in the commtmity. > Children were a source ofpride, therefore, the more one had, the better. > To avoid getting children of a single sex. > Children ensured security in old age. > To reduce irresponsible sexual behaviour. > To prevent or do away with childlessness. > The number of wives raised one“s status. > The wives boosted the man"s wealth through their labour. > Death, which never promised, led people to marry several women. 253. VW1y was the birth of a child seen as a joyous event in African traditional culture? > Children are a source of wealth. > They are a source of security. > They are a blessing in marriage. > They increase labour force. > They cement the couple"s relationship. > They enhance the family"s social status. > They remove the shame on the parents. > They provide a chance for the fiamily to get together and celebrate. > Through children, people acknowledged God"s work. 254. Name the activities carried out in traditional African culture to ensure safety of the newly born baby. > The birth is made public to the whole family. > The placenta is disposed ofi" in a secret place. > The baby is born in a clean place. > The baby is delivered by an expert. > The umbilical cord was carefully cut. > Prayers are olfered for the well being of the child. > The baby was cleansed using medicinal herbs. > The baby and mother stayed in seclusion for some time. > The mother is given protective channs and herbs. > The baby is named. > Mother and baby are given nutritious food. > They put on/wear protective channs. 255. State the role of midwives in African traditional society. > They helped pregnant mothers in delivery. > They gave advice to the mother. > They took care of the weak mother and child. > They announced the sex of the child (whether male or female). 256. Why was divorce rear in traditional African culture? > Marriage was highly valued. > Courtship was allowed in some communities. > Marriage negotiation involved many people. > In divorce, bride wealth was to be returned. > A divorced person lacked dignity. > Early education on marriage life was ofiered. > Gender roles were clearly defined. > In case of barrenness, an alternative was sought. > Elders handled marriage disputes. > The wife belonged to the wider community. > Children and dowry sealed marriage. > Clear marriage procedures were followed. 257. How was a marriage partner chosen in traditional African culture? > Courtship was done early by parents. > A mediator identified a girl from a fiamily and informed the man. > Parents chose marriage partners. > Young people chose who to marry. > First wives chose girls for their husbands. > Girls were waylaid and taken for marriage. > Inheritance of a brother"s wife. > Bride wealth could be paid in advance. > A girl could be given as a gift to rulers. > To replace one who died, a girl was given. > A girl was given as payment of fines. 258. Give reasons Why seclusion after childbirth is important in traditional African culture. > It protects the mother and baby fi"om evil eyes. > It gives the mother time to regain lost energy. > It accords the mother time to rest. > It marks the end of pregnancy and beginning of new life. > It enables the mother to take maximum care of the baby. > It enables the baby to adjust to new life. > It enables the mother to feed Well to produce enough milk. > The mother acquires training on proper handling of the child. 259. What are the moral values acquired during marriage in traditional African culture? > Faithfulness; > Honesty, > Humility", > Respect; > Love; > Cooperation; > Hard work; > Hospitality/kindness; > integrity; > Tolerance/endurance. 260. Name the practice in traditional African culture that shows belief in life after death. > Burying the dead with some property. > Naming the children after the dead. > Invoking the names of the dead during important occasions. > Taking care of the grave yard. > Fulfilling the will ofthe dead. > Pouring of libations to the dead; > Offering sacrifices to the dead. > Holding commemoration ceremonies; > Burying the dead in aparticular position. > Giving the dead a decent burial. 261. State the importance of initiation ceremonies in traditional African culture. > The initiate receives special education, which marks his moral conduct later on. > The initiate gained anew status in life, characterized by transition fi"om childhood to adulthood. > One acquired new rights and privileges e.g. he/she qualified to man'y or own property. > Initiation is one of the factors that contnbute to mutual and harmonious living; it unites the kins and kith. > It helps to fonn age sets and age groups, which are concemed with and for each other. > During initiation, one is linked to God through prayer. > Among the Maasai, it was a sign of courage and bravery. > The pain felt prepares the candidate to face challenges in life. > in circumcision, the blood shed unites the candidate to ancestral spirits. > Through initiation, the society"s cultural heritage is presewed. > One became a fi.111 member of the society. 262. What was the importance of singing and dancing during initiation in African traditional culture? > To provide socialization opportunities for participants. > To lure the candidate into tolerating/enduring the pain. > To inculcate into the initiates/participants moral values. > To remind those taking part about their past history. > To ask for blessings for the initiates. > To provide the opportunity for people to express their talents. > To invoke the ancestors to make them to be pleased with the initiates. > To announce the season for the initiates. > To entertain the participants. > To rebuke cowards and praise the courageous. > To identify the participants. > To encourage the candidates. 263. How were initiates prepared for adult life in African traditional society? > The pain they faced was to encourage them to tolerate/endure challenges. > They were exposed to hardship to prepare them for the coming adult life. > They were taught the history of their respective communities to help them trace their ancestry. > They lived in seclusion. > They were grouped into age sets to share responsibility. > They were told moral stories to sharpen their moral awareness. > To acquire skills and develop independence. 264. Name the moral values taught to the youth during initiation in traditional African culture. > Kindness; > Honesty; > Integrity; > Perseverance; > Cooperation; > Hard work; > Love; > Chastity/self control; > Obedience; > Respect; > Responsibility. 245. Why is female circumcision (female genital mutilation) discouraged in Kenya today? > Can lead to infection e.g. I-HV; > Can injure reproductive organs; > Is against human rights; > Can lead to death; > Can lead to divorce; > Can lead to chaos in families; > Can lead to early marriages; > Can lead to or increase school drop out; > I./eads to irresponsible sexual behaviour. 266. Name the rituals that mark the birth of a child in traditional African culture. > Blessing of the newbom; > Singing and dancing; > Giving gifis to the mother; > Feasting and celebration; > Seclusion of mother and child; > Protective channs given; > Burial of the placenta at a secret place; > Praises for father of the child; > Ululations to determine the sex of the child. > Oifering sacrifices. 267. What are the duties of children to the elderly in traditional African culture? > Assist them with daily chores; > Respect them; > Listen to their pieces of advice; > Obey them; > Keep them company, > Protect them in old age; > Entertain them. 268. What factors can hinder payment of dowry in traditional African society? > Westem culture; > Migration/urbanization; > Poverty/economic constrains; > Christian religious beliefs; > Breakdown of social organization; > Commercialization of dowry; > The practice of intermarriage. 269. Why was the naming ceremony important in African traditional culture? > To show that the child was accepted in the community. > Thanking God for the new child. > It gives achild an identity. > It blesses a child. > To appease the ancestors. > It enabled us to remember important events and people. > Brings unity among people. > Is a sign of continuity of the society. > To show the link between the living and the dead. 270. What rituals took place during the naming ceremony in traditional African culture? > Bathing ofthe baby as a sign ofthe beginning ofa new life. > Shaving of mother"s and baby's hair to symbolize new life. > Finding out the appropriate name for the baby, which identifies the child in the community. > Praying in quest fi>r blessing. > Carrying or holding the baby by members of the community to show the concem of the entire community. > Oifering gifts to the baby and mother as a sign of good will and acceptance of the child in the community. > Putting on Ch2tI‘I11S for protection > Slaughtering animals for thanksgiving. > Feasting as a sign of welcoming the baby. 271. How were names acquired in traditional African culture? > Looking at weather conditions. > The difiiculty the mother underwent during pregnancy. > Departed relatives. > Relating to their religion. > Condition of the child e.g. twins. > Place ofbirth e.g. on the way. > Children could be named after a hero. > The time of birth e.g. night. > The prevailing natural or peculiar event. 272. Give the role of healers/medicine men in traditional African society. > They healed the sick. > They protected people from evil spirits. > They advised people on how to guard themselves against death. > They sensed when one had performed witchcraft and prescribed a cure for it. > They helped to maintain people"s fertility. > They canied out cleansing rituals to people to draw them out of impurities. > They oifered protective chamis. 273. Give occasions when the services of a medicine man were required in traditional African culture. > During illness. > When going for a war/raid. > During anatural phenomenon such as famine. > When forces of evil e.g. magic haunted someone. > Ln case of impotence/barrenness/childlessness. > When one is in need of a protective charm > During ceremonies e.g. marriage or initiation. 274. State the factors that have affected the role of medicine men in modem Kenya. > Destruction of indigenous forests, which provide herbs. > Christianity, which is against the use of herbs. > Educated people look at herbs as backward. > Modem medicine, which has outweighed the traditional. > Most herbalists are treated with suspicion. > The government is not giving adequate support. > Urbanization, which has eroded most Afiican culture. > Most medicine men who are skilled have died. 275. What are the roles of diviners in traditional African society? > They serve as counselors and advisors. > They were fortune tellers. > They can distinguish spirits that cause trouble. > They interpret messages from the spirit world. > They reveal the cause of mysteries. > They preside over various cases in the community. > They tell the causes and possible cure of sickness. > They comfort the sick in the community. 276. Name the ways in which traditional medicine is still used in our society today. > Herbal clinics have been licensed. > Herbs are still used. > Medicine men are still consulted. > Barren women seek medicine men for help. > Research centres on traditional medicine have been established. > Herbalists have been recognized. 277. Give reasons why courtship was important in traditional African marriage. > It helped in identification of asuitable marriage partner. > A strong relationship was/is nurtured/established between the two families. > The boy and the girl get a chance to leam one another and even the lamilies they come irom > It allowed time for the two to know whether or not they are related. > It was easier to know whether the two came irom a marriageable clan. > It gave enough time for marriage arrangement. > The two fiiI‘I1lli€S had time to negotiate on dowry payment. > It gave time to establish the status of the boy e.g. virginity and barrenness. > The gifts exchanged cemented ties between the two families. > It prepared the partners for amaniage relationship through the life education given > The two were instructed on their responsibilities. 278. What were the roles of a priest in traditional African culture? > Offered prayers during religious ceremonies. > Perfonned rituals. > Oifered sacrifices on behalf of the community. > Warned people of impending danger. > Served as mediators between God and the people. > Were part of decision making during calamities. > Reconciled warring parties. 279. What are the roles of parents in traditional African culture? > To set good examples to their children. > Direct children to realize their potential. > Enhancement of family unity. > Settlement of disputes that arise in the family. > Decision makers on all matters. > Passing on inheritance to their ofl springs. 280. Explain the role of a grandfather in traditional African culture. > Guided and counseled family members. > Was a role model > Was a source of valuable knowledge. > Was a link between the living and the dead. > Was consulted on matters aifecting the family. > Was a custodian of the morals. > Controlled family resources. > Prescribed punishment for evil doers. > Ofiiciated in some family rituals. > Was a fiamily decision maker. > Provided entertainment through story telling. 281. State occasions when seers were consulted in Traditional African society. > When misfortunes e.g. death ofien struck. > Outbreak of calamities e.g. drought. > During marriage ceremonies. > During cleansing rituals. > When going for a raiding expedition. > Before initiation rites. > During problems ir1 pregnancy if any. > In case of a serious disagreement. 282. State the role of elders in traditional African society. > They presided over ceremonies. > They judged cases. > They prescribed punishment to errant members. > They offered prayers for the community. > They led in communal sharing of property. > They mediated between God/ancestors and the people. > They guided and counseled the community. > They formulated/came up with laws that governed the community. > They led people into reconciling sessions. 283. What conditions did one have to fulfill in order to be made an elderin traditional African culturel > Had to be married. > Should have undergone initiation rites. > Had to be a member of the community. > Had to be knowledgeable on societal matters. > Should have children. > Had to be of good conduct. > Had to be mature and of specific age. > Had to be supported by other community leaders. > Should have wealth. 284. What factors undermine the role of elders in Kenya today? > Modem education and technology. > The constitution, which is a modem source of laws. > lntemiarriage. > Urbanization. > Westem way of life. > Christianity. > Moral decadence. > Presence of courts. 285. What changes have taken place in the rite of initiation in Kenya today? > Female circumcision/clitorydectomy has been discouraged. > Circumcision is carried out at any age. Traditional sponsors are no longer there to ofi"er education. Rituals associated with initiation have been looked down upon. The age sets and groups are now not considered. Circumcision can now be done in hospitals. African communities that did not have the rite are now practicing/undergoing it. 286 State the role of rights of passage in inculcating moral values in traditional African Moral values are the principles that are accepted to govern human conduct/behaviour. Some of these moral values include: Obedience. Children are called upon to obey the adult, including their parents. Failure to do this would cause them to face punishment. This is enforced during initiation. Respect. During initiation, the candidates are trained to respect their parents and other people. This will give them good reputation. Honesty. in marriage, the couple are taught to be honest with themselves and everything they undertake. Self control. During initiation, the youth are taught the importance of self control in all situations in life. Mutual concem The rights of passage are essential for they unite all members to come and assist where necessary. They share ideas and all that they have. Responsibility. Young initiates are taught how to be responsible in their homes. They are expected to look after their homes, lamily property and parents. Courage. This is tested mainly during initiation. The youth are taught to be brave in order for them to be able to race challenges in life. Hard work. This was advocated while laziness was totally forbidden. During marriage, the value is emphasized between the couple. Hospitality. The rites of passage call for hospitality, whereby the members are to act generously towards others. They share food, drinks, etc. Loyalty. Children are called upon to be loyal to their parents and other people. Initiates, once grouped in age sets, should remain loyal to one another. Appreciation. Members are asked to show gratitude to God whenever they undergo a certain rite of passage. 287 State the moral values in traditional African culture. Hospitality i.e. being generous and kind. One is able to share possession with others. Honesty i.e. ability to tell the truth and deal fairly with others. Loyalty i.e. being committed to the community"s expectations without breaking any at all. Respect i.e. being able to recognize other people"s rights, status and circumstances. Cooperation i.e. mutual aid and working together for a common purpose. Cooperation promotes harmony. Obedience i.e. living in accordance with the spiritual laws and regulations of the society. Integrity i.e. being relied/depended on. People should have a lot of confidence in you. Humility i.e. the act of not being boastfirl of one"s achievements. A humble person is cautious in his/her actions. Sharing ie. giving oneself and one"s time to the community, characterized by use of one"s abilities and resources to serve the community. Hard work ie. rebuking laziness. One has to get involved in activities that are for the betterment of the community. Responsibility. This is a Caring attitude that one feels he/she should possess. > > > > Chastity i.e. having good sexual morals. One should only have sex in marriage without indulging in premarital or extramarital sexual behaviour. Love ie. Appreciation of others and their weaknesses. Unity. This is a bond ie. the ability of coming together/fitting in the society. Courtesy ie. being polite and possessing good manners. 288. Discuss the continuity and change of some traditional African practices. > > > > > > > > > Community. Traditionally, the people of the community lived in unity and catered for the needs of their fellow members. Nowadays, communal unity has been tampered with. People now prefer other people other than those of their community due to factors like urbanization, politics, Westem culture, etc. Worship. hi traditional Afiican culture, worship was communal and was carried out at all times through sacrifices, otferings, invocations, rituals, etc. Today, foreign religion has heavily influenced worship. Prayers are oflered in churches and even in individual homes. Sacrifices are never ofi"ered. Community land. In traditional African culture, land was plenty and was a property of the community. Each person was allocated land and there were no landless people. Today, land has been corrmiercialized and individualized through possession of title deeds. Property/wealth. Traditionally, wealth and property was owned by men. The more property one owned, the more reputable he was. Property was measured in terms of wives, children, animals and land. These days, wealth is measured in terms of money, buildings, vehicles, etc. Women can now own property even more than some men. Old age. In traditional Afi'ican culture, the elders were respected due to the wisdom they possessed. They were approached iiom time to time for consultation. Today, however, some young people do not recognize the contribution of elders, yet other people still rely on elders for guiding and counseling e.g. in matters pertaining marriage. Dressing. Traditionally, the mode of dressing depended on weather. The clothes were made from skins, leaves, barks of trees, etc. Today, the Westem way of dressing has been taken up by many people in various communities. Some clothes can be used even by both sexes e.g. T-Shirts. Some communities like the Maasai still maintain their traditional mode of dressing. Medicine. Traditionally, herbalists were approached in case of outbreak of epidemics/diseases/illness. Nowadays, medicine has been introduced by Westem Missionaries. Hospitals and clinics have been established. Some religions also advocate only for prayer and faith in God in case of sickness. Bride wealth. Traditionally, dowry was compulsory. It was a gifi given by the groom"s parents to the bride"s parents as a token of appreciation. It was in form of animals and other items. Nowadays, dowry has been commercialized. Some communities now value cash while others have even neglected dowry payment. Widows and orphans. These were considered as the less advantaged and were well taken care of. Widows were at times inherited and orphans taken care of by relatives. Today, many people disregard widows and orphans, most of who end up on streets. The poor suffer desperately and the widow may end up in prostitution. 289. What was the purpose of bride wealth in traditional African culture? > > > W It was a sign of respect and appreciation of the girl"s parents. It cements the relationship between the two families. It gives the wife security in her new home. It guarantees the right to inheritance for the children. It gives a man the right to his children. > It was a symbol of unity to the society. > It established sexual lights to the husband.

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